SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 13
700 University Ave
Monroe, LA 71209
April 21, 2014
Dr. Claudia Grinnell
English Professor
University of Louisiana at Monroe
700 University Ave
Monroe, LA 71209
Dear Dr. Grinnell:
This report was written for my Professional Writing class. This topic was assigned to us at the
beginning of April. The title of this research paper is “The Importance of Net Neutrality.”
This report talks about why keeping the net neutrality policy alive is important, gives a brief
history on the internet, and talks about arguments against net neutrality. In my research I have
concluded that we, as American citizens, have the right to an internet that does not discriminate.
Everyone, no matter who you are or where you come from, should be able to have the same
speed and quality of the internet. I, for one, am afraid that if net neutrality is abolished then I will
not be able to pay extra for this “new” internet.
Thank you for taking the time to read my report.
Sincerely,
Ashley Toups
Ashley Toups
Student at University of Louisiana at Monroe
NET NEUTRALITY 1
The Importance of Net Neutrality
Ashley D. Toups
University of Louisiana at Monroe
April 21, 2014
NET NEUTRALITY 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………...1
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………….2
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………….3
IMPORTANCE OF NET NEUTRALITY (level 1 heading)………...………………………..4-10
The Internet (level 1 subheading)……………………………………………………….4-6
Net Neutrality (level 2 subheading)……………………………………………..6-7
Problems (level 3 subheading)………………………………………….7-8
Arguments (level 4 subheading)…………………………………..8
Conclusion (level 5 subheading)………………………8-10
REFERENCES CITED………………………………………………………………………11-12
NET NEUTRALITY 3
THE IMPORTANCE OF NET NEUTRALITY
Ashley D. Toups
University of Louisiana at Monroe
Abstract
This report talks about net neutrality and its importance, history of the internet, problems
consumers will encounter if the net neutrality policy is abolished, arguments against net
neutrality, and what I have concluded. This report‟s purpose is to inform the reader about net
neutrality. It will discuss what net neutrality is and why we need to stand up to Congress in order
to save the internet and keep net neutrality.
Net neutrality means that everyone can access the internet at the same “speed” and “quality”
as everyone else (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). The internet made its start as an idea in 1962, and
then became a reality and has grown ever since then (Computer History Museum, 2004).
Without net neutrality some website we want to use might be “degraded or blocked off” by our
internet providers (Network Neutrality, n.d.). I believe our phone and cable companies that
provide us with internet are starting to get very greedy with money. I signed the petition to keep
net neutrality. I believe the internet should not be prejudiced.
NET NEUTRALITY 4
The Importance of Net Neutrality
Net neutrality means that everyone gets the same “speed” and “quality” of the internet (Net
Neutrality 101, 2014). This paper will discuss the history of the internet, why net neutrality is
important, the arguments against net neutrality, and much more.
The Internet
The internet was first envisioned and talked about in 1962 by a man
named J.C.R. Licklider of MIT (Leiner et al., 2013). He called it the
“Galactic Network” (Leiner et al., 2013). J.C.R. Licklider is pictured in
Figure 1.
In 1966 Lawrence G. Roberts established the internet idea at DARPA
and organized his proposal for “ARPANET”, which was published in
1967 (Leiner et al., 2013). “When SRI connected to the ARPANET, the
first host-to-host message was sent from Leonard Kleinrock‟s
laboratory to SRI” (Leiner et al., 2013). Four host computers were set
up and connected through ARPANET “by the end of 1969” (Leiner et al.,
2013). After this success, many computers were starting to be added to
ARPANET throughout the years (Leiner et al., 2013).
In 1970 Steve Crocker‟s Network Working Group (NWG) finished the ARPANET Host-to-
Host protocol, which was called the Network Control Protocol (NCP) (Computer History
Museum, 2004).
By the end of 1971 ARPANET had 19 nodes and “the Network Working Group completed
the Telnet protocol and made progress on the file transfer protocol (FTP) standard” (Computer
History Museum, 2004).
Figure 1: J.C.R. Licklider
Courtesy of Flickr Images
NET NEUTRALITY 5
In 1973 ARPA‟s name changes to DARPA (the „D‟ stands for defense) (Computer History
Museum, 2004). Two programs begin during this year (Computer History Museum, 2004).
