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Paragraph
writing
Abd Al-Rahman Al-Midani
Four stages to write
– Pre-writing
– Drafting
– Revision
– Editing
Prewriting
Before we start writing on the given topic, we need to generate ideas and organize
them.
Writing will be easier and less tiring.
We have some technique that help us in this stage such as:
– Brainstorming
– Clustering
Prewriting: Brainstorming
– Write down any ideas that come to your mind;
– Do not pay attention to grammar, mechanics, or formatting;
– You do not need to write complete sentences;
– Do not cross out any irrelevant ideas;
– Do not try to organize your ideas.
Prewriting: Clustering
– Clusters help you organize your ideas from brainstorming;
– The ideas from brainstorming stage can be grouped in main categories and
subcategories;
– Grammar, spelling, punctuation marks are not important, too;
– Irrelevant ideas are crossed out in this stage.
Clustering: How to?
– Draw a circle and write the main idea inside it;
– Choose main categories from the brainstormed ideas, put them in smaller circles
around the main circle;
– Draw lines from the main categories to write the subcategories.
Drafting: the topic sentence
– It is the first sentence in the paragraph;
– The topic sentence clearly states the topic (main idea) of the paragraph;
– Having stated the idea of the paragraph, writers clearly state the idea that controls the
content of the paragraph– i.e. the controlling idea.
Using toxins in medicines is dangerous because of two main reasons.
Drafting: the topic sentence
– It is the first sentence in the paragraph;
– The topic sentence clearly states the topic (main idea) of the paragraph;
– Having stated the idea of the paragraph, writers clearly state the idea that controls the
content of the paragraph– i.e. the controlling idea.
Using toxins in medicines is dangerous because of two main reasons.
the topic the controlling idea
Drafting: the body
- Having generated, organized, and crossed out irrelevant ideas, we can start
writing;
- The paragraph should be on one main idea only. You usually have it in the
prompt (unity);
- This main idea is stated in the topic sentence;
- The body sentences in the paragraph develop the topic sentence;
- The concluding sentence comes at the end.
Drafting: the body (cont.)
– The aim of this stage is developing the ideas that have been generated and
organized in the prewriting stage;
– Have at least two main supporting ideas;
– You can develop your main supporting ideas with examples and details;
– All sentences should be logically related to the topic sentence (coherence);
– Use transition words and phrases to help you to develop your ideas such as
therefore, because, while, when, first, second, next, finally, etc.… (coherence)
Drafting: DON’TS
– Do not think of making your writing perfect at this stage;
– Do not worry about grammatical or mechanics mistakes;
– Do not worry about the formatting of the paragraph.
Drafting: the concluding sentence
– It restates the main idea of the paragraph in the topic sentence;
– The writer can express his/her opinion;
– It does not add any new ideas not mentioned in the paragraph.
Revision
– After you finish the first draft, read it again to improve it;
– You can improve the content or the organization of the paragraph;
– You can delete sentences, add new ones, and reorganize the ideas.
Editing
– After you finish revising the content, you correct any grammatical, spelling,
punctuation, capitalization mistakes;
– Paragraphs should be indented;
– Use a checklist;
– Write the final paragraph to submit it.
Thank you very much
References:
– Editing Checklist for Self- and Peer Editing - ReadWriteThink. (n.d.-a). Retrieved
February 12, 2017, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-
resources/printouts/editing-checklist-self-peer-30232.html
– Pre-writing techniques - Writing for the United Nations. (n.d.-a). Retrieved
February 12, 2017, from
http://dd.dgacm.org/editorialmanual/training/lessons/link_b.htm
– Purdue OWL: Paragraphs and Paragraphing. (n.d.-b). Retrieved from
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/01/

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Paragraph Writing

  • 2. Four stages to write – Pre-writing – Drafting – Revision – Editing
  • 3. Prewriting Before we start writing on the given topic, we need to generate ideas and organize them. Writing will be easier and less tiring. We have some technique that help us in this stage such as: – Brainstorming – Clustering
  • 4. Prewriting: Brainstorming – Write down any ideas that come to your mind; – Do not pay attention to grammar, mechanics, or formatting; – You do not need to write complete sentences; – Do not cross out any irrelevant ideas; – Do not try to organize your ideas.
  • 5. Prewriting: Clustering – Clusters help you organize your ideas from brainstorming; – The ideas from brainstorming stage can be grouped in main categories and subcategories; – Grammar, spelling, punctuation marks are not important, too; – Irrelevant ideas are crossed out in this stage.
  • 6. Clustering: How to? – Draw a circle and write the main idea inside it; – Choose main categories from the brainstormed ideas, put them in smaller circles around the main circle; – Draw lines from the main categories to write the subcategories.
  • 7. Drafting: the topic sentence – It is the first sentence in the paragraph; – The topic sentence clearly states the topic (main idea) of the paragraph; – Having stated the idea of the paragraph, writers clearly state the idea that controls the content of the paragraph– i.e. the controlling idea. Using toxins in medicines is dangerous because of two main reasons.
  • 8. Drafting: the topic sentence – It is the first sentence in the paragraph; – The topic sentence clearly states the topic (main idea) of the paragraph; – Having stated the idea of the paragraph, writers clearly state the idea that controls the content of the paragraph– i.e. the controlling idea. Using toxins in medicines is dangerous because of two main reasons. the topic the controlling idea
  • 9. Drafting: the body - Having generated, organized, and crossed out irrelevant ideas, we can start writing; - The paragraph should be on one main idea only. You usually have it in the prompt (unity); - This main idea is stated in the topic sentence; - The body sentences in the paragraph develop the topic sentence; - The concluding sentence comes at the end.
  • 10. Drafting: the body (cont.) – The aim of this stage is developing the ideas that have been generated and organized in the prewriting stage; – Have at least two main supporting ideas; – You can develop your main supporting ideas with examples and details; – All sentences should be logically related to the topic sentence (coherence); – Use transition words and phrases to help you to develop your ideas such as therefore, because, while, when, first, second, next, finally, etc.… (coherence)
  • 11. Drafting: DON’TS – Do not think of making your writing perfect at this stage; – Do not worry about grammatical or mechanics mistakes; – Do not worry about the formatting of the paragraph.
  • 12. Drafting: the concluding sentence – It restates the main idea of the paragraph in the topic sentence; – The writer can express his/her opinion; – It does not add any new ideas not mentioned in the paragraph.
  • 13. Revision – After you finish the first draft, read it again to improve it; – You can improve the content or the organization of the paragraph; – You can delete sentences, add new ones, and reorganize the ideas.
  • 14. Editing – After you finish revising the content, you correct any grammatical, spelling, punctuation, capitalization mistakes; – Paragraphs should be indented; – Use a checklist; – Write the final paragraph to submit it.
  • 16. References: – Editing Checklist for Self- and Peer Editing - ReadWriteThink. (n.d.-a). Retrieved February 12, 2017, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom- resources/printouts/editing-checklist-self-peer-30232.html – Pre-writing techniques - Writing for the United Nations. (n.d.-a). Retrieved February 12, 2017, from http://dd.dgacm.org/editorialmanual/training/lessons/link_b.htm – Purdue OWL: Paragraphs and Paragraphing. (n.d.-b). Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/01/