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sf:sL lhNnf, cd{nf uf=lj=;=h}d'/] kmfF6df hdLg efl;Psf]
;DjlGw k|fljlws cWoog k|ltj]bg

k|fljlws cWoog ;ldlt
Kff]v/f, sf:sL

@)&)
wGojfb 1fkg
o; cWoog sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g] ;a}nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb lbG5f} . laz]if u/L
;e]{ tyf gS;f tof/L ug{ ;xof]u ug'{ x'g] hn pTkGg k|sf]k lgoGq0f laefusf ;a
OlGhlgo/ >L ;Gtf]if cof{nnfO{ wGojfb lbG5f}+ . cd{nf k|sf]k lkl8t ;/f]sf/ ;ldlt tyf
:yflgoaf;Lx?n] cWoogsf] qmddf ug'{ ePsf] ;xof]u tyf ;'rgf pknAw u/fpg' ePsf]df
cfef/ AoSt ub{5f}+ . l;+rfO ljefusf dxflgb]{zs >L lzj s'df/ zdf{, hn pTkGg k|sf]k
lgoGq0f ljefusf dxflgb]{zs >L k|bLk /fh kf08] tyf vfgL tyf e" –ue{ laefusf
dxflgb]{zs >L ;j{lht k|;fb dxtf] k|lt ;|f]t ;fwg pknAw u/fO{lbg' ePsf]df cfef/ AoQm
ub{5f}+ . lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt sf:sLsf sd{rf/Lx?af6 k|fKt ;xof]usf] nflu klg xfdL
wGojfb lbG5f}+ .
– cWoog ;ldlt

i|Page
ljifo ;'rL
efu !

M kl/ro

!

!=!

k[i7e"ld
!=!=! ul7t ;ldlt
!=!=@ sfof{b]z
!=!=# sfof{jlw
!=@ h}d'/] kmfF6sf] cjl:ytL / ;d:of klxrfg
!=@=! kfgLsf] l/rfh{ cj:yf
!=@=@ k|fs[lts jxfj /f]lsg'sf sf/0f

efu @

M cWoog ljlWf
@=!
@=@
@=#
@=$

5nkmn
pknJw ;+Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f
:ynut lgl/If0f
cWoogsf] l;ldttf

!
!
!
!
@
#
$

&
&
&
&
*

efu #

M ljutsf cWoog

(

efu $

M xfnsf] cj:yf

!!

$=! :yfgLo hgtfsf] ck]Iff / u'gf;f]
!!
$=@ Ifltsf] ljj/0f
!!
$=# :yfgLo :t/df ;d:ofsf] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ePsf k|of;x? !@

efu %

M EjfË kg{'sf sf/0fx/m
%=! ef}ule{s sf/0f
%=@ e"–/f;folgs sf/0f
"
%=# lhof]6]lSgsn sf/0f

efu ^

M /f]syfdsf pkfox? tyf nfutsf] cg'dfg
^=! lgisif{
^=@ tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? / nfut cg'dfg
^=@=! tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox?
^=@=@ nfut cg'dfg
^=# eljiodf ul/g'kg]{ sfo{x?

Pg]S; !
Pg]S; @
Pg]S; #
ii | P a g e

!#
!#
!%
!%

!&
!&
!&
!*
!(
efu !

kl/ro
!=! k[i7e"ld
sf:sL lhNnf cd{nf uflj; j8f gDa/ ! l:yt h}d'/] kmfF6df ePsf] a:tL ;d]tdf hldg
efl;Psf] ;Gbe{df dGqLkl/ifbsf ;DdfggLo cWoIf Ho"af6 lgb{]zg eP cg';f/ u[x
dGqfnosf ;lrj >L hgfb{g g]kfn Ho" / l;+rfO{ dGqfnosf ;lrj >L k|tfks'df/ kf7s Ho"
;d]tsf] pkl:yltdf ldlt @)&)÷*÷@$ ut] u[x dGqfnodf a;]sf] a}7sn] k|efljt If]qsf]
cWoog ul/ /f]syfd clNks/0f Pj+ Go"lgs/0fsf] ljifodf lzkmfl/; ug{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf]
sfof{b]z ;lxt Ps ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5 .
!=!=! ul7t ;ldlt
!= >L /d]z uf}td, cfof]hgf k|d'v, e"ldut hn l;+rfO{ cfof]hgf, l;+rfO{ ljefu

;+of]hs

@= 8f= /fh]Gb| e08f/L, l;lgo/ l8lehgn xfO8«f]lhof]nf]lhi6, l;+rfO{ ljefu

;b:o

#= >L nLnfgfy l/dfn, l;lgo/ l8lehgn lhof]nf]lhi6, vfgL tyf e"–ue{ ljefu

;b:o

$= >L s'zngGbg kf]v/]n, l;lgo/ l8lehgn lhof]nf]lhi6, vfgL tyf e"–ue{ ljefu

;b:o

%= >L >Lsdn låj]bL, , l;=l8= O= lh=, hnpTkGg k|sf]k lgoGq0f ljefu

;b:o

^= >L a;Gt /fHf kf}8]n, l;= l8= O=, l;+rfO ljefu

;b:o

&= >L O{Zj/ /fHf kf}8]n :yfgLo, ljsf; clwsf/L, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfof{no,
sf:sL, kf]v/f

;b:o–;lrj

pNn]lvt ;ldltsf] ;lrjfno If]qLo l;+rfO{ lgb{]zgfno, kfbL{ sf:sL, kf]v/fdf /xg]5 .
!=!=@ sfof{b]z
!= cd{nf uflj;sf] pQm k|efljt If]qsf] hf]lvd /f]syfd / Go"lgs/0fsf tfTsflns
pkfox? lzkmfl/; ug{],
@= hf]lvdsf If]q klxrfg ul/ ;f] If]qdf lgif]w ug{'kg{] sfo{x? lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/
;ldlt, sf:sL kf]v/fdf lzkmfl/; ug{],
#= k|fljlws cWoog ul/ tTsfn ug{'kg]{ sfo{x?sf] nfut cg'dfg lzkmfl/; ug{],
$= lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt;Fusf] ;dGjodf :yfgLo ;d'bfo;Fu cGtl/qmof ul/
hfgsf/L u/fpg],
%= hf]lvdsf If]qsf] b'|t kl/If0f ul/ lj:t[t ?kdf kl/If0f ug{sf nflu lzkmfl/; ug{] .
!=!=# sfof{jlw
;ldltsf] tf]s]sf] sfof{b]z k'/f ug{ sfof{ljlw sfof{/De u/]sf] ldltn] #) lbgsf] x'g]5 .
1|Page
!=@ h}d'/] kmfF6sf] cjl:ytL / ;d:of klxrfg
h}d'/] kmfF6 sf:sL lhNnfsf] s]Gb| kf]v/faf6 pQ/tkm{ ko{6sLo uGtJo dx]Gb|u'kmf b]vL
k"jf{]Q/ pQ/ blIf0f km}lnPsf] ;fgf] cd{nf pkTosfdf cjl:yt 5 . of] :yfg cd{nf uf=lj=;=
sf] j8f g+ ! df kb{5 h'g kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= !^ ;Fu l;df hf]l8Psf] 5 .
cd{nfsf] 7"nLj];L kmfF6 leqsf] h}d'/] kmfF6 kf]v/fsf] s]Gb|af6 hDdf * ls=dL= sf] b'/Ldf kSsL
;8sn] hf]l8Psf] 5 -lrq !=!_ . h}d'/] kmfF6sf] ef}uf]nLs l:ylt x]bf{ ljr efudf cGo efusf]
t'ngfdf cln ulx/f] 5, hxfF klxn] ;j}lt/sf]] kfgL] hDdf x'g] / k|fs[lts ?kd} b'x'gL vf]nf
eO{ sfnL vf]nfdf lgsf; x'g] uYof]{ .
:yfgLoaf;Lsf] egfO{ cg';f/ @)&) sflQs @# ut]af6 sd]/] ;]tf]df6f] ;lxtsf] kfgL
d"n km'l6 sflnvf]nfdf ldl;g] qmd rln/xFbf d+l;/ # ut]af6 h}d'/] kmfF6sf] ;txdf j[Qfsf/
EjfË (Sinkhole) x? kg{ ;'? eO{ qmdzM EjfËx?sf] ;+Vof / cfsf/ a9b} uof] . d+l;/ !)
ut]af6 d+l;/ @) ut] ;Ddsf] cjlwdf ;a}eGbf al9 ;+Vofdf EjfË k/] . of] k|ltj]bgsf] tof/L
ldlt;Dddf ;f] If]qdf em08} ;osf] ;+Vofdf EjfË k/]sf 5g . b'x'gL vf]nf cf;kf; /x]sf
EjfËx?sf] cfsf/ qmdzM 7'nf] x'Fb} EjfËx? Pscfk;df hf]l8g k'u]sf] cj:yf 5 .
:yfgLoafl;s} egfO{ cg';f/ b'x'gL vf]nfsf] lz/tkm{ xfn k/]sf] klxnf] EjfË eGbf pQ/k"j{
sl/a @ ;o ld6/sf] b'/Ldf @)@) / @)^# ;fnlt/ klg EjfËx? k/]sf lyP -lrq !=@_ .
sf:sL lhNnf gS;f

lrq !=! M h}d'/] kmfF6, cd{nf uf =lj= ;=, sf:sLsf] Nff]s];g gS;f .
2|Page
lrq !=@ M h}d'/] kmfF6df k/]sf EjfËx? / cGo hfgsf/L ;lxtsf] gSzf .
!=@=! kfgLsf] l/rfh{

(Recharge) cj:yf

 7"nLj];L kmfF6nfO{ tLglt/af6 cUnf kxf8n] 3]/]sf]n] hnfwf/ If]q kmfF6 If]qsf] t'ngfdf
cToflws a9L 5 . of] If]q g]kfns} clws jif{f x'g] :yfGf xf] -6]an !=!_ , h;sf]
sf/0f jif{ftsf] kfgL h}d'/]kmfF6df l/rfh{ e}/x]sf] 5 .
 b'x'gL vf]nf jif}{e/L kfgL x'g] / :s"n -ZfflGt pRr df= lj=_ glhsaf6 e"ldut eO{
h}d'/] kmfF6nfO{ ;w}+ l/rfh{ u5{ .
 h}d'/] kmfF6 j/Lk/Lsf] kxf8sf] km]bLdf b]lvPsf kfgLsf d"nx?n] klg h}d'/] kmfF6nfO{
l/rfh{ ul//x]sf 5g .
 h}d'/] kmfF6sf] pQ/k"j{ tkm{ unf{¨ vf]nf af6 klg l/rfh{ e}/x]sf] 5 .
 h}d'/] kmfF6df wfg v]tL ug]{ ePsfn] uXfx?df kfgL hld/xg] x'Fbf ToxfFaf6 klg l/rfh{
x'G5 . lautdf ePsf v]tsf ;fgf ;fgf uXfx?nfO{ 7"nf] agfPsfn] ubf{ Topsoil
Psflt/ kftnf] x'g uO{ To; 7fpFaf6 a9L dfqfdf kfgL l/rf{h ePsf] kfOof] .
dfly pNn]lvt >f]t tyf :yfgaf6 h}d'/]sf] ulx/f] efudf kfgL hDdf eO{ b'x'gL vf]nfaf6
sflnvf]nfdf lgsf; x'g] uYof]{ . xfn Tof] k|fs[lts jxfj /f]lsPsf] 5 .