“The Packet Radio site are modeled on the ALOHA experiment…” (Computer History Museum,
2004). They networked seven computers on four islands (Computer History Museum, 2004).
The second program was satellite connection (Computer History Museum, 2004). This linked
“to two foreign sites in Norway and the United Kingdom” (Computer History Museum, 2004).
In 1977 the Apple II computer was introduced (Computer History Museum, 2004). “Vint Cerf
and Bob Kahn mount a major demonstration, „internetting‟ among the Packet Radio net,
SATNET, and the ARPANET” (Computer History Museum, 2004). THEORYNET was created
by Larry Landweber of the University of Wisconsin (Computer History Museum, 2004).
THEORYNET enabled emailing between over 100 researchers and much more (Computer
History Museum, 2004).
By 1981 over 200 computers were set up in institutions through CSNET (Computer History
Museum, 2004). This was the year the IBM PC was launched (Computer History Museum,
2004). In 1982 „the computer‟ was named „Man of the Year‟ in Time Magazine (Computer
History Museum, 2004).
In 1984 the Macintosh was introduced by Apple (Computer History Museum, 2004). The
author William Gibson created the term „cyberspace‟ in his book called Neuromancer(Computer
History Museum, 2004). “Datapoint, the first company to offer networked computers, continued
in the marketplace, but failed to achieve critical mass” (Computer History Museum, 2004).
In 1989 networks started to increase in how fast they work (Computer History Museum,
2004). Throughout the year “the number of hosts increased from 80,000…to over 160,000”
(Computer History Museum, 2004).
NET NEUTRALITY 6
In 1990 ARPANET is no longer functioning. “‟The net‟ has grown from 4 to over 300,000
hosts” in the past twenty years (Computer History Museum, 2004). Other countries start to
connect such as Brazil, Chile, Greece, India, South Korea, Spain, and Switzerland (Computer
History Museum, 2004). Many “search tools” and “institutions” start to come “on line”, such as
ARCHIE, Gopher, Dow Jones, and Dialog (Computer History Museum, 2004).
More information about the history of the internet is provided in Figure 2 of the timeline.
Net Neutrality
One reason why net neutrality was set up was to keep phone companies like AT&T, that provide
their customers with internet service, would not turn the internet into something like television
channels from a cable company (Marsden, 2010). Customers order television channel packages
through their cable company (Marsden, 2010). Customers pay a certain price to get certain
Figure 2: Internet Timeline
Courtesy of Google Images
NET NEUTRALITY 7
television channels (Marsden, 2010). Net neutrality allows anyone and everyone to access any
website on the internet with the same “speed” and “quality” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). Without
net neutrality customers might have to pay extra for certain websites, or instead of using Google
they would have to use their internet provider‟s search engine they choose or create (Marsden,
2010).
Problems. “We connect to the internet through pipes owned by
telephone and cable companies” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). Now
telephone and cable companies want to set up a faster internet but it
would only be available to those who pay them a large fee. Over one
million American citizens have protested this to Congress (Net Neutrality
101, 2014). A protester to save net neutrality is pictured in Figure 3.
Here is an example of what it would be like without net neutrality:
without net neutrality your internet provider could “degrade or block off
entirely” a webpage you are trying to use (Network Neutrality, n.d.). For
instance say you want to use Google but it is running too slow or you cannot
use the webpage at all, therefore, you have to try a different search engine like Yahoo in order to
find what you want (Network Neutrality, n.d.).
Without net neutrality there will be “discrimination, double-dipping, and stifling innovation”
(Net Neutrality 101, 2014). The internet was designed for everyone who wants to use it (Net
Neutrality 101, 2014). It does not matter what social economic class the person is, what race,
gender, religion, etc., anyone can use the internet (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). This is why when
you search something you also get websites most related to your search and not websites that
Figure 3: Protester
Courtesy of Flickr Images
NET NEUTRALITY 8
paid the most to be able to show up in your search (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). “Discrimination
endangers our basic Internet freedoms” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014).
