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Open Education & Social Justice in the Global South:
Opportunities seized, missed & to be grasped
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams
Open Education Summit, 3-4 December 2018, Paris
http://www.slideshare.net/ROER4D/
Background: ROER4D project
Research on Open Educational Resources
for Development (ROER4D) project
(2013-2017)
● 18 independent sub-projects, across
21 countries in the Global South from
Chile to Mongolia, with 100 researchers
and associates, supported by a
Network Hub team based at UCT and
Wawasan Open University, Malaysia
● Research datasets in multiple
languages (English, Spanish,
Portuguese, Mongolian, Dari, Pashto,
etc.)
● Mostly mixed-methods data
(quantitative and qualitative)
Outputs
● Edited volume - 16 chapters of which 2 are
meta-synthesis. Open Access and downloadable or
print on request. Booklet of chapter summaries
● Open data sets of edited volume
● Open Research Toolkit - conceptual frameworks and
analytical frame
● Project Activity Toolkits on knowledge building
process, networking, curation and dissemination,
communication and evaluation
● Other outputs - Scholarly articles, book chapters,
monographs, presentations, blogs, videos
Tribute to Prof Fred Mulder
Sincerest thanks for
the seminal role you
played in the
Research on Open
Educational Resources
(ROER4D) project.
We will continue the
work on opening up
education to all.
1949 - 7 October 2018
Extent to which
university lecturers
create, use and/or adapt
OER in the Global South
“Optimal” cycle of open education (OER
& OEP)
Use of OER by university lecturers
Avg = 51% Avg = 25% Avg = 24%
Data from de Oliviera Neto, Pete, Daryono & Cartmill (2017:81). Respondents 295 from 28 Universities in 9 countries
Opportunities seized by lecturers:
OER Use
● Use of OER in its original form
BUT
● Educators’ lack of awareness that they are using OER
● Selecting OER challenging for educators given the volume of online
resources & therefore time-consuming
● Dependence on copying of existing OER and the corollary reluctance to
localise - unwittingly reinforcing “Northern” epistemic hegemony
Creation of OER by university lecturers is not yet a
common practice (majority do not use open licences)
Avg = 77%
Data from de Oliviera Neto, Pete, Daryono & Cartmill (2017:81). Respondents 295 from 28 Universities in 9 countries
Avg = 23%
OER Creation: Opportunities to be
grasped
● Challenge: Lack of legal permission for educators to share the OER
they create
● Opportunity: Government or institutions can grant lecturers legal
permission to share their work
Adaptation of OER by university lecturers
Avg = 18% Avg = 82%
Data from de Oliviera Neto, Pete, Daryono & Cartmill (2017:81). Respondents 295 from 28 Universities in 9 countries
Adaptation of OER by university lecturers
Opportunities missed by lecturers:
OER Adaptation
● Predominance of English-based OER requires a level of fluency in English
● Adapted OER not always re-curated by educators - inconsistent curation and
rehosting of derivative works on a publicly available platform or repository,
which limits access to the derivative OER
SO
● Workshops needed to model and provide experience in OER adaptation
● Need for ongoing support from government, institutional policy-makers and
OER champions
So, does OER promote
social justice in the
Global South?
Social Justice (Fraser, 2005)
Fraser’s concept of social justice as “parity of participation”
Dimension Injustices
Economic Maldistribution
of resources: economic inequality
Cultural Misrecognition
attributes of people & practices accorded less respect, status
inequality
Political Misrepresentation
Who has a right to have a voice?
OER and Social Justice (Adapted from
Fraser, 2005)
Dimension Injustices Affirmative response
Addresses injustice with
ameliorative reforms
Transformative response
Addresses the root causes of
inequality
Cultural Misrecognition
● Using OER “as is”
(copying)
● Translating OER
uncritically
Recognition
● Locating and
incorporating OER used
“as is” within local
epistemological and
cultural contexts
● Translating OER into local
languages prudently
Re-acculturation
● Re-mixing OER critically to
engage with and challenge
hegemonic perspectives
● Sharing their remixed
teaching and learning
materials publicly
● Creation of original OER
OER Creation
OER Use OER Adaptation OER Adaptation
OER Creation
Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
OER and Social Justice (Adapted from
Fraser, 2005)
Dimension Injustices Affirmative response
Addresses injustice with
ameliorative reforms
Political Misrepresentation
● IP legislation inhibiting
educators from sharing
materials created n the
course of educators’ work
Representation
● Permission by employer
to create and share OER
created in the course of
educators’ work Creating
and sharing OER on a
publicly accessible
platform
OER Adaptation
OER Creation
Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
OER and Social Justice (Adapted from
Fraser, 2005)
Dimension Injustices Affirmative response
Addresses injustice with
ameliorative reforms
Transformative response
Addresses the root causes of
inequality
Political Misrepresentation
● IP legislation inhibiting
educators from sharing
materials created n the
course of educators’ work
Representation
● Permission by employer
to create and share OER
created in the course of
educators’ work Creating
and sharing OER on a
publicly accessible
platform
Re-framing
Internationally alter current IP rights
to allow for properly attributed
educational resources to be
created, adapted & shared without
formal permission Creation of OER
and engagement of OEP that
balances power on educational
materials and authorities
OER AdaptationOER Adaptation
OER CreationOER Creation
Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
Hopefully this discussion of the
relationship between OER, OEP and
Social Justice can assist us in
identifying and promoting
educational interventions that
provide not only ameliorative
relief for students and educators,
but transformative social change as
well.