3|Page
6]an !=! M kf]v/f :6]zgdf ut # aif{sf] clk|n b]lv cS6f]a/;Dd dfkg ul/Psf] jif{ftsf] clen]v .

jif{dlxgf
@)!!
@)!@
@)!#

clk|n
%^=*
!@*=*
$)

d]
@*#=$
!*#=@
@&$

h'g
$^@=$
$^)=^
@$#=*

h'nfO{
!)@@=*
*^)=^
*^$=^

cui6
%^)
^%(=$
%!(=@

;]K6]Da/
%*)=$
*^)=^
###=$

cS6f]a/
&(=@
@@&=^
@!$

hDdf
#)$(=@
##*)=*
@$*(

->f]t M www.hydrology.gov.np, :6]zg M kf]v/f ._

!=@=@ k|fs[lts jxfj /f]lsg'sf sf/0f
 Xo'dkfO{k sNe{6 jgfpg] qmddf b'x'gL vf]nfsf] jxfa ;tx (bed level) dfly p7g' .
 v]tL tyf j;f]jf;sf nflu :yfgLo hgtfn] cltqmd0f ubf{ b'x'gL vf]nf k'l/g hfg' .
 b'x'gL vf]nf k'l/+bf h}d'/] kmfF6df hDdf ePsf] kfgL ;'/lIft ?kn] ;txL tyf e"ldut
/mkdf lgsf; x'g gkfpg' .
o;/L xfn EjfË k/]sf] If]qdf kl5Nnf] bzsdf dfgj a:tL b|'t ultdf ljsf; x'Fb}
uPsf] b]lvG5 . kf]v/f gu/sf] vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{sf] kfgLsf] kfOk ;f]lx If]qaf6 nluPsf] 5 .
xfn ldlt @)&)÷(÷@@ ut] a]n'sL ;f] kfO{k klg km'6g uPsf] 5 . ;fy;fy} ;f] If]q
zx/Ls/0f x'g] qmddf vfg]kfgL, lah'nL, kSsL ;8s nufotsf k"jf{wf/x? lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 .
EjfË k/]sf] sf/0f oL k"jf{wf/x?df c;/ kg{ uPsf] 5 . 3/a:tL glhs tyf v]ltof]Uo hdLg
EjfË kl/ hdLg efl;Psf] sf/0f :yfgLoaf;Ldf 8/qf;sf] cj:yf ;fy} ;du| kf]v/faf;Lsf] g}
sf}t'xntf / lrGtfsf] ljifo aGg uPsf] 5 .
ef}ule{s b[li6sf]0fn] cd{nf If]qsf] agf]6 ;txdf @) b]lv %) ;]lG6ld6/;Ddsf]
df]6fO{sf] dlnnf] df6f]sf] tx, To;eGbf tn @ b]lv $ ld6/;Ddsf] u]u|]g / To;eGbf klg d'lg
# b]lv !@ ld6/eGbf al9sf] r'go'Qm l;N6 -sd]/f] df6f]_ sf] tx /x]sf] 5 . u]u|]gsf] txaf6
kfgL ;lhn} l5g{ ;S5 / e"ldut hnk|jfx x'Gf] k|s[ltsf] 5 eg] tNnf] r'go'Qm sd]/] df6f]
kfgLdf 3'nglzn k|s[ltsf] 5 . b'x'gL vf]nfsf] kfgL ;txaf6 aUg gkfO{ dflyNnf] ;txaf6
l5b{} tNnf] sd]/] df6f] sf6b} leqleq} kfgLsf kf]v/Lx? aGg] qmd ;'?d} e"ldut ?kdf ePsf]
lqmofk|ltlqmofsf sf/0f kfgL] e"ldut ?kdf ;]tf] sd]/f] df6f] ;lxt aUg hfFbf sfnLvf]nf xfn
;]tLgbL h:tf] x'g uPsf] xf] . ljutdf b'x'gL vf]nfsf] k|fs[lts jxfj If]q % b]lv @)
ld6/;Dd rf}8fO{ /x]sf] lyof] / tNnf] If]qdf ulxl/P/ aUg] ub{Yof] . xfn b'x'gL vf]nf
cltqmd0fsf sf/0f axfj If]qsf] rf}8fO{ If]q # ld6/eGbf sd / sltko If]qdf jxfj If]q g}
klxrfg ug{ g;lsg] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 . To;}ul/ vfg]kfgL laR5ofpg] tyf ;8s agfpg]
qmddf Uofljog jfn (Gabion wall) nufO{ b'x'gL vf]nfsf] k|fs[lts ;txaf6 sl/a % ld6/
dfly prfO{df Xo'd kfO{k sNe6{ (Hume pipe culvert) agfOPsf] 5 . h;sf sf/0f k|fs[lts
?kdf ;txaf6 lgsf; eO{ sfnLvf]nfdf ldl;g' kg{] kfgL e"ldut ?kdf k|jfx x'g uPsf]n]
e"ldut hn>f]tsf] ;tx (groundwater table) a9g uof] .
4|Page
:yfgLaf;Lsf cg';f/ afF;v]t If]qdf klg Toxf“ /x]sf k|fs[lts v]fN;Lx?af6 sl/a !%
jif{cl3;Dd kfgL aUg] ub{y] . xfn tL k|fs[lts vf]N;Lx? k"0f{ ?kdf cltqmldt eO{ v]t
agfO{Psf 5g . o; If]qaf6 klg ;txL ?kdf aUg'kg{] kfgLsf] k|jfx cj?4 ePkl5 ;f] kfgL
e"ldut k|jfxdf ldl;g uO{ e"ldut kfgLsf] rfk (pore water pressure) a9g uof] . b'x'gL
vf]nf / sfnLvf]nfsf] bf]efg If]qdf ljut @ jif{df @=!@ ld6/ ;tx ulxl/g uPsf] 5 .
;fy;fy} sfnLvf]nf klZrdlt/ s6fg ub{} sl/a !) jif{df $% ld6/ klZrdlt/ ;/]sf] 5 .
oL sf/0fn] ubf{ ;f] kmfF6df /x]sf] e"ldut hnsf] rfk a9g uof] / lgsf; glhlsFb} hfFbf
;]tf] r'go'Qm sd]/] df6f] ;lxtsf] d"n km'6g uO{ kfgLsf] lgsf; x'g yfNof] -lrq !=#_ .
kfgLsf] lgsf; x'g yfn]kl5 e"–IfoLs/0f ;Fu;Fu} e"ldut ;'?ª aGb} r'go'Qm sd]/]
df6f]sf] n]bf] ;lxt e"ldut kfgLsf] rfk qmdzM sd xF'Fb} hfFbf hldg d'lg /x]sf 9fF8 eGbf
dflysf] hdLgsf] ef/jxg Ifdtf sd x'g uO{ ;txdf EjfË kg{ yfNof] .

5|Page
-lgnf] P/f]n] l/rfh{ x'g] If]œf, kx]nf] P/f]n] b'x'gL vf]nf / /ftf] P/f]n] d'n km'6]sf] :yfg b]vfPsf] 5 ._

lrq !=# M h}d'/] kmfF6, cd{nfsf] u'un gSZff / ;]tf] Nf]bf] ;lxt d"n km'6]sf] :yfg .

6|Page
efu @

cWoog ljlWf
@=! 5nkmn
cWoog 6f]nLsf ;b:ox?, :yfgLo / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u 5nkmn u/L ljleGg hfgsf/L
xfl;n u/]sf] .

@=@ pknJw ;+Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f
;Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx? h:t} M xjfO{ kmf]6f], :of6]nfO{6 Od]h, 6f]kf]u|flkmsn gS;fx?, ef}ule{s
gS;f tyf k|ltj]bg, aiff{t ;DalGw clen]v, u'unkmf]6f] cflb .

@=# :ynut lgl/If0f
:ynut lgl/If0f cWoogsf] ;dfojlw leq ljleGg r/0fdf k|efljt If]q / cf;kf;sf]
:ynut lgl/If0f u/L ljleGg k|sf/sf tYo tyf tYofÍx? ;+sng ul/of] . :ynut
lgl/If0faf6 lgDgfg';f/sf] tYofÍ ;+sng ul/Psf] lyof] .
!=

ef}u{le{s tYox? ;+sng ul/Psf] .

@=

cd{nf h}d'/] If]qsf] ;txL If]qaf6 kfgLsf] l/rfh{ x'g] :yfgsf] klxrfg ul/
gSzf+sg ul/Psf] .

#=

EjfËx? k/]sf] :yfgsf] lh=lk=P;=

$=

EjfËx?sf] k|s[ltsf] ljj/0f ;+sng ul/Psf] .

%=

;]l8d]G6

^=

h}d'/] kmfF6df l5g]{ kfgL

^=

h}d'/] kmfF6af6 lgsf; x'g] kfgL

&=

sfnLvf]nf / b'x'gLvf]nfsf] n]en ;e]{

*=

sfnLvf]nfsf] Pn ;]Szgsf]

(=

sfnL vf]nfdf b'x'gL vf]nf gldl;+b} Upstream %) dL= df, b'x'gL vf]nf
ldl;Pkl5 Downstream %) dL tn, b'x'gL vf]nfdf xfnsf] ;txdf ju]sf] kfgL
/ e"ldut d'njf6 lg:sLPsf] sd]/f] ;lxtsf] kfgL ul/ $ -rf/_ 7f“psf] kfgLsf]
axfj dfkg ul/Psf] .

7|Page

(sediment)

(GPS)

nf]s];g ul/Psf] .

x?sf] gd"gf ;+sng ul/Psf] .
(Input)

sf] dfqfsf] dfkg ul/Psf] .
(Output)

sf] dfqfsf] dfkg ul/Psf] .

(level survey) ul/Psf]

(L-section)

!))) dL= sf]

.

Fly level

;e]{ ul/Psf] .
!)=

b'x'gLvf]nfsf] s|; ;]Szg

!!=

h}d'/] kmfF6df k/]sf EjfË= -vfN8f_ x?sf] dfk lnOPsf]] .

!@=

k|efljt 3/, ;8s tyf v]ltof]Uo hldgsf] cjnf]sg ul/Psf] .

(cross-section)

tyf Pn ;]Szg ;j]{If0f ul/Psf] .

cd{nf If]qdf EjfËx? kg{sf ;Defljt sf/0fx/m kQf nufpgsf] lgldQ ;+sng
ul/Psf ;Dk"0f{ tYofÍx?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f ul/of] . To;} u/L lgdf{0f k|of]hgsf nflu
b//]6 ljZn]if0f ;lxt cfjZos ;+/rgf l8hfOg ul/of] .