“Double-dipping” is when a network owner will charge for the network you want to get on and
then charge more for the things you do on the network (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). The owners
might not “charge you directly”, “but they will charge your service providers”, and your service
providers will pass the charge down to their customers, you (Net Neutrality 101, 2014).
Net neutrality allows a good start for innovators and enables them to dream big. Without net
neutrality innovators and beginners will not have a chance to grow because larger companies can
pay more money in order to be in the top search lists (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). “On a tiered
Internet controlled by the phone and cable companies, only their own content and services – or
those offered by corporate partners that pony up enough „protection money‟ – will enjoy life in
the fast lane” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014).
Arguments. Congress‟s decisions will play a strong role on our internet (Jordan, 2009).
“Congress is considering legislation” and “debate” over the net neutrality policy issue (Jordan,
2009). Telecom companies argue that advancing systems is expensive and that other large
service providers like Yahoo are “not paying their fair share…and are taking advantage of the
network providers” (Network Neutrality, n.d.). They also argue that tiered internet “is a natural
step in the free market system and if anything, government regulation will only result in greater
market failure” (Network Neutrality, n.d.).
Conclusion.“The net neutrality policy restricts an Internet service Provider‟s ability to engage in
anticompetitive behavior while simultaneously ensuring that it can use desirable forms of
network management” (Jordan, 2009). If net neutrality is taken away and “the internet is tiered,”
the hardest hit “will be to the consumers” (Network Neutrality, n.d.). In order to save net
NET NEUTRALITY 9
neutrality and fight for the internet to be free and open sign the petition here:
http://cms.fightforthefuture.org/tellfcc/. Figure 4 is a graphic that is going around of what the
internet could look like in the
future and it looks scary and
not cheap.
NET NEUTRALITY 10
References
Ahybridosi. [Photographer]. (2009). J.C.R. Licklider [Photograph]. Retrieved
from https://www.flickr.com/search/?q=J.C.R.%20Licklider
Computer History Museum. (2004). Computer History Museum. Retrieved April 25, 2014,
fromhttp://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html
Figure 1 – Internet Timeline [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1366&
bih=666&q=internet+timeline&oq=internet+ti&gs_l=img.3.0.0l10.1139.4555.0.6162.11.
10.0.1.1.0.562.1668.5j3j1j5-
1.10.0....0...1ac.1.42.img..2.9.1201.CunKVE32bXs#imgdii=_
Isaacson, B. [Phtographer]. (2014). One Frightening Chart Shows What You Might Pay For
Internet Once Net Neutrality Is Gone[Photograph]. Retrieved from
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/17/net-neutrality-gone_n_4611477.html
Figure 4: What the Internet might
look like
Courtesy of Huffington Post
NET NEUTRALITY 11
Jordan, S. (2009). Implications of Internet architecture on net neutrality. Implications of Internet
architecture on net neutrality. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1516540
Leiner, B., Cerf, V., Clark, D., Kahn, R., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D., … & Wolff, S. (2013).
Internet Society. Brief History of the Internet. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from
http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-
internet
Marsden, C. T. (2010). Net neutrality towards a co-regulatory solution. New York: Bloomsbury
Academic.
NET NEUTRALITY: conclusion. (n.d.). NET NEUTRALITY: conclusion. Retrieved April 25,
2014, fromhttp://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~raylin/conclusion.html
NET NEUTRALITY: definition. (n.d.). NET NEUTRALITY: definition. Retrieved April 25,
2014, fromhttp://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~raylin/whatisnetneutrality.htm
NET NEUTRALITY: other arguments. (n.d.). NET NEUTRALITY: other arguments. Retrieved
April 25, 2014, fromhttp://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~raylin/other.html
Net Neutrality 101. (2014). Free Press. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
http://www.savetheinternet.com/net-neutrality-101
Rhodes, S. [Photographer]. (2010). Save the internet Net Neutrality protest at Google HQ -
GoogleRally 30[Photograph]. Retrieved from
https://www.flickr.com/search?sort=relevance&text=net%20neutrality%20protests%20
NET NEUTRALITY 12