References
de Oliveira Neto, J. D., Pete, J., Daryono & Cartmill, T. (2017). OER use in the Global South: A baseline
survey of higher education instructors. In C. Hodgkinson-Williams & P. B. Arinto (Eds.), Adoption and
impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 69–118). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.599535
Fraser, N. (2005). Reframing justice in a globalizing world. New Left Review, 36, 69–88. Retrieved from
https://newleftreview.org/II/36/nancy-fraser-reframing-justice-in-a-globalizing-world
Hodgkinson-Williams, C., Arinto, P. B., Cartmill, T. & King, T. (2017). Factors influencing Open Educational
Practices and OER in the Global South: Meta-synthesis of the ROER4D project. In C. Hodgkinson-Williams
& P. B. Arinto (Eds.), Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 27–67). Retrieved from
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1037088
Hodgkinson-Williams, C.A. & Trotter, H. (2018). A social justice framework for understanding open
educational resources and practices in the Global South, Journal of Learning for Development. Journal of
Learning For Development, 5(3), 204-224. Retrieved from
http://www.jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/312
Citation and attribution
Hodgkinson-Williams, C.A. (2018). Open Education & Social Justice in the Global South: Opportunities
seized, missed & to be grasped. OpenEd 2018, 10-12 October 2018, Niagara Falls, NY - USA Retrieved
from: http://www.slideshare.net/ROER4D/
21
Acknowledgements
Special thanks to Tess Cartmill for the graphs and the original data analysis and Laura Czerniewicz,
Henry Trotter, Glenda Cox and Michelle Willmers for comments and editing.
OER Creation: Opportunities seized by
lecturers
● Participation in professional development networks aids
collaborative development
● Curating original OER more likely with government, institutional or
project support
● Informal sharing of materials more frequent that sharing via formal
OER distribution channels
● Quality assurance more likely within institutional or project
initiatives
● Formal critique or feedback more easily actionable in institutional
initiatives

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Open education and social justice in the global south opportunities seized, missed and to be grasped

  • 1. Open Education & Social Justice in the Global South: Opportunities seized, missed & to be grasped Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams Open Education Summit, 3-4 December 2018, Paris http://www.slideshare.net/ROER4D/
  • 2. Background: ROER4D project Research on Open Educational Resources for Development (ROER4D) project (2013-2017) ● 18 independent sub-projects, across 21 countries in the Global South from Chile to Mongolia, with 100 researchers and associates, supported by a Network Hub team based at UCT and Wawasan Open University, Malaysia ● Research datasets in multiple languages (English, Spanish, Portuguese, Mongolian, Dari, Pashto, etc.) ● Mostly mixed-methods data (quantitative and qualitative)
  • 3. Outputs ● Edited volume - 16 chapters of which 2 are meta-synthesis. Open Access and downloadable or print on request. Booklet of chapter summaries ● Open data sets of edited volume ● Open Research Toolkit - conceptual frameworks and analytical frame ● Project Activity Toolkits on knowledge building process, networking, curation and dissemination, communication and evaluation ● Other outputs - Scholarly articles, book chapters, monographs, presentations, blogs, videos
  • 4. Tribute to Prof Fred Mulder Sincerest thanks for the seminal role you played in the Research on Open Educational Resources (ROER4D) project. We will continue the work on opening up education to all. 1949 - 7 October 2018
  • 5. Extent to which university lecturers create, use and/or adapt OER in the Global South
  • 6. “Optimal” cycle of open education (OER & OEP)
  • 7. Use of OER by university lecturers Avg = 51% Avg = 25% Avg = 24% Data from de Oliviera Neto, Pete, Daryono & Cartmill (2017:81). Respondents 295 from 28 Universities in 9 countries
  • 8. Opportunities seized by lecturers: OER Use ● Use of OER in its original form BUT ● Educators’ lack of awareness that they are using OER ● Selecting OER challenging for educators given the volume of online resources & therefore time-consuming ● Dependence on copying of existing OER and the corollary reluctance to localise - unwittingly reinforcing “Northern” epistemic hegemony
  • 9. Creation of OER by university lecturers is not yet a common practice (majority do not use open licences) Avg = 77% Data from de Oliviera Neto, Pete, Daryono & Cartmill (2017:81). Respondents 295 from 28 Universities in 9 countries Avg = 23%
  • 10. OER Creation: Opportunities to be grasped ● Challenge: Lack of legal permission for educators to share the OER they create ● Opportunity: Government or institutions can grant lecturers legal permission to share their work
  • 11. Adaptation of OER by university lecturers Avg = 18% Avg = 82% Data from de Oliviera Neto, Pete, Daryono & Cartmill (2017:81). Respondents 295 from 28 Universities in 9 countries
  • 12. Adaptation of OER by university lecturers
  • 13. Opportunities missed by lecturers: OER Adaptation ● Predominance of English-based OER requires a level of fluency in English ● Adapted OER not always re-curated by educators - inconsistent curation and rehosting of derivative works on a publicly available platform or repository, which limits access to the derivative OER SO ● Workshops needed to model and provide experience in OER adaptation ● Need for ongoing support from government, institutional policy-makers and OER champions
  • 14. So, does OER promote social justice in the Global South?