@=$ cWoogsf] l;ldttf

(Limitation of Study)

of] cWoog b|'t kl/If0f, hf]lvd /f]syfd / Go"lgs/0fsf nflu tTsflns pkfox? kQf
nufO{ lj:t[t kl/If0f ug{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy ePsf] xf] . t;y{ ;do, jh]6 / >f]t
;fwgsf] l;ldttf leq /lx k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . lj:t[t cWoogsf nflu cfjZos
l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 .

8|Page
efu #

ljutsf cWoog
kf]v/f pkTosfsf] pTkQL / o;sf] ef}ule{s agf]6 ;DaGwdf l:j; e"ueljb :j=6f]lg
Xofug-;g !(^(_sf cg';f/ of] pkTosf klxn] Pp6f tfnsf] ?kdf /xsf] / cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6
cfPsf] 8]la|; (debris) n] el/g uO{ xfnsf] cj:yf jGg uPsf] xf] / Tof] tfnsf] cjz]ifsf]
?kdf xfn;Dd kf]v/fdf /x]sf tfnx? Tolx 7"nf] tfnsf] s]lx efu xf] . e'uf]nljb 8f= xs{
u'?Ësf] -;g !(^%_egfO{df rfFxL To:tf] tfn ge} k[YjLdf xnrn x'g] qmddf of] pkTosf
aGof] / kl5 cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6 cfPsf] ;]l8d]G6n] el/P/ clxn]sf] cj:yf aGof] . oL dflysf
egfO{ kl5sf cWoogstf{x? h:t} xd{g -;g !(&$_ odfgfsf -;g !(*@_ / Pd kmf]6{ -;g
!(*&_ n] kf]v/f pkTosfsf] lj:t[t cWoog u/L ljutdf 7"nf] tfn g/x]sf] t/ o;
pkTosfdf cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6 ;]tL gbLsf] af6f] eP/ ljleGg ;dodf 8]lj|; cfPsf] / o;/L
8]lj|; cfpFbf ;]tL gbLdf ldl;g cfpg] ;fgf vf]nfx? h:t} sfnL vf]nf, km';|] vf]nf, ljhok'/
vf]nf, xk{g, ofªbL tyf dlb{vf]nf / cGo zfvf vf]nfx?nfO{ y'g]sf] / ToxfF ;fgf tfnx? aGg
uPsf] elgPsf] 5 . oL ;fgf tfnx? ePsf] eGg] a'‰g xfn ;Dd klg ePsf] km]jftfn,
j]ugf;tfn, ?kftfn / cGo ;fgf tfnx? nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . sfnLvf]nf / cGo zfvf
vf]nfx?sf] lsgf/df b]lvg] v}/f] /+usf] dl;gf] / clt g/d df6f]sf] cWoogaf6 klg pQm df6f]
tnfpdf hd]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 . of] v}/f] df6f] ef}ule{s lx;fan] kl/If0f ubf{ Sn]O{ l;N6 (Clayey
silt) b]lvG5 eg] o:sf] /f;folgs agf]6 sfaf]{g]6 cyf{t r'go'Qm 5 . oL dfly elgPsf ;fgf
tfnx? sl/a %)) b]vL @),))) xhf/ jif{ klxnf ag]sf] xfn ;Ddsf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
kf]v/f pkTosfsf] s]lx :yfgx? h:t} x]Dhfj]zL, nfrf]s 3frf]s, lrKn]9'Ëf cf;kf;,
dx]Gb|u'kmf cf;kf; / 5f]/]kf6g If]qsf] hldgdf ljutdf s]lx :yfgdf EjfË kg]{ u/]sf] kfOPsf]
5 / ;fsf sf/0f :yflgo jfl;Gbfdf kf]v/fdf EjfË k5{ eGg] s'/f 1fg ePs} ljifo xf] .
ef}ule{s ;"rgfsf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df ;b'kof]u xf]; eGg] wf/0ffn] ;g !((* df hd{g ;/sf/
/ g]kfn ;/sf/, vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefusf] ;+o"Qm k|of;df kf]v/f pkTosfsf] ef}ule{s
cWoog ul/Psf] lyof] . :ynut cWoogaf6 ;+slnt tYofÍx? tyf k|of]uzfnfaf6 k|fKt
tYox?nfO{ ;dfj]z u/]/ kf]v/fsf] hf]lvdo'Qm If]q (Hazard prone area) nfO{ gS;fsg u/L
!M%),))) dfgsf] Engineering and Environmental Geological Map of Pokhara Valley gfdsf]
/+lug gS;f k|sfzg u/L ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ ;xh} pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 -lrq #=!) . pQm
gS;fdf ;+efljt EjfË kg{ ;Sg] If]q, klx/f] hfg ;Sg] If]q tyf gbL lsgf/fdf afl9 tyf
klx/f] uO{ hf]lvd x'g ;Sg] If]qsf] ;d]t l;df+sg ul/Psf] 5 .
pQm gSzfdf xfn}dfq EjfË kg{ ;Sg] ;d:of b]lvPsf] cd{nf uf=lj=;=j8f g+= ! h}d'/]
If]q cf;kf; klg j:tL ljsf;sf] nflu pko'Qm 7fpF xf]Og egL olsg ul/Psf] lyof] . of] If]q
l;d;f/ h:tf] b]lvg] wflknf] / hldgsf] ef/ jxg Ifdtf klg cToGt Go"g ePsf] hfgsf/L
e"–OlGhlgol/ª gS;fdf k|:6 b]vfOPsf] 5 . o;/L pQm If]qdf j:tL ljsf;sf] qmd x]bf{ ;g
9|Page
!(&(, !((! / !((^ df lvlrPsf xjfO{ kmf]6f]sf] cWoog af6 ;f] ;do ;Dd vf;} j:tL
ljsf; ePsf] b]lv+b}g . ;g !((* df e"–OlGhlgol/ª gS;f tof/ ubf{ klg vx/] vf]nf
5]p5fp hxfF xfn hldgdf crfgs EjfËx? ag] s'g} 3/x? ag]sf lyPgg .

cd{nf

lrq #=!M vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefun] ;g !((* df tof/ kf/]sf] kf]v/fsf] e"–OlGhlgol/ª
gSZffsf] s]lx c+z .

10 | P a g e
efu $

xfnsf] cj:yf
$=! :yfgLo hgtfsf] ck]Iff / u'gf;f]
cd{nf 7"nLj];L hf]uLd0fL -h}d/]_ kmfF6df :yfgLox?sf] b}lgs h:tf] j}7s j:g], 5nkmn ug]{,
:yfgLo k|zf;g ;“u ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df tTsfn ;+jf]wg ug'{kg]{ sfo{x?sf jf/]df ;Nnfx
lng] nufotsf sfo{ ePsf 5g . oBkL :yfgLo hgtfsf] dfux? u'gf;f]x? d"ntM b]xfo
jdf]lhdsf 5g .
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_
-ª_
-r_
-5_
-h_
-em_

vx/] -b'x'gL_ vf]nfsf] kfgLsf] :yfoL lgsf; sfo{ ug'{kg]{ .
sfnLvf]nfdf r]s 8ofdsf] lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ .
j}slNks ;8s tof/ ug'{kg]{ .
kf]v/f pkTosfdf nluPsf] vfg]kfgLsf] kfOknfO{g :yfgfGt/ jf ;'/Iff ug'{kg]{ .
ljB't÷6]nLkmf]g kf]n÷tf/÷nfOg :yfgfGt/0f ug'{kg]{ .
kLr jf6f] agfpFbf lgdf{0f ePsf] Xo'd kfOk sNe6{sf] :yfgdf kSsL k'n
jgfpg' kg]{ .
hf]lvdk"0f{ hUuf ÷3/ kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt pknAw u/fpg' kg]{ .
cNksflng / bL3{sflng pkfox? ;lxtsf of]hgfx? sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg'kg]{ .
dx]Gb|u'kmf–sfnfd'8f u|fld0f ;8s lkr ubf{ nfu]sf] vr{sf] e'QmfgL x'g jfFsL
/sdsf] Aoj:yf x'g' kg]{ .

$=@ Ifltsf] ljj/0f
cf+lzs 3/ Iflt eO{ lj:yflkt ePsf v]t 3/ Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf eO{ lj:yflkt ePsf / wfg
v]t Ejf+u kl/ hUufdf c;/ k/]sf hUufwgLsf] gfd -6]jn $=@++=! / $=@++=@_ df / pRr
hf]lvddf /x]sf ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/ -6]jn $=@=#_ df pNn]v eP adf]lhd 5 . h; cg';f/
xfn ;Dd wfg v]t EjfË kl/ hUufdf c;/ k/]sf hUufwgLx? #) hgf /x]sf 5g .
6]an $=@=! M cf+lzs 3/ IftL eO{ lj:yflkt ePsf 3/d'nL / kl/jf/ ;+Vof .
ef8fdf j:g]sf]
qm=;+=
3/d'nLsf] gfd
kl/jf/ ;+Vof
s}lkmot
gfd
s'De l;+ -o;
axfb'/_ bdfO{ xfn 6]s axfb'/ eGg]
!
!# ;/]sf]
o'=s]=
yf]s axfb'/ g]kfnL
@
$
lxdnfn cfrfo{
cfkm}{
#
% ;/]sf]
led axfb'/ sfsL{ cfkm}{
$
$ ;/]sf]
e'k]Gb| cfrfo{
cfkm}{
@^
hDdf
11 | P a g e
6]an $=@M@ M pRr hf]lvdsf sf/0f 3/ IftL x'g] ;Defjgf eO{ lj:tflkt ePsf 3/ kl/jf/ ;+Vof .
qm=;+=

!
@
#
$
%
^
&
*
(
!)
!!