More Related Content

What's hot

Final presentation: Net Neutrality
Final presentation: Net NeutralityFinal presentation: Net Neutrality
Final presentation: Net Neutrality
Joey Dweck
 
#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past
#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past
#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past
Thomas Lohninger
 

What's hot (20)

Net neutrality
Net neutralityNet neutrality
Net neutrality
 
Final presentation: Net Neutrality
Final presentation: Net NeutralityFinal presentation: Net Neutrality
Final presentation: Net Neutrality
 
Net neutrality- Indian Perspective
Net neutrality- Indian PerspectiveNet neutrality- Indian Perspective
Net neutrality- Indian Perspective
 
Mac309 Network Effect: Net Neutrality
Mac309 Network Effect: Net NeutralityMac309 Network Effect: Net Neutrality
Mac309 Network Effect: Net Neutrality
 
Net neutrality
Net neutralityNet neutrality
Net neutrality
 
Net Neutrality discussion
Net Neutrality discussionNet Neutrality discussion
Net Neutrality discussion
 
Net neutrality
Net neutralityNet neutrality
Net neutrality
 
Decoding the Net Neutrality Debate
Decoding the Net Neutrality DebateDecoding the Net Neutrality Debate
Decoding the Net Neutrality Debate
 
#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past
#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past
#31c3 net neutrality: days of future past
 
Net Neutrality
Net NeutralityNet Neutrality
Net Neutrality
 
Net neutrality explained
Net neutrality explainedNet neutrality explained
Net neutrality explained
 
Net Neutrality
Net Neutrality Net Neutrality
Net Neutrality
 
TRAI Net Neutrality Consultation
TRAI Net Neutrality ConsultationTRAI Net Neutrality Consultation
TRAI Net Neutrality Consultation
 
CGI 20Years Net Neutrality Marsden
CGI 20Years Net Neutrality MarsdenCGI 20Years Net Neutrality Marsden
CGI 20Years Net Neutrality Marsden
 
An end to net neutrality
An end to net neutralityAn end to net neutrality
An end to net neutrality
 
Net Neutrality
Net NeutralityNet Neutrality
Net Neutrality
 
Net Neutrality in INDIA
Net Neutrality in INDIANet Neutrality in INDIA
Net Neutrality in INDIA
 
NET NEUTRALITY final
NET NEUTRALITY finalNET NEUTRALITY final
NET NEUTRALITY final
 
Net Neutrality Divy
Net Neutrality DivyNet Neutrality Divy
Net Neutrality Divy
 
Net Neutrality, Internet Freedom
Net Neutrality, Internet FreedomNet Neutrality, Internet Freedom
Net Neutrality, Internet Freedom
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Net Neutrality Overview
Net Neutrality OverviewNet Neutrality Overview
Net Neutrality Overview
 
Hlst 3001 research paper controversies
Hlst 3001 research paper controversiesHlst 3001 research paper controversies
Hlst 3001 research paper controversies
 
Should Physician Assisted Suicide be legal
Should Physician Assisted Suicide be legalShould Physician Assisted Suicide be legal
Should Physician Assisted Suicide be legal
 
Analysis of famous leader
Analysis of famous leaderAnalysis of famous leader
Analysis of famous leader
 
PAS - physician assisted suicide
PAS - physician assisted suicide PAS - physician assisted suicide
PAS - physician assisted suicide
 
Net Neutrality: The Battle to Save the Internet on Social Media
Net Neutrality: The Battle to Save the Internet on Social MediaNet Neutrality: The Battle to Save the Internet on Social Media
Net Neutrality: The Battle to Save the Internet on Social Media
 
Euthanasia
EuthanasiaEuthanasia
Euthanasia
 
Assisted suicide presentation
Assisted suicide presentationAssisted suicide presentation
Assisted suicide presentation
 

Similar to Net Neutrality

History of internet
History of internetHistory of internet
History of internet
TheronGuard
 
Network Neutrality Policy Summary
Network Neutrality Policy SummaryNetwork Neutrality Policy Summary
Network Neutrality Policy Summary
Kim Moore
 

Similar to Net Neutrality (20)

Rc 11.networks
Rc 11.networksRc 11.networks
Rc 11.networks
 
Presentation internet programming report
Presentation internet programming reportPresentation internet programming report
Presentation internet programming report
 
Internet Essay
Internet EssayInternet Essay
Internet Essay
 
History of internet
History of internetHistory of internet
History of internet
 
Taking A Look At Net Neutrality
Taking A Look At Net NeutralityTaking A Look At Net Neutrality
Taking A Look At Net Neutrality
 
Net Neutrality
Net NeutralityNet Neutrality
Net Neutrality
 
Network Neutrality Policy Summary
Network Neutrality Policy SummaryNetwork Neutrality Policy Summary
Network Neutrality Policy Summary
 
Internet Safety And The Internet
Internet Safety And The InternetInternet Safety And The Internet
Internet Safety And The Internet
 
Internet Presentation
Internet PresentationInternet Presentation
Internet Presentation
 
What is the Internet.ppt
What is the Internet.pptWhat is the Internet.ppt
What is the Internet.ppt
 
0850244 Network Neutrality
0850244 Network Neutrality0850244 Network Neutrality
0850244 Network Neutrality
 
The future of the internet: version 4
The future of the internet: version 4The future of the internet: version 4
The future of the internet: version 4
 