  • 15. Social Justice (Fraser, 2005) Fraser’s concept of social justice as “parity of participation” Dimension Injustices Economic Maldistribution of resources: economic inequality Cultural Misrecognition attributes of people & practices accorded less respect, status inequality Political Misrepresentation Who has a right to have a voice?
  • 16. OER and Social Justice (Adapted from Fraser, 2005) Dimension Injustices Affirmative response Addresses injustice with ameliorative reforms Transformative response Addresses the root causes of inequality Cultural Misrecognition ● Using OER “as is” (copying) ● Translating OER uncritically Recognition ● Locating and incorporating OER used “as is” within local epistemological and cultural contexts ● Translating OER into local languages prudently Re-acculturation ● Re-mixing OER critically to engage with and challenge hegemonic perspectives ● Sharing their remixed teaching and learning materials publicly ● Creation of original OER OER Creation OER Use OER Adaptation OER Adaptation OER Creation Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
  • 17. OER and Social Justice (Adapted from Fraser, 2005) Dimension Injustices Affirmative response Addresses injustice with ameliorative reforms Political Misrepresentation ● IP legislation inhibiting educators from sharing materials created n the course of educators’ work Representation ● Permission by employer to create and share OER created in the course of educators’ work Creating and sharing OER on a publicly accessible platform OER Adaptation OER Creation Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
  • 18. OER and Social Justice (Adapted from Fraser, 2005) Dimension Injustices Affirmative response Addresses injustice with ameliorative reforms Transformative response Addresses the root causes of inequality Political Misrepresentation ● IP legislation inhibiting educators from sharing materials created n the course of educators’ work Representation ● Permission by employer to create and share OER created in the course of educators’ work Creating and sharing OER on a publicly accessible platform Re-framing Internationally alter current IP rights to allow for properly attributed educational resources to be created, adapted & shared without formal permission Creation of OER and engagement of OEP that balances power on educational materials and authorities OER AdaptationOER Adaptation OER CreationOER Creation Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
  • 19. Hopefully this discussion of the relationship between OER, OEP and Social Justice can assist us in identifying and promoting educational interventions that provide not only ameliorative relief for students and educators, but transformative social change as well.
  • 20. References de Oliveira Neto, J. D., Pete, J., Daryono & Cartmill, T. (2017). OER use in the Global South: A baseline survey of higher education instructors. In C. Hodgkinson-Williams & P. B. Arinto (Eds.), Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 69–118). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.599535 Fraser, N. (2005). Reframing justice in a globalizing world. New Left Review, 36, 69–88. Retrieved from https://newleftreview.org/II/36/nancy-fraser-reframing-justice-in-a-globalizing-world Hodgkinson-Williams, C., Arinto, P. B., Cartmill, T. & King, T. (2017). Factors influencing Open Educational Practices and OER in the Global South: Meta-synthesis of the ROER4D project. In C. Hodgkinson-Williams & P. B. Arinto (Eds.), Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 27–67). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1037088 Hodgkinson-Williams, C.A. & Trotter, H. (2018). A social justice framework for understanding open educational resources and practices in the Global South, Journal of Learning for Development. Journal of Learning For Development, 5(3), 204-224. Retrieved from http://www.jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/312
  • 21. Citation and attribution Hodgkinson-Williams, C.A. (2018). Open Education & Social Justice in the Global South: Opportunities seized, missed & to be grasped. OpenEd 2018, 10-12 October 2018, Niagara Falls, NY - USA Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/ROER4D/ 21 Acknowledgements Special thanks to Tess Cartmill for the graphs and the original data analysis and Laura Czerniewicz, Henry Trotter, Glenda Cox and Michelle Willmers for comments and editing.
  • 22. OER Creation: Opportunities seized by lecturers ● Participation in professional development networks aids collaborative development ● Curating original OER more likely with government, institutional or project support ● Informal sharing of materials more frequent that sharing via formal OER distribution channels ● Quality assurance more likely within institutional or project initiatives ● Formal critique or feedback more easily actionable in institutional initiatives