3/d'nLsf] gfd
/fh' tdfË -xfn o'=s]=_
jn/fd cfrfo{
lty{ axfb'/ tdfË
s'df/ 5Gt]n
k"0f{ axfb'/ lj=s=
3gZofd cfrfo{
/fwLsf kf}8]n
eO{ >L ;fsL{
plbd axfb'/ u'?Ë
lty{ axfb'/ lj=s=
ltn axfb'/ lj=s=

ef8fdf j:g]sf] gfd
r'g axfb'/ tdfË
/lj tdfË
cfkm}
cfkm}
cfkm}
cfkm}
ef8fdf a:g]
cfkm}
cfkm}
cfkm}
cfkm}

kl/jf/ ;+Vof s}lkmot
* ;/]sf]
$ ;/]sf]
& hfg]÷cfpg]
$ ;/]sf]
% hfg]÷cfpg]
% hfg]÷cfpg]
!) ;/]sf]
$ ;/]sf]
& hfg]÷cfpg]
% hfg]÷cfpg]
$ hfg]÷cfpg]

^#

hDdf
6]an $=@=# M ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/ pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf] ljj/0f .
qm=;+=

!
@
#
$

k"jf{wf/sf] gfd
dx]Gb|u'kmf sfnfd'8f u|f=;=
vfg]kfgL nfO{g -kf]v/f vfg]kfgL
ljB't nfO{g
6]lnkmf]g nfO{g

ljj/0f
s}lkmot
pRr hf]lvddf #)) ld=
#)) ld=
#)) ld=
#)) ld=

$=# :yfgLo :t/df ;d:ofsf] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ePsf k|of;x?








k|efljt If]qsf] lgl/If0f .
:yfgLox?;+u 5nkmn .
k|efljt If]qsf] klxrfg / ;+s]t .
lhNnf ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7s .
Ifltsf] ljj/0f nut tof/L .
:yfgLox?nfO{ ;"lrt ug]{ Pj+ ;fjwfgLsf pkfox?sf] hfgsf/L .
ljkbsf] d"n sf/0f klxrfg ug{ lj1x?af6 k|f/lDes cWoog sfo{ ;DkGg e} k|f/lDes
k|ltj]bg k|fKt .
 ;f]xL k|ltj]bgsf cfwf/df] b'x'gL vf]nfsf] jxfj If]q sfod x'g] u/L Excavation u/L
kfgLsf] lgsf; lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] .
 Ifltsf] ljj/0f ;lxtsf] nut Pj+ :yfoL glb lgsf; sfod ug{ n=O{= -k|f/lDes_ tof/
u/L s]Gb|df l;kmfl/z ul/Psf] .
 k|efljt If]qdf lgdf{0f sfo{ Pj+ hUuf lsgj]r /f]Ssf /fVg] lg0f{o ul/Psf] .
12 | P a g e
efu %

EjfË kg{'sf sf/0fx/m
%=! ef}ule{s sf/0f -Geological and hydrogeological factors_
cd{nfsf] h}d'/] Ps ;fgf] tnfpsf] ?kdf /x]sf] / tnfpdf qmdzM ;]tL glbaf6 cfPsf]
r'go'Qm l;N6 ;fOhsf] df6f] y'lk|Psf] / pQm l;N6 dfyL j/Lk/Lsf 8fF8faf6 em/]sf] klx/f] tyf
sfnLvf]nfaf6 cfPsf] r§fgsf 6'qmf (Gravel) / jfn'jf (sand) y'lk|Psf] b]lvG5 . oL b'j} tx
/fd|/L ghd]sf] cj:yf (unconsolidated stage) df 5g . dflyNnf] tx hf] sandy gravel xf], Tof]
l5b|bf/ (Permeable) 5 / o;af6 ;lhn} ;txsf] kfgL l5g{ ;Sb5 . tNnf] l;N6 (silt) sf] tx
h;df s]lx df6f] (Clay) sf] dfqf 5 . o;df ;fwf/0f cj:yfdf kfgL l5g{ lgs} ;do nfUb5,
t/ of] l;N6df ;fgf ;fgf lr/fx? (fractures) 5g ;fy} u|fe]n / o;sf] l;dfgfdf Undulating
Surface ePsf] cj:yf 5 . of] l;N6 r'go'Qm (calcareous) klg 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf of] tx
e"ldut kfgLaf6 lj:tf/} leHg] / r'go'Qm ePsf]n] kfgLdf ldl;g] klg x'G5 .
h}d'/] If]qdf hldgsf] ;txd'gL ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] efudf sl/a @) b]lv %) ;]=dL=
hlt humus soil -v]tL of]Uo df6f]_ 5 . To; df6f]sf] tn sandy gravel 5 . of] Gravel sf]
df]6fO{ sl/a @ b]lv $ dL6/ hlt 5 . pQm u|fe]nsf] tx d'gL v/fgL tyf v}/f] /+usf] ghd]sf]
g/d Clayey Silt 5, h;nfO{ :yflgox?n] sd]/f] df6f] eGb5g . o:sf] df]6fO{ # b]vL !@
dL6/ ;Dd /x]sf] vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefuaf6 ;g !((* df ul/Psf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 lrq %=!_ . of] l;N6sf] tx h}d'/] kmfF6sf] tNnf] efudf s8f r§fg dfyL km}lnPsf] cg'dfg
ul/Psf] 5 . of] l;N6df dl;gf lr/f / Undulating Sarface df u|fe]naf6 l5/]sf] kfgL lj:tf/}
;f]l;G5 / kfgLn] k"0f{ ?kdf leH5 . o;/L l;N6 leHb} hfFbf saturated cj:yf eO{ e"ldut
?kdf kfgLsf] rf“k ;[hgf x'G5 . rf“ksf sf/0f
hdLgsf] le/fnf] efu tkm{ u|fe]n / l;N6sf]
l;dfgfsf] glhssf] efu x'Fb} e"ldut kfgLn] lgsf;
vf]H5 . tNnf] efult/ e"ldut kfgLn] lgsf;
vf]Hbf cfˆgf] af6f]df /x]sf] sdhf]/ r'go'Qm
l;N6nfO{ ;d]t lj:tf/} 3'nfp“b} nfg] x'G5 . e"ldut
?kdf lj:tf/} rln/x]sf] kfgLn] l;N6nfO{ ;d]t
jufO{ sdhf]/ ef}ule{s agf]6 ePsf] :yfg tkm{
lgsf; vf]H5 . lgsf; x'g] qmddf cd{nfsf] h}d'/]df
sfnLvf]nftkm{ b'x'gL vf]nfsf] klxnfsf] k|fs[lts
lgsf; eGbf sl/a @% dL6/ tNf l;N6 ldl;Psf]
n]bf] kfgLsf] d'n km'6]sf] 5 . of] n]bf] kfgLsf] d"n
nuftf/ jlu/x]sf] 5 .
lrq %=! M h}d'/] If]qsf] hdLgsf] agfj6sf] lrq .
13 | P a g e
dfly elgP em} e"ldut kfgL lgsf; x'g] qmddf l;N6 / u|fe]nsf] l;dfgfsf] cf;kf;
af6} ;fgf ltgf kfgLsf af6f]x?sf] (Solution Channel) ljsf; x'G5 . oL kfgLsf af6fx?df
/x]sf] r'go'Qm l;N6 lj:tf/} kfgL ;“u jUb} n]bf]sf] ?kdf aflx/ cfpFbf l;N6 /x]sf] 7fpF lj:tf/}
IfoLs/0f x'G5 / vfnL 7fpF aGg hfG5 . o;/L tNnf] efu kfgLn] lvofO{ vfnL eP kl5 To;
eGbf dfly /x]sf] sdhf]/ u|fe]nsf] ef/jxg Ifdtf sd x'g hfG5 . h;sf sf/0f u|fe]nsf] tx
;d]t tn v:5 / ;txdf To:sf] c;/ kl/ hldg efl;G5 / EjfË sf] ?k lnG5 . o;/L ;'?df
;fgf] cfsf/df efl;Psf] :yfgsf] EjfË lj:tf/} tnsf] l;N6 ju] kl5 7"nf] EjfËsf] ?kdf
ljsf; eO{ h}d'/]df ;d:of b]lvPsf] xf] -lrq %=@_ .
f]

lrq %=@ M h}d'/] If]qsf] hldgsf] agfj6 EjfËdf b]lvPsf] .
h}d'/] If]qsf] kfgLsf] ah]6 ;Gt'ngsf] hfgsf/Lsf nflu ljleGg :yfgdf kfgLsf] axfj
(discharge) ldlt @)&) kf}if @ ut] dfkg ul/Psf] lyof] -6]an %=!_ .
6]an %=! M h}d'/] If]qsf] ljleGg :yfgdf dfkg ul/Psf] kfgLsf] axfj .
qm=;+=
!
@
#

kfgLsf]
Input/output
Input

$
Output

%

:yfg
unf{Ë vf]nf
zflGt pRr df=la= glhs b'x'gL vf]nf
unf{Ë vf]nf / sfnLvf]nfsf] bf]efg
sd]/] ;]tf] n]bf] df6f] ;lxt xfn} km'6]sf]
d"n
b'x'gL vf]nfdf xfn} k"g{:yflkt ug{
xfn} vlgPsf] gfnfsf] tNnf] efu

:yfgsf] prfO
-lkm6_
##%@
##%^
##)&

Afxfj
-ln=÷;]s]08_
!@=&^
)=(*
!=!@

#!*#

*=)