Webquest internet
Webquest internet Webquest internet
Webquest internet
 
iot seminar topic
iot seminar topic iot seminar topic
iot seminar topic
 
Net Neutrality Capacity Building Seminar
Net Neutrality Capacity Building SeminarNet Neutrality Capacity Building Seminar
Net Neutrality Capacity Building Seminar
 
Internet
InternetInternet
Internet
 
Networked Presence Analysis
Networked Presence AnalysisNetworked Presence Analysis
Networked Presence Analysis
 
The History And Future Of The Internet Essay
The History And Future Of The Internet EssayThe History And Future Of The Internet Essay
The History And Future Of The Internet Essay
 
Network Neutrality: Potential impact on free speech and the right to information
Network Neutrality: Potential impact on free speech and the right to informationNetwork Neutrality: Potential impact on free speech and the right to information
Network Neutrality: Potential impact on free speech and the right to information
 
The Links that Became a Web: The 45-year Old Internet and the 25-Year Old Web
The Links that Became a Web:  The 45-year Old Internet and the 25-Year Old WebThe Links that Became a Web:  The 45-year Old Internet and the 25-Year Old Web
The Links that Became a Web: The 45-year Old Internet and the 25-Year Old Web
 

More from Ashley Toups (9)

ethical controversy
ethical controversyethical controversy
ethical controversy
 
Computers in pharmacy
Computers in pharmacyComputers in pharmacy
Computers in pharmacy
 
Oak Island Mystery
Oak Island MysteryOak Island Mystery
Oak Island Mystery
 
pharmaceutical industry
pharmaceutical industrypharmaceutical industry
pharmaceutical industry
 
Diseases Threatening Public Health
Diseases Threatening Public HealthDiseases Threatening Public Health
Diseases Threatening Public Health
 
Media productions senior project
Media productions senior projectMedia productions senior project
Media productions senior project
 
Final draft sr. proj. paper
Final draft sr. proj. paperFinal draft sr. proj. paper
Final draft sr. proj. paper
 
The growth of the health care system
The growth of the health care systemThe growth of the health care system
The growth of the health care system
 
What language means to me
What language means to meWhat language means to me
What language means to me
 

Recently uploaded

一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书
c6eb683559b3
 
一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理
AS
 
一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样
AS
 
一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书
F
 
一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样
ayvbos
 
原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样
原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样
原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样
AS
 
一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书
一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书
一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书
AS
 
一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理
F
 
如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
hfkmxufye
 
Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...
Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...
Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...
ZurliaSoop
 
一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理
Fir
 

Recently uploaded (20)

一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版(NYU毕业证书)美国纽约大学毕业证学位证书
 
The Rise of Subscription-Based Digital Services.pdf
The Rise of Subscription-Based Digital Services.pdfThe Rise of Subscription-Based Digital Services.pdf
The Rise of Subscription-Based Digital Services.pdf
 
一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版英国格林多大学毕业证如何办理
 
(VIP) ℂall Girls Lucknow < Hire Me Sneha 📞8630512678 > Home Delivery For Full...
(VIP) ℂall Girls Lucknow < Hire Me Sneha 📞8630512678 > Home Delivery For Full...(VIP) ℂall Girls Lucknow < Hire Me Sneha 📞8630512678 > Home Delivery For Full...
(VIP) ℂall Girls Lucknow < Hire Me Sneha 📞8630512678 > Home Delivery For Full...
 
Abortion Pills In Jeddah+966572737505 & Get cytotec Jeddah
Abortion Pills In Jeddah+966572737505 & Get cytotec JeddahAbortion Pills In Jeddah+966572737505 & Get cytotec Jeddah
Abortion Pills In Jeddah+966572737505 & Get cytotec Jeddah
 
一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(毕业证书)新加坡南洋理工学院毕业证原件一模一样
 
Lowongan Kerja LC Yogyakarta Terbaru 085746015303
Lowongan Kerja LC Yogyakarta Terbaru 085746015303Lowongan Kerja LC Yogyakarta Terbaru 085746015303
Lowongan Kerja LC Yogyakarta Terbaru 085746015303
 
一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书
一比一原版贝德福特大学毕业证学位证书
 
一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(USYD毕业证书)悉尼大学毕业证原件一模一样
 
Washington Football Commanders Redskins Feathers Shirt
Washington Football Commanders Redskins Feathers ShirtWashington Football Commanders Redskins Feathers Shirt
Washington Football Commanders Redskins Feathers Shirt
 
Loker Pemandu Lagu LC Semarang 085746015303
Loker Pemandu Lagu LC Semarang 085746015303Loker Pemandu Lagu LC Semarang 085746015303
Loker Pemandu Lagu LC Semarang 085746015303
 