#!(%

!@=($

h}d'/] If]qdf l5g]{ kfgL (input) sf] dfqf hDdf sl/a !$ ln6/ k|lt ;]s]G8 dfkg
ul/Psf] lyof] eg] ;f] If]qaf6 aflx/ lgsf; ePsf] kfgL (output) sf] dfqf hDdf sl/a @!
14 | P a g e
ln6/ k|lt ;]s]G8 dfkg ul/Psf] lyof] . dfkg ug{ g;lsPsf] af“sL input sf] dfqf h}d'/] If]qsf]
klZrd / pŒf/tkm{ kxf8sf] km]bdf cjl:yt kfgL /;fPsf] / d"n km'6]sf] If]qaf6 x'g] cg'dfg
ul/Psf] 5 . t/, unf{Ë vf]nf af6 e"ldut eO{ uPsf]] kfgL h}d'/]tkm{ jf cGo tkm{ k|jfx ePsf]
osLg ug{ sl7g ePsf]n] cfjZos cWoogsf nflu lzkmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 .
%=@ e""–/f;folgs sf/0f (Geochemical factors)
h}d'/] kmfF6sf] pTktL x'Fbf Toxf“ hDdf ePsf] l;N6 df6f] ;]tL glbn] cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6
r'go'Qm n]bf]sf] ?kdf NofPsf] dflgPsf] 5 . o:tf] l;N6 g/d cj:yfdf /x]sf]n] Tof] ;lhn}
kfgLdf ldl;G5 / kfgL;“u} ;lhn} aU5 . ToxfFaf6 NofOPsf] r'go'Qm l;N6sf] gd"gf vfgL tyf
e"ue{ ljefusf] k|of]uzfnfdf /f;folgs k/LIf0f ubf{ r'g (CaO = #%% / MgO = @ %) /x]sf]
kfOPsf] 5 .
o; If]œfdf ;xtaf6 jUg] cToflws kfgL hj/h:tL hldg leq l5g]{ cj:yf ag]sf]n]
kfgLn] sd]/f] df6f]nfO{ :ofr'/]6 (saturate) u/L cem sdhf]/ jgfpg] / kfgLdf 3'Ng] cj:yf
jGof] . ;fy;fy} sfnLvf]nfaf6 lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lsf ?kdf 9'Ëf, lu§L / jfn'jf lgsfNg] qmddf
vf]nf ulxl/+b} hfFbf :ofr'/]6 e};s]sf] sd]/f] df6f]df rf“k j9g uO{ 3'Ng ;'? eof] . ;txsf]
kfgL leq l5g]{ qmddf ;fw/0ftof sfj{g8fO{cS;fO{8 UofF; ;f]:g] u5{ / ;8]un]sf] emf/kft;“u
/f;folgs k|ltlqmof x'bf“ kfgL xNsf clDno (acidic) x'g] ub{5 . of] clDno kfgL r'go'Qm
sd]/f] df6f]sf] ;fgf] l5qaf6 tn hfFbf /f;folgs k|ltlqmof eO{ lj:tf/} ;fgf kfO{k h:tf
jf6f]x? jGb5g / tL Ps cfk;df hf]l8bf hldg d'lg kfgL jUg] hfnf] jGb} hfG5 . hj
r'go'Qm sd]/f] df6f] 3'Nb} hfG5, cem} w]/} clDno kfgL jUg] u/L 7"nf] x'Fb} hfG5 . tNnf] efudf
o;/L vfnL x'Fb} hfFbf ;f]sf] kl/k"lt{ ug{ dflysf] sdhf]/ hldgn] wfGg g;sL v:g uO{ EjfË
kg{ uPsf] b]lvG5 . e"ldut kfgLsf] jxfjsf] ult k|fs[lts cj:yfdf cToGt Go"g x'g] ub{5 .
t/ ck|fs[lts ?kn] o;sf] ult j9g hfFbf of] k|sf]ksf] ;[hgf x'g uPsf] b]lvG5 .
%=# lhof]6]lSgsn sf/0f (Geotechnical factors)
h}d'/] If]qdf kfOg] clayey silt k|fs[lts ?kdf ghd]sf] g/d / sd ef/jfxg Ifdtf
ePsf] df6f] xf] . o;sf] ef/jxg Ifdtf sl/a ! d]ufkf:sn (Mpa) hlt 5 eGg] cg'dfg
ul/Psf] 5 . of] silt kfgLdf ;lhn} ldl;g] / efl;g ;Sg] vfnsf] 5 . To;}n] of] l;N6 ePsf]
hldgdf lgdf{0fsf sfo{x? ubf{ ljif]z ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' kg]{ jf lgdf{0fsf sfo{x? gu/L
hldg ;'xfFpbf] v]tL ug{ ;'emfj ;d]t lbOPsf] 5 . h}d'/] If]qdf d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] kfgLdf
/x]sf] ;]l8d]G6sf] (sediment) dfœff lrq %=# df lbOPsf] 5 .
ha d"n km'6L n]bf] kfgL sfnL vf]nfdf ldl;g yfNof] ;a}sf] Wofgfsif{0f eof] . t/,
hdLg leq l;N6sf] tx lvOg] k|s[of klxn] b]lv rln/x]sf] lyof] . e"ldut d"njf6 lg:sL
/x]sf] sd]/f] ;lxtsf] kfgLdf sl/j & k|ltzt -cfotg÷cfotg_ sd]/f] df6f] ldl;P/ uO/x]sf]
kfOof] . d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] kfgLdf /x]sf] ;]l8d]G6sf] (sediment) sieve analysis lrq %=# df
lbOPsf] 5 . h}d'/] If]qdf k/]sf EjfËx/msf] s'n cfotg nueu !),))) So"ljs ld6/
15 | P a g e
b]lvPsf] 5 . EjfËsf] cfotg, d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] df6f]df ePsf] ;]l8d]G6sf] dfqf / ;dosf]
t'ngfTds cWoog ubf{ hdLg d'gL e"ldut kfgLsf sf/0f df6f] lvOg] / aUg] qmd w]/} klxn]
b]lv nuftf/ rln/x]sf] k|:6 x'G5 .

(0.002-0.06 – silt; 0.06-.2 - fine sand; 0.2 - 0.6 - medium sand; 0.6 - 2 - coarse sand)

lrq %=# M h}d'/] If]qdf d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] kfgLdf /x]sf] ;]l8d]G6sf]

16 | P a g e

sieve analysis

.
efu ^
lgisif{ tyf ;'emfj
^=!

lgisif{

sf:sL lhNnf cd{nf uf=lj=;= h}d'/] 7"nLj];L kmfF6 efl;g'sf] d'Vo sf/0fdf ;f] If]qdf /x]sf]
sdhf]/ / kfgLn] ;lhn} IfoLs/0f ug{ ;Sg] r'go'Qm l;N6 -:yfgLosf cg';f/ sd]/] df6f]_ sf]
tx x'g' xf] . b'x'gL vf]nf nufotsf cGo vf]N;Lx?sf] k|fs[lts jxfjnfO{ cj?2 ubf{ e"dLut
kfgLsf] n]en a9g uO{ rfk a9g uof] . ;fy} k|fs[lts / dfgjLo sf/0fn] sfnL vf]nf ulxl/g
uO{ e"dLut ;'?Ë tNnf] efudf d"n km'6L n]bf] kfgL sfnL vf]nfdf ldl;g hfFbf kfgLsf] rfk
sd eO{ e"dLut ;'?Ëx? tyf 9fF8x? dfyLsf] hdLg efl;g uof] / ;txdf EjfË k¥of] .
;f] If]qsf] e"–OlGhlgol/Ë gS;f ;g !((* df g} tof/ eO;sf]sf], t/ a:tL ljsf; tyf
k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ug]{ qmddf ;f] gS;fsf] pkof]u ul/Psf] b]lvPg . e" pkof]u sfo{df ef}ule{s
tYox?nfO{ j]jf:tf ug'{ / k|fs[lts cj:yf hyfefjL vnaNofpg' g} cd{nf If]qdf EjfË kg]{
k|sf]ksf] sf/0f xf] . kf]v/f nufot of] If]q cToflws jiff{ x'g] If]q ePsfn] jiff{ ofd cuf8L g}
/f]syfdsf pkfox? canDag ul/g' kb{5 / gul/Pdf eofjx l:ylt cfpg ;Sg] b]lvG5 .
^=@ tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? / nfut cg'dfg
^=@=!= tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? M

 h}d'/]kmfF6 If]qsf] e"–ef}lts ;e]{ (Geophysical Investigation) kZrft dfq ;f] If]qsf]
e"ldut ef}ule{s ca:yfsf] af/]df oyfy{ hfgsf/L x'g] ePsfn] ;f] kZrft dfq lgdf{0f
;DaGwL lg0f{o ug{ plrt x'g] . To;sf/0f xfnnfO{ ;f] If]qdf lgdf{0f ;DaGwL ;Dk'0f{
sfo{x?df k|ltaGw nufpg' plrt x'g] .
 b'x'gL tyf vx/] vf]nfsf] cltqmldt e"–efunfO{ gfkLaf6 /]vfÍg u/L vf]nfsf] :yfoL
l;dfgf sfod ug]{ . To;} u/L af+;v]t If]qaf6 lautdf aUg] vf]N;L tyf gfnfx?nfO{
k"g{:yfkgf ug'{kg]{ .
 EjfË (Sinkhole) x?nfO{ df6f] tyf u|fe]nn] k'/L To;nfO{ sDKofS;g (Compaction)
ug]{ .
 vx/] tyf b'x'gL vf]nfdf hDdf ePsf] u|fe]n x6fO{ kfgLsf] lgsf; lgsfNbf b'x'gL
vf]nfsf] b'a} lsgf/ tyf tNnf] ;txdf IfoLs/0f (Erosion) x'g] x'Fbf ;f]sf] arfpsf
nflu k|:tflat l8hfOg (Design) cg';f/sf ;+/rgfx? lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ .
 xfn d"nkm'6L n]bf] kfgL au]sf] :yfgsf] klZrd xfn kSsL ;8s;Fu ;dfgfGt/ x'g] u/L
klZrd tkm{ sl/a #) dL= nDafO{ / !) ld6/ ulx/fO{ -n]bf] kfgL au]sf] ;'?Ësf]

17 | P a g e
klxrfg u/L ;f] eGbf tn_ ePsf] 6«]Gr vgL ;f] df k|:tflat Design cg';f/sf]
lhof]6]S:f6fOn k|of]u u/L 6«]Grdf df6f] e/L sd]/f] df6f]sf] n]en;Dd sDKofS;g ug]{ .
 sfnL vf]nfsf] e"IfoLs/0f / ulxl/g] qmdnfO{ lgoGq0fsf nflu b'x'gL vf]nf / sfnL
vf]nfsf] bf]efg b]vL tn dfyL % j6f a]8af/x? !)) dL= km/sdf agfpg], %)) dL=
l/e]6d]G6 agfpg] / afFsL /x]sf] efudf klg lgoGq0f ub}{ Aoal:yt ub}{ hfg] . k|efljt
If]qaf6 hfg] kSsL ;8sdf xfnnfO{ ;s];Dd ;jf/L ;fwg ;+rfng lg?T;flxt ug]{ /
olb ug}{ kg]{ ePdf xNsf ;jf/L ;fwgdfq} ;+rfng x'g lbg] . t;y{ xfnnfO{ h}d'/]
If]qsf] klZrdkl§sf] kfvfaf6 a}slNks ?kdf ;jf/L ;fwg ;+rfng ug{ lbg' pko'Qm
x'g] . k|efljt If]qdf a9L kfgL k|of]u ul/g'kg]{ v]tLx? ug{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ .
^=@=@

nfut cg'dfg

dfly pNn]lvt tTsfn ul/g' kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? dWo] lgDg cg';f/ pNn]lvt
sfo{x?sf] nfut cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .
 EjfË (Sink hole) x? tTsfn} k'g{ .
 b'x'gL vf]nfdf ;]ld k/ldojn ^%) ld6/sf] nfdf] kSsL gfnf lgdf{0f u/L b'a} tkm{
afof] OlGhlgol/Ë sfo{ ;d]t ug{ .
 h}d'/] kmfF6sf] dflyNnf] efudf b]lvPsf d'nnfO{ ;+sng u/L ;'/lIft lgsf; ug{sf]
lgldt $$) dL= Sofr 8«]g lgdf{0f ug{ .
 b'x'gL vf]nf sfnL vf]nfdf ldl;g] l9s tyf lsgf/f ;+/If0f ug]{ ug'{ kg]{ ;+/rgf
lgdf{0f ug{ .
 xfn d"nkm'6L n]bf] kfgL au]sf] :yfgsf] klZrd xfn kSsL ;8s;Fu ;dfgfGt/ x'g]
u/L klZrd tkm{ sl/a #) dL= nDafO{ / !) ld6/ ulx/fO{ ePsf] 6«]Gr vgL ;f] df
k|:tflat Design cg';f/sf] lhof]6]S;6fOn k|of]u u/L 6«]Grdf df6f] e/L sd]/f]
df6f]sf] dflyNnf] n]en;Dd sDofS;g ug{ .
dfly pNn]lvt sfo{x?sf nflu ?= %,@!,@&))).– -kfFr s/f]8 PSsfO; nfv ;QfO{;
xhf/ sf] nfut cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . b//]6 laZn]if0f ;lxtsf] nfut cg'dfg, l8hfOg
tyf 8«OËx? Pg]S; @ / Pg]S; # df ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 .
EjfË kg]{ tyf hldg efl;g] IftL x'gaf6 arfpg] qmddf IftL x'g uPsf AolQmut ;DktL
tyf ;+/rgf cflbsf] IftLk'tL{sf] nflu lhNnf b}la k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt sf:sL dfkm{t x'g
l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 .
^=@

eljiodf ul/g'kg]{ sfo{x?
 h}d'/]kmfF6, cd{nf If]qsf] e"ldut ef}ule{s ca:yfsf] oyfy{ hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{sf
lgldQ e"–ef}lts ;e]{If0f (Electric Resistivity Tomography, Shallow Seismic
Refraction, Ground Penetrating Radar) sfo{ ug'{ kg]{ .

18 | P a g e
 h}d'/]kmfF6sf] klZrd / pQ/ tk{msf] kfvfaf6 km'6]sf d'nx? Aoal:yt u/L kfgLnfO{
b'x'gL vf]nf x'Fb} sfnL vf]nfdf lgsf; ug]{ Aoa:yf ldnfpg] .
 zflGt pRr df=la= sf] pQ/tkm{af6 cfPsf] vx/] vf]nf -b'x'gL vf]nf_ sf] kfgL
h}d'/]kmfF6 leq k|jfx ePsf] b]lvPsfn] ;f] vx/]sf] kfgLnfO{ e"ldut k|jfxdf hfg' cufa}
lgoGq0f u/L ;'/lIft tl/sfn] ;txaf6 lgsf; ug]{ .
 k|efljt If]qdf s'g} lgdf{0f sfo{ ug'{ k'j{ df6f]sf] OlGhlgol/Ë u'0fsf] kl/If0f
(Geotechnical Investigation) clgjfo{ u/L ef/jxg Ifdtfsf cfwf/df lgdf{0f sfo{
ug]{ Aoa:yf ldnfpg] .
 sfnL vf]nfsf] ;xfos vf]nf -unf{Ë vf]nf_ af6 sl/a !# nL= k|lt ;]s]G8 kfgL
hldgdf e"ldut eO{ uPsf]n] ;f] kfgL h}d'/]tkm{ jf cGo tkm{ k|jfx ePsf] lgSof}{n u/L
h}d'/] kmfF6 tkm{ k|jfx ePsf] ca:yf b]lvPdf unf{Ë vf]nfaf6 h}d'/] kmfF6 tkm{ kfgL
l/rf{h x'g] sfo{ lgoGq0f ug{ cfjZos lgdf{0f sfo{ ug]{ .
 h}d'/] If]qsf] e"agf]6df r'go'St sd]/f] df6f] ePsf sf/0f kfgLdf clDnokg a9g ;Sg]
lqmofsnfk ePsf] v08df ;d:of emg a9g ;Sg] ePsfn] kfgLsf] clDnokg ;DaGwL
cWoog ug'{ kg]{ .

19 | P a g e
20 | P a g e
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
A. Kali Khola
1.

Salient Features of Kali Khola

VDC

Armala-1, Kaski

Zone

Gandaki Zone

Tributaries

Ghurkuna Khola, Garlang Khola, Duhuni Khola,
Grami Khola, Majkuna, Tupke Khola, Dhand
Khola etc.

Nature of Khola

Boulder stage, degradation nature, 1.31m bed is
degrading per year (in comparison June, 2011).

Developed Area

Paddy field in right and left bank of Khola but
now newly settlement is rapidly developing.

Total Length of Kali Khola

11 Km.

Catchment Area

41 Sq. Km.

Maximum elevation of
Catchment area

1962 m (msl)

Minimum level

960 m (msl)

Average l-slope of Kali khola

1:20, 1:100. 1:200

Near DuhuniKhola confluence

1:40

Average width of Khola

65 m

Near Duhuni Khola confluence

50 m

Design scour depth

3.10 m

Length of protection

500 m revetments and five bed bars (around
confluence point which is highly critical area)

Total estimate of protection works

(See Annex 3).

Protection by

GI create boxes, RCC Cut-off (bed bar), Geotextile etc.

Kali khola originate in the north part of Pokhara valley from Mahabharat range at Kali Khola
at an elevation of nearly 1962m. The length of Khola is 11 km up to Seti River at Bhalam
Dobilla. It is one of the importtant tributary of the Seti River.

1|Page
2.

Discharge calculation of Kali Khola

By
1. Dickens formula
Q p = C d A 3/4
Where,
Qp

= Maximum flood discharge in cumecs

A

= Catchment Area

Cd

= Dicken coefficient

Area

= 41 Sq.Km

Cd

=11.5

(11.5 for northern part of India)
Hence Q p

=11.5 *41^ 0.75
=186 m3/sec

2.WECS Method
Q 100 =14.63(A) ^ 0.732
=14.63*41^ 0.732
=211 m3/sec
Adopt 211 m3/sec
3.

Scour depth calculation

Design parameters
Catchment area

= 41 sq. Km

High flood discharge

= 211 m3/sec

River, l-slope

= 1:40, 1:100 (effected area)

Manning’s coefficient

= 0.04

Silt average in bed

= 5mm

Silt factor

= 1.76 (D m ) ^.5
= 1.76*5^0.5
=3.91

2|Page
Normal scour depth

= 0.47(Q/F)^1/3
= 0.47*(211/3.91)^0.5
= 1.8 m.

Factor for right angle (K)

= 2.25
= 2.25*1.8
= 4.1m

Average depth of water in high flood = 2.1 m
For launching apron

=2.1*1.5
=3.10 m

Use 4.5m as mattress
Depth of bed bar

=3.10 m

Use 1:2:4 RCC wall having top crest one meter with 1:8 U/S and D/S of wall protect by
gabion crate box in launching apron and add (1x1x1) m. concrete blocks in D/S of wall.
Water way (P)

= 4.75(Q)^0.5%
= 4.75(211)^0.5
=68 m. may be contrast by 80 %

B. Duhuni Khola
1.

Salient Features of Duhuni Khola

VDC

Armala-1, Kaski

Zone

Gandaki Zone

Tributaries

Khahare and Small Kholsi.

Nature of Khola

Boulder stage on land slide materials
aggradations nature.

Developed Area

Entirely, paddy field in right and left
bank and settlements rapidly developed.

Total Length of Kali Khola

650 m.

Catchment Area

0.16 Sq. Km.

Maximum elevation of

3|Page
Average l-slope of Kali Khola

1:20, 1:60, 1:80, 1:100

Near Duhuni Khola confluence

1:40

Average width of Khola

2.50 m

Near confluence

4m

Design discharge

3.00 m3/sec

Maximum depth of sinkhole depth

8.5 m

Length of protection

650 m lining with cascade

Total estimate of protection works

(See Annex 3).

Protection by

GI create, RCC, RRM, Soling,
Bioengineering, Geo-textile, Sinkhole
filling, Sprig plugging. Box Culvert etc.

2.

Discharge calculation

By
1. Dickens formula
Q p = C d A 3/4
Where,
Q p = Maximum flood discharge in cumecs
A= Catchment Area(800x200)m

=0.16 Km sq.

C d = Dicken coefficient
Area

= 0.16 Sq.Km.

Cd

=11.5

(11.5 for northern part of India)
Hence, Q p

=11.5 *0.16^ 0.75
=2.909 m3/sec

2. Rain fall Method
Assume, maximum 2500mm rain fall per day
=2500/100*10^4/24*3600
=2.89 m3/sec
Adopt
=3.0 m3/sec
4|Page
3.

In upper reach 1/3 of land is exist 0.053 Sq.Km

Q pu

=11.5 *0.05^ 0.75
=1.25 m3/sec

Water way (P) = 4.75(Q)^0.5%
= 4.75(2.9)^0.5
=8.8 m.
For cross section limitation lining is proposed.
Design parameters
Catchment area

= 0.16 Sq. Km

High flood discharge

= 2.90 m3/sec

River, l-slope

= 1:100, 1:80, 1:40 and Steep slope

Manning’s coefficient

= 0.02

Silt average in bed

= 5mm

Silt factor

= 1.76 (D m ) ^.5
= 1.76*5^0.5
=3.91

Normal scour depth

= 0.47(Q/F)^ 1/3
= 0.47*(211/3.91)^0.5
= 1.8 m.

Factor for right angle (K)

= 2.25
= 2.25*1.8= 4.1m

Average depth of water in high flood= 2.1 m
For launching apron

=2.1*1.5
=3.15 m
Use 4.5m as mattress for kali khola

Design of channel section
5|Page
4.

0+000 to 0+250

Design parameters
L-section channel(S)

= 1:100

Discharge(Q)

= 1.25 m3/sec

Manning’s coefficient (N)

=0.02

Area (A)

=0.5 m2

Assume,For Upper Reach
Section is rectangle
Q

=A*V
=A*1/N*S ^½*R ^2/3
=A*1/0.02*1/100^½*A/P ^2/3
=0.6*1/0.02*1/100^½*.0.6/2.1 ^2/3
=0.6*50*0.1*0.42
=1.26 m3/sec
= Hence safe O.K.
Existing bed is 2.0 m

Assume, for Middle portionSection is Trapezoidal
5.

0+250 to 0+600

Design parameters
L-section channel(S)

= 1:80

Design discharge (Q)

= 3.00 m3/sec

Manning’s coefficient (N)

=0.025

Area (A)

=1.40 m2

Assume, for Upper Reach
Section is rectangle
Q

=A*V
=A*1/N*S ^½*R ^2/3

6|Page
=A*1/0.025*1/80^½*1.4/3.17^2/3
=1.4*40*1/80^½*0.44 ^2/3
=1.4*40*0.111*0.57
=3.54 m3/sec
= Hence safe O.K.
Existing river bed is 2.5m
6.

0+600 to 0+650

Design parameters
L-section channel(S)

= Steeps

Design discharge (Q)

= 3.00 m3/sec

Manning’s coefficient (N)

=0.025

Area (A)

=1.40 m2

5m length and one m depth eight cascade up to Kali Khola bed.
Perforated pipe and geo-textile used for lateral drain to channel.
A box culvert proposed for vehicle crossing.
Bio-engineering is suitable for sustainable protection of Nala.

7.
Discharge measurement (2070/9/2 and3) by surface floating and current meter
methods.
Discharge measurement of surface water of Kali Khola (U/S 60m and D/S 50m), surface flow
of Duhuni Khola and Spring water from new channel at confluence point.
1

60m U/S of Confluence point (Q) 1

=374.0 lps

2

50 D/S of Confluence point (Q) 2

=353.5 lps

3

Surface flow of Dhuhune Khola (Q) 3

=11.5 lps

4

Remaining spring flow (Q 1 -Q 2 -Q 3 )

=9.0 lps

7 % (silt and clay) noted in laboratory.

7|Page
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report
Summary of Cost of Structures
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.