原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样
原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样
原版定制(LBS毕业证书)英国伦敦商学院毕业证原件一模一样
 
一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书
一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书
一比一定制(Waikato毕业证书)新西兰怀卡托大学毕业证学位证书
 
一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版犹他大学毕业证如何办理
 
如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCLA毕业证)加州大学洛杉矶分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
APNIC Policy Roundup presented by Sunny Chendi at TWNOG 5.0
APNIC Policy Roundup presented by Sunny Chendi at TWNOG 5.0APNIC Policy Roundup presented by Sunny Chendi at TWNOG 5.0
APNIC Policy Roundup presented by Sunny Chendi at TWNOG 5.0
 
APNIC Policy Roundup, presented by Sunny Chendi at the 5th ICANN APAC-TWNIC E...
APNIC Policy Roundup, presented by Sunny Chendi at the 5th ICANN APAC-TWNIC E...APNIC Policy Roundup, presented by Sunny Chendi at the 5th ICANN APAC-TWNIC E...
APNIC Policy Roundup, presented by Sunny Chendi at the 5th ICANN APAC-TWNIC E...
 
Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...
Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...
Jual obat aborsi Bekasi ( 085657271886 ) Cytote pil telat bulan penggugur kan...
 
TOP 100 Vulnerabilities Step-by-Step Guide Handbook
TOP 100 Vulnerabilities Step-by-Step Guide HandbookTOP 100 Vulnerabilities Step-by-Step Guide Handbook
TOP 100 Vulnerabilities Step-by-Step Guide Handbook
 