S No
1

2

3

4

5

Name of Structures

Unit Quantity

E/w fillling in sinkholes in layer wise
and with well compaction all complete
all lead and lift and gabion protection in
No
deep section
Construction of Channel lining and bioengineering (650)m in Duhune Khola (
50m c/c joints).
No
Construction of Catch Drain in hill sides
of Khola to connected natural surfafe
drain (U/S and D/S ) 400m (50m c/c
No
joints)
Construction of Revetment for
protection of Kali Khola U/S 250 and
D/S 250 of Duhune confluence point.
Rm.
Construction of Bed bar in Kali khola to
protect further degradin of Khola Total
5 Nos, U/S 2 and D/S 2 of confluence of
Rm.
Dhuhune Khola

Rate

F/Y
2070-71

Amount

1.00

3,674,129

3,674,129

1.00

8,175,580

8,175,580

1.00

3,849,891

3,849,891

500.00

86,501

43,250,295

5.00

2,358,204

11,791,018

Total
Say NRs.

70,740,913
52,127,000.00

Remarks
Abstract of Cost
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Earth work excavation in (new trench openning and pluging springhole).

S No
1

2a

Details of work

Unit Quantity

E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel
mixed soils including disposal for 10m deep all
m3
lead and lift

Rate

Amount

3

134.34

136019.25
80% use
localmaterial

9767.25

80.00

781380.00

Making well compacted field by filling with ordinary
local soils in 15 cm thick layers and hand
compaction withsprinkling water all complete

20% use from
barrow pit

m3

4

5

6

1085.25

775.00

841068.75

m2

3

330.00

162.50

53625.00

Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x 150
mm. With two way double knot including cutting wire,
netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire 8 S.W.G. box
size =3x1.5x0.45 m
m2
Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate
boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at
proper place with all completed.
m3

918

272.91

250531.38

963.00

1621.50
1 Job
Total NRs.

1561504.50
50000.00

Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen
Embankment at proper place with all completed.

Dewatering of works

LS

Remarks

By excavator
1012.50

Making well compacted field by filling with ordinary
local soils in 15 cm thick layers and hand
compaction withsprinkling water all complete

m
2b

F.Y.
2070-71

3,674,129
Detailed Estimate
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Earth work excavation in (new trench openning and pluging springhole).
F/Y- 2070-71
S No

Details of work

No

1

E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed
soils including disposal for 10m deep all lead and
lift
Trench (West side of road)

2

Length

Breadth

Height

Quantity

Remarks

Making well compacted field by filling with ordinary
local soils in 15 cm thick layers and hand compaction
withsprinkling water all complete

1

3.75

9.00

3
1012.50 m

1

Trench
87 Nos sinlholes

30.00

30.00

3.75

9.00

1012.50
9840.00
3
10852.50 m

3

Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen
Embankment at proper place with all completed.

1
4

4

Supply of commercial 8 S.W.G.Gabion wire
Mesh wire 8 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.45 m =
13.05 m2 for protection of D/S steep slope
Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x 150
mm. With two way double knot including cutting wire,
netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire 8 S.W.G. box size
=3x1.5x0.75 m=15.75m2

10 Box

6

Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate
boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper
place with all completed.
Launching
Bank protection both sides
Base cascade

Dewatering

2
330.00 m

11.0

26.29 kg per box

50 Box
Total

5

30.00

31.00 kg per box
918 m2

2
2
2

10.00
350.00
50.00

4.50
1.50
3.00

0.45
0.75
0.45

40.50
787.50
135.00
3
963.00 m
L.S
Abstract of Cost
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Construction of Lining Channel 650mand Catchdrain 440 m

S No
1

2

3
4

Details of work
E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed
soils including disposal for all lead and lift
E/W in back filling with watering and compaction
layer by layer from all lead and lift all complete
Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen
Embankment at proper place with all completed.

Supply and fitting of 75mm dia HDPE pipe in
channel side 5m c/c, 30 cm above from bed level

Unit Quantity

F/Y
2070-71
Rate

Amount

m3

559.82

134.34

75,206.21

m

3

704.38

80.00

56,350.40

m2

2962.12

164.50

487,268.74

RM

11,861.01

86.27

137.48

5

Supply and stone solling

3

m

256.76

2251.13

472,737.30

6

RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all complete
Rinforcement steel bar all complete (Nominal
reinforcement in channel 40kg/ m3 ang for slab
1.5% kg/m3)
Supply and Wooden form works all complete
1:4 RRM works all complete
Dewatering of works durining construction of
works
Bioengineerg works (Bammboo 200 nos, Baish
1000 Nos and Vetever etc) all complete.
Site clearance all complete
Total NRs

m3

420.6

9522.00

3,504,096.00

Kg
m2
m3

9057.4
1459.8
63.6

112.49
568.74
8063.50

41,396.32
209,296.32
2,967,368.00

LS

1

100,000.00

LS
LS

1
1

200,000.00
50,000.00

7

8
9
10
11
12

8,175,580

Remarks
Detailed Estimate
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Construction of Lining Channel 650mand Catchdrain 440 m
S No
1

No

Details of work
E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel
mixed soils including disposal for all lead
and lift
U/S Channel
transition
Channel
Cutoff
Desilting basin
Brest wall
Channel
Culvert
Cutoff
Lauching appron

Length

1
1
1
2
1
10
1
1
1
1

Breadth

Height

0.60
0.30
0.30
0.60
0.60
1.50
0.30
1.50
0.60
0.45

4.00
1.80
100.00
4.25
2.30
3.25
550.00
1.80
4.25
4.50

0.30
3.00
1.80
0.50
2.30
1.50
2.30
5.00
0.50
15.00

1
1
1
15

100.00
20.00
550.00
3.25

1.50
35.20
3.70
1.50

2

215.686

2
1
1
2
2
2
4
1
1
1
2
2
2

4.00
4.25
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
100.00
2.30
550.00
100.00
500.00
50.00

0.30
0.30
0.30
5.50
1.05
1.00
0.30
1.80
2.30
2.30
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.36
0.19
0.18
6.60
1.26
1.20
0.18
27.00
0.79
189.75
4.50
22.50
2.25
256.76 m3

2
1
1
2

4.00
4.25
4.00
4.00

0.30
0.30
0.30
1.80

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.60

0.72
0.38
0.36
8.64

Total
2

E/W in back filling

3

Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of
Earthen Embankment at proper place with all
completed.
Channel side and bed
Khahare
Channel side and bed
Brest wall

4

5

6

Supply and fitting of 75mm dia HDPE pipe in
channel side 5m c/c, 30 cm above from bed
level
Stone solling
U/S Channel cutoff
Kharare cutoof
D/S at kali khola cutoff
Culvert foundation
Abutment
Slab (transition)
Parapet (one m extended)
Channel bed
Trench
Bed of large channel
Side wall

RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all
complete
U/S Channel cutoff
Kharare cutoff
D/S at kali khola cutoff
Culvert foundation

F/Y- 2070-71
Quantity Remarks

1/5 of E / W

0.72
1.62
54.00
2.55
3.17
73.12
379.50
13.50
1.27
30.37
559.82 m3
559.82 m3
704.38 m3

150.00
704.00
2035.00
73.12
2962.12 m2

0.20

86.27 RM.
Detailed Estimate
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Construction of Lining Channel 650mand Catchdrain 440 m
1
2
4
1
1
1
2
2
2

Slab
Parapet (one m extended)
Channel bed
Trench
Bed of large channel
Side wall

7

8

9

Rinforcement steel bar all complete (Nominal
reinforcement in channel 40kg/ m3 ang for
slab 1.5% kg/m3)
Slab
Channel
Total
Wooden form works
U/S Channel cutoff
Kharare cutoof
D/S at kali khola cutoff
Culvert foundation
Slab
Parapet (one m extended)
Channel bed
Trench
Bed of large channel
Side wall (inner side)
Side wall (inner side)
Side wall (inner side)
1:4 RRM works all complete
Abutment
Brest wall

10
11
12

Dewatering
Bio-engineerg works (Bammboo 200 nos,
Baish 1000 Nos and Vetever grass etc).
Site clearance all complete

4.00
4.00
1.00
100.00
2.30
550.00
100.00
500.00
50.00

5.50
0.30
0.30
1.80
2.30
2.30
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.75
1.00
0.80

F/Y- 2070-71
6.60
0.72
0.36
27.00
1.58
189.75
22.50
150.00
12.00
420.61 m3

777.15
8280.20
9057.35 Kg
4
2
2
2
1
4
4
2
1
2
2
2
2

4.00
4.25
4.00
11.60
4.60
6.00
1.00
100.00
4.60
550.00
100.00
500.00
50.00

2
15

1.05
0.53

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.60
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.75
1.00
0.80
4.00
3.25

LS

4.80
2.55
2.40
13.92
1.38
7.20
1.20
30.00
1.38
165.00
150.00
1000.00
80.00
1459.83 m2
25.20
38.39
63.59 m3
1.00 Job

LS
LS

1.00 Job
1.00 Job

3.00
1.50
Abstract of Cost
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.

Name of Work : Checkdam (Bedbar) across the Khola (50m)

F/Y

2070-71
S No
1

Details of work
E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed
wet soils including disposal for all lead and lift

Unit Quantity

m3

Rate

Amount

628.75

134.34

84466.27

2

E/W in back filling

m3

209.58

80.00

16766.66

3

Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen
Embankment at proper place with all completed.

m2

1205.00

162.50

195812.50

4

1:2:4 PCC works all complete

m3

80.32

9522.00

764807.04

5

Supply of Heavy 8 S.W.G.Gabion wire wiving all
complete
m2
Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate
boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper
place with all completed.
m3

2390

272.91

652254.90

232.50
434

1621.50
568.72

376998.75
247097.46

6

7
8
9

m2
Supply and Wooden form works all complete
Dewatering of works durining construction of
LS
works
LS
Site clearance all complete
Total NRs

1
1

10,000.00
10,000.00

10000.00
10000.00

2,358,204

Remarks
Detailed Estimate
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Check Dam (Bed Bar) across the Khola (50m)
F/Y- 2070-71
S No
1

2

3

3

4a

4b

5

No

Details of work

Length Breadth

E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel
mixed soils including disposal for all lead
and lift
Khola bed
1
50.00
1
50.00
U/S launching
1
50.00
D/S launching
Total
E/W in back filling with compaction in layer
1/ 3 of E / W
wise
1:2:4 PCC works all complete
Cutoff wall on 1st one m below
R/S and L/S
R/S and L/S

1
2
2

2
1

Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of
Earthen Embankment at proper place with all
completed.
U/S and D/s Launching

Supply of commercial 8 & 10 S.W.G.Gabion
wire
Mesh wire 8 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.45 m
= 13.05 m2
Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x
150 mm. With two way double knot including
cutting wire, netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire
10 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.75 m = 15.75
m2

50.00
3.00
2.00

2.75
4.50
4.50

3.10
0.45
0.45

Quantity Remarks

3
426.25 m
101.25
101.25
3
628.75 m
3
209.58 m

50.00
50.00

100.00 Box

Height

10.57
0.70
0.70

0.15
0.15
0.15

79.27
0.63
0.42
80.32 m3

10.50
3.10

1050.00
155.00
1205.00 m2

26.29 kg per box

68.89 Box

33.00

Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion
crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion
boxes at proper place with all completed.