一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(TRU毕业证书)温哥华社区学院毕业证如何办理
 

Net Neutrality

  • 1. 700 University Ave Monroe, LA 71209 April 21, 2014 Dr. Claudia Grinnell English Professor University of Louisiana at Monroe 700 University Ave Monroe, LA 71209 Dear Dr. Grinnell: This report was written for my Professional Writing class. This topic was assigned to us at the beginning of April. The title of this research paper is “The Importance of Net Neutrality.” This report talks about why keeping the net neutrality policy alive is important, gives a brief history on the internet, and talks about arguments against net neutrality. In my research I have concluded that we, as American citizens, have the right to an internet that does not discriminate. Everyone, no matter who you are or where you come from, should be able to have the same speed and quality of the internet. I, for one, am afraid that if net neutrality is abolished then I will not be able to pay extra for this “new” internet. Thank you for taking the time to read my report. Sincerely, Ashley Toups Ashley Toups Student at University of Louisiana at Monroe
  • 2. NET NEUTRALITY 1 The Importance of Net Neutrality Ashley D. Toups University of Louisiana at Monroe April 21, 2014
  • 3. NET NEUTRALITY 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………...1 TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………….2 ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………….3 IMPORTANCE OF NET NEUTRALITY (level 1 heading)………...………………………..4-10 The Internet (level 1 subheading)……………………………………………………….4-6 Net Neutrality (level 2 subheading)……………………………………………..6-7 Problems (level 3 subheading)………………………………………….7-8 Arguments (level 4 subheading)…………………………………..8 Conclusion (level 5 subheading)………………………8-10 REFERENCES CITED………………………………………………………………………11-12
  • 4. NET NEUTRALITY 3 THE IMPORTANCE OF NET NEUTRALITY Ashley D. Toups University of Louisiana at Monroe Abstract This report talks about net neutrality and its importance, history of the internet, problems consumers will encounter if the net neutrality policy is abolished, arguments against net neutrality, and what I have concluded. This report‟s purpose is to inform the reader about net neutrality. It will discuss what net neutrality is and why we need to stand up to Congress in order to save the internet and keep net neutrality. Net neutrality means that everyone can access the internet at the same “speed” and “quality” as everyone else (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). The internet made its start as an idea in 1962, and then became a reality and has grown ever since then (Computer History Museum, 2004). Without net neutrality some website we want to use might be “degraded or blocked off” by our internet providers (Network Neutrality, n.d.). I believe our phone and cable companies that provide us with internet are starting to get very greedy with money. I signed the petition to keep net neutrality. I believe the internet should not be prejudiced.
  • 5. NET NEUTRALITY 4 The Importance of Net Neutrality Net neutrality means that everyone gets the same “speed” and “quality” of the internet (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). This paper will discuss the history of the internet, why net neutrality is important, the arguments against net neutrality, and much more. The Internet The internet was first envisioned and talked about in 1962 by a man named J.C.R. Licklider of MIT (Leiner et al., 2013). He called it the “Galactic Network” (Leiner et al., 2013). J.C.R. Licklider is pictured in Figure 1. In 1966 Lawrence G. Roberts established the internet idea at DARPA and organized his proposal for “ARPANET”, which was published in 1967 (Leiner et al., 2013). “When SRI connected to the ARPANET, the first host-to-host message was sent from Leonard Kleinrock‟s laboratory to SRI” (Leiner et al., 2013). Four host computers were set up and connected through ARPANET “by the end of 1969” (Leiner et al., 2013). After this success, many computers were starting to be added to ARPANET throughout the years (Leiner et al., 2013). In 1970 Steve Crocker‟s Network Working Group (NWG) finished the ARPANET Host-to- Host protocol, which was called the Network Control Protocol (NCP) (Computer History Museum, 2004). By the end of 1971 ARPANET had 19 nodes and “the Network Working Group completed the Telnet protocol and made progress on the file transfer protocol (FTP) standard” (Computer History Museum, 2004). Figure 1: J.C.R. Licklider Courtesy of Flickr Images
  • 6. NET NEUTRALITY 5 In 1973 ARPA‟s name changes to DARPA (the „D‟ stands for defense) (Computer History Museum, 2004). Two programs begin during this year (Computer History Museum, 2004). “The Packet Radio site are modeled on the ALOHA experiment…” (Computer History Museum, 2004). They networked seven computers on four islands (Computer History Museum, 2004). The second program was satellite connection (Computer History Museum, 2004). This linked “to two foreign sites in Norway and the United Kingdom” (Computer History Museum, 2004). In 1977 the Apple II computer was introduced (Computer History Museum, 2004). “Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn mount a major demonstration, „internetting‟ among the Packet Radio net, SATNET, and the ARPANET” (Computer History Museum, 2004). THEORYNET was created by Larry Landweber of the University of Wisconsin (Computer History Museum, 2004). THEORYNET enabled emailing between over 100 researchers and much more (Computer History Museum, 2004). By 1981 over 200 computers were set up in institutions through CSNET (Computer History Museum, 2004). This was the year the IBM PC was launched (Computer History Museum, 2004). In 1982 „the computer‟ was named „Man of the Year‟ in Time Magazine (Computer History Museum, 2004). In 1984 the Macintosh was introduced by Apple (Computer History Museum, 2004). The author William Gibson created the term „cyberspace‟ in his book called Neuromancer(Computer History Museum, 2004). “Datapoint, the first company to offer networked computers, continued in the marketplace, but failed to achieve critical mass” (Computer History Museum, 2004). In 1989 networks started to increase in how fast they work (Computer History Museum, 2004). Throughout the year “the number of hosts increased from 80,000…to over 160,000” (Computer History Museum, 2004).
  • 7. NET NEUTRALITY 6 In 1990 ARPANET is no longer functioning. “‟The net‟ has grown from 4 to over 300,000 hosts” in the past twenty years (Computer History Museum, 2004). Other countries start to connect such as Brazil, Chile, Greece, India, South Korea, Spain, and Switzerland (Computer History Museum, 2004). Many “search tools” and “institutions” start to come “on line”, such as ARCHIE, Gopher, Dow Jones, and Dialog (Computer History Museum, 2004). More information about the history of the internet is provided in Figure 2 of the timeline. Net Neutrality One reason why net neutrality was set up was to keep phone companies like AT&T, that provide their customers with internet service, would not turn the internet into something like television channels from a cable company (Marsden, 2010). Customers order television channel packages through their cable company (Marsden, 2010). Customers pay a certain price to get certain Figure 2: Internet Timeline Courtesy of Google Images
  • 8. NET NEUTRALITY 7 television channels (Marsden, 2010). Net neutrality allows anyone and everyone to access any website on the internet with the same “speed” and “quality” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). Without net neutrality customers might have to pay extra for certain websites, or instead of using Google they would have to use their internet provider‟s search engine they choose or create (Marsden, 2010). Problems. “We connect to the internet through pipes owned by telephone and cable companies” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). Now telephone and cable companies want to set up a faster internet but it would only be available to those who pay them a large fee. Over one million American citizens have protested this to Congress (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). A protester to save net neutrality is pictured in Figure 3. Here is an example of what it would be like without net neutrality: without net neutrality your internet provider could “degrade or block off entirely” a webpage you are trying to use (Network Neutrality, n.d.). For instance say you want to use Google but it is running too slow or you cannot use the webpage at all, therefore, you have to try a different search engine like Yahoo in order to find what you want (Network Neutrality, n.d.). Without net neutrality there will be “discrimination, double-dipping, and stifling innovation” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). The internet was designed for everyone who wants to use it (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). It does not matter what social economic class the person is, what race, gender, religion, etc., anyone can use the internet (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). This is why when you search something you also get websites most related to your search and not websites that Figure 3: Protester Courtesy of Flickr Images
  • 9. NET NEUTRALITY 8 paid the most to be able to show up in your search (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). “Discrimination endangers our basic Internet freedoms” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). “Double-dipping” is when a network owner will charge for the network you want to get on and then charge more for the things you do on the network (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). The owners might not “charge you directly”, “but they will charge your service providers”, and your service providers will pass the charge down to their customers, you (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). Net neutrality allows a good start for innovators and enables them to dream big. Without net neutrality innovators and beginners will not have a chance to grow because larger companies can pay more money in order to be in the top search lists (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). “On a tiered Internet controlled by the phone and cable companies, only their own content and services – or those offered by corporate partners that pony up enough „protection money‟ – will enjoy life in the fast lane” (Net Neutrality 101, 2014). Arguments. Congress‟s decisions will play a strong role on our internet (Jordan, 2009). “Congress is considering legislation” and “debate” over the net neutrality policy issue (Jordan, 2009). Telecom companies argue that advancing systems is expensive and that other large service providers like Yahoo are “not paying their fair share…and are taking advantage of the network providers” (Network Neutrality, n.d.). They also argue that tiered internet “is a natural step in the free market system and if anything, government regulation will only result in greater market failure” (Network Neutrality, n.d.). Conclusion.“The net neutrality policy restricts an Internet service Provider‟s ability to engage in anticompetitive behavior while simultaneously ensuring that it can use desirable forms of network management” (Jordan, 2009). If net neutrality is taken away and “the internet is tiered,” the hardest hit “will be to the consumers” (Network Neutrality, n.d.). In order to save net
  • 10. NET NEUTRALITY 9 neutrality and fight for the internet to be free and open sign the petition here: http://cms.fightforthefuture.org/tellfcc/. Figure 4 is a graphic that is going around of what the internet could look like in the future and it looks scary and not cheap.
  • 11. NET NEUTRALITY 10 References Ahybridosi. [Photographer]. (2009). J.C.R. Licklider [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/search/?q=J.C.R.%20Licklider Computer History Museum. (2004). Computer History Museum. Retrieved April 25, 2014, fromhttp://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html Figure 1 – Internet Timeline [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1366& bih=666&q=internet+timeline&oq=internet+ti&gs_l=img.3.0.0l10.1139.4555.0.6162.11. 10.0.1.1.0.562.1668.5j3j1j5- 1.10.0....0...1ac.1.42.img..2.9.1201.CunKVE32bXs#imgdii=_ Isaacson, B. [Phtographer]. (2014). One Frightening Chart Shows What You Might Pay For Internet Once Net Neutrality Is Gone[Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/17/net-neutrality-gone_n_4611477.html Figure 4: What the Internet might look like Courtesy of Huffington Post
  • 12. NET NEUTRALITY 11 Jordan, S. (2009). Implications of Internet architecture on net neutrality. Implications of Internet architecture on net neutrality. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1516540 Leiner, B., Cerf, V., Clark, D., Kahn, R., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D., … & Wolff, S. (2013). Internet Society. Brief History of the Internet. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history- internet Marsden, C. T. (2010). Net neutrality towards a co-regulatory solution. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. NET NEUTRALITY: conclusion. (n.d.). NET NEUTRALITY: conclusion. Retrieved April 25, 2014, fromhttp://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~raylin/conclusion.html NET NEUTRALITY: definition. (n.d.). NET NEUTRALITY: definition. Retrieved April 25, 2014, fromhttp://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~raylin/whatisnetneutrality.htm NET NEUTRALITY: other arguments. (n.d.). NET NEUTRALITY: other arguments. Retrieved April 25, 2014, fromhttp://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~raylin/other.html Net Neutrality 101. (2014). Free Press. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.savetheinternet.com/net-neutrality-101 Rhodes, S. [Photographer]. (2010). Save the internet Net Neutrality protest at Google HQ - GoogleRally 30[Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/search?sort=relevance&text=net%20neutrality%20protests%20