2390 m2
U/S Launching
D/S Launching

50.00
50.00

4.50
4.50

0.45
0.45

101.25
101.25
202.50

Cutoff
Sub Total
6

1
1

1

50.00

1.50

3.10

232.50
232.50 m3

2
2
2
2
2

50
11
3
2
1

0.15
15.00
17.00
0.38
0.70

15
315
102
2
1
434 m2

Supply and Wooden form works all complete
Cut-off

7
8

Dewatering of works durining construction of
works
Site clearance all complete

LS
LS

1
1
Abstract of Cost
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.

Name of Work : Construction of Revetment for Kali Khola (Per m)

F/Y

2070-71
S No
1

Details of work
E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed
wet soils including disposal for all lead and lift

Unit Quantity

Rate

Amount

m3

6.30

134.34

846.34

3

2.10

80.00

168.00

2

E/W in back filling

3

Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen
Embankment at proper place with all completed.
m2
Supply of commercial 8 S.W.G.Gabion wire wiving all
complete
m2
Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate
boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper
place with all completed.
m3

14.50

162.50

2356.25

148.92

272.91

40641.15

24.97

1621.50

40488.85

Dewatering of works durining construction of
LS
works
LS
Site clearance all complete
Total NRs

1
1

1000.00
1000.00

1000.00
1000.00
86,500.59

4
5

6
7

m

Remarks
Detailed Estimate
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Construction of Revetment for Kali Khola Both sides (Per m)
F/Y- 2070-71
S No
1

2

3

Details of work

No

Length

E/W in excavation for foundation in
gravel mixed soils including disposal
for all lead and lift
Khola bed both sides
2
4.50
6
1.00
Revetment wall layer
Total
E/W in back filling with compaction in
1/ 3 of E / W
layer wise
Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of
Earthen Embankment at proper place with
all completed.
U/S and D/s Launching

2
2

Supply of commercial 8 & 10
S.W.G.Gabion wire
Mesh wire 8 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x
0.45 m = 13.05 m2

4b

Making rectangular gabion box mesh size
150 x 150 mm. With two way double knot
including cutting wire, netting etc. all
complete. Mesh wire 10 S.W.G.Box size
3m x 1.5m x 0.75 m = 15.75 m2

2.00 Box

5

Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in
Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening
the gabion boxes at proper place with all
completed.

Launching both sides

6
7

Wall both sides
Sub Total
Dewatering of works durining
LS
construction of works
LS
Site clearance all complete

149 m2
2
6

1.00
0.50

0.45
0.75

1.00
1.00

26.29 kg per bo

33.00

3
4.05 m
2.25
3
6.30 m

9.00
5.50
14.50 m2

236.54
236.54 Kg

66 box

4.50

4.50

0.45

1.00

1.50

0.75

1
1

Quantity Remarks

3
2.10 m

4.50
2.75

9.00 Box

4a

Breadth Height

18.22
6.75
6.75 m3
Abstract of Cost
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Construction of Catch Drain 400 m

S No
Details of work
Unit Quantity
1 E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel
mixed soils including disposal for all lead and
m3
300.00
lift
2 E/W in back filling with watering and
compaction layer by layer from all lead and lift
m3
60.00
all complete
3
RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all complete
m3
90.0
4 Rinforcement steel bar all complete (Nominal
Kg
1800.0
reinforcement in channel 40kg/ m3
5
Supply and Wooden form works all complete
m2
840.0
LS
1
6 Site clearance all complete
Total NRs

F/Y
2070-71

Rate

Amount

134.34

40,302.00

80.00

4,800.00

9522.00

3,504,096.00

112.49

41,396.32

568.74

209,296.32
50,000.00

3,849,891

Remarks
Detailed Estimate
Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski.
Name of Work : Construction of Catch Drain 400 m
F/Y- 2070-71
S No
1

2
3

4
5

6

Details of work

No

Length Breadth Height

E/W in excavation for foundation in
gravel mixed soils including disposal for
all lead and lift
1
400.00
Catch drain (average)
Total
E/W in back filling
1/5 of E / W
RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all
complete
1
400.00
Catch drain (.4+.7+.4)
Reinforcement steelbar 20kg/m3
Wooden form works
Catch drain

Site clearance all complete

2
2

400.00
400.00

Quantity Remarks

1.25

0.60

300.00
3
300.00 m
3
60.00 m

1.50

0.15

90.00
3
90.00 m
1800.00 Kg

0.65
0.40
LS

520.00
320.00
840.00 m2
1.00 Job

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Nepal pokhara armala sinkhole investigation final-report

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  • 2. wGojfb 1fkg o; cWoog sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g] ;a}nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb lbG5f} . laz]if u/L ;e]{ tyf gS;f tof/L ug{ ;xof]u ug'{ x'g] hn pTkGg k|sf]k lgoGq0f laefusf ;a OlGhlgo/ >L ;Gtf]if cof{nnfO{ wGojfb lbG5f}+ . cd{nf k|sf]k lkl8t ;/f]sf/ ;ldlt tyf :yflgoaf;Lx?n] cWoogsf] qmddf ug'{ ePsf] ;xof]u tyf ;'rgf pknAw u/fpg' ePsf]df cfef/ AoSt ub{5f}+ . l;+rfO ljefusf dxflgb]{zs >L lzj s'df/ zdf{, hn pTkGg k|sf]k lgoGq0f ljefusf dxflgb]{zs >L k|bLk /fh kf08] tyf vfgL tyf e" –ue{ laefusf dxflgb]{zs >L ;j{lht k|;fb dxtf] k|lt ;|f]t ;fwg pknAw u/fO{lbg' ePsf]df cfef/ AoQm ub{5f}+ . lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt sf:sLsf sd{rf/Lx?af6 k|fKt ;xof]usf] nflu klg xfdL wGojfb lbG5f}+ . – cWoog ;ldlt i|Page
  • 3. ljifo ;'rL efu ! M kl/ro ! !=! k[i7e"ld !=!=! ul7t ;ldlt !=!=@ sfof{b]z !=!=# sfof{jlw !=@ h}d'/] kmfF6sf] cjl:ytL / ;d:of klxrfg !=@=! kfgLsf] l/rfh{ cj:yf !=@=@ k|fs[lts jxfj /f]lsg'sf sf/0f efu @ M cWoog ljlWf @=! @=@ @=# @=$ 5nkmn pknJw ;+Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f :ynut lgl/If0f cWoogsf] l;ldttf ! ! ! ! @ # $ & & & & * efu # M ljutsf cWoog ( efu $ M xfnsf] cj:yf !! $=! :yfgLo hgtfsf] ck]Iff / u'gf;f] !! $=@ Ifltsf] ljj/0f !! $=# :yfgLo :t/df ;d:ofsf] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ePsf k|of;x? !@ efu % M EjfË kg{'sf sf/0fx/m %=! ef}ule{s sf/0f %=@ e"–/f;folgs sf/0f " %=# lhof]6]lSgsn sf/0f efu ^ M /f]syfdsf pkfox? tyf nfutsf] cg'dfg ^=! lgisif{ ^=@ tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? / nfut cg'dfg ^=@=! tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? ^=@=@ nfut cg'dfg ^=# eljiodf ul/g'kg]{ sfo{x? Pg]S; ! Pg]S; @ Pg]S; # ii | P a g e !# !# !% !% !& !& !& !* !(
  • 4. efu ! kl/ro !=! k[i7e"ld sf:sL lhNnf cd{nf uflj; j8f gDa/ ! l:yt h}d'/] kmfF6df ePsf] a:tL ;d]tdf hldg efl;Psf] ;Gbe{df dGqLkl/ifbsf ;DdfggLo cWoIf Ho"af6 lgb{]zg eP cg';f/ u[x dGqfnosf ;lrj >L hgfb{g g]kfn Ho" / l;+rfO{ dGqfnosf ;lrj >L k|tfks'df/ kf7s Ho" ;d]tsf] pkl:yltdf ldlt @)&)÷*÷@$ ut] u[x dGqfnodf a;]sf] a}7sn] k|efljt If]qsf] cWoog ul/ /f]syfd clNks/0f Pj+ Go"lgs/0fsf] ljifodf lzkmfl/; ug{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf] sfof{b]z ;lxt Ps ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5 . !=!=! ul7t ;ldlt != >L /d]z uf}td, cfof]hgf k|d'v, e"ldut hn l;+rfO{ cfof]hgf, l;+rfO{ ljefu ;+of]hs @= 8f= /fh]Gb| e08f/L, l;lgo/ l8lehgn xfO8«f]lhof]nf]lhi6, l;+rfO{ ljefu ;b:o #= >L nLnfgfy l/dfn, l;lgo/ l8lehgn lhof]nf]lhi6, vfgL tyf e"–ue{ ljefu ;b:o $= >L s'zngGbg kf]v/]n, l;lgo/ l8lehgn lhof]nf]lhi6, vfgL tyf e"–ue{ ljefu ;b:o %= >L >Lsdn låj]bL, , l;=l8= O= lh=, hnpTkGg k|sf]k lgoGq0f ljefu ;b:o ^= >L a;Gt /fHf kf}8]n, l;= l8= O=, l;+rfO ljefu ;b:o &= >L O{Zj/ /fHf kf}8]n :yfgLo, ljsf; clwsf/L, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfof{no, sf:sL, kf]v/f ;b:o–;lrj pNn]lvt ;ldltsf] ;lrjfno If]qLo l;+rfO{ lgb{]zgfno, kfbL{ sf:sL, kf]v/fdf /xg]5 . !=!=@ sfof{b]z != cd{nf uflj;sf] pQm k|efljt If]qsf] hf]lvd /f]syfd / Go"lgs/0fsf tfTsflns pkfox? lzkmfl/; ug{], @= hf]lvdsf If]q klxrfg ul/ ;f] If]qdf lgif]w ug{'kg{] sfo{x? lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt, sf:sL kf]v/fdf lzkmfl/; ug{], #= k|fljlws cWoog ul/ tTsfn ug{'kg]{ sfo{x?sf] nfut cg'dfg lzkmfl/; ug{], $= lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt;Fusf] ;dGjodf :yfgLo ;d'bfo;Fu cGtl/qmof ul/ hfgsf/L u/fpg], %= hf]lvdsf If]qsf] b'|t kl/If0f ul/ lj:t[t ?kdf kl/If0f ug{sf nflu lzkmfl/; ug{] . !=!=# sfof{jlw ;ldltsf] tf]s]sf] sfof{b]z k'/f ug{ sfof{ljlw sfof{/De u/]sf] ldltn] #) lbgsf] x'g]5 . 1|Page
  • 5. !=@ h}d'/] kmfF6sf] cjl:ytL / ;d:of klxrfg h}d'/] kmfF6 sf:sL lhNnfsf] s]Gb| kf]v/faf6 pQ/tkm{ ko{6sLo uGtJo dx]Gb|u'kmf b]vL k"jf{]Q/ pQ/ blIf0f km}lnPsf] ;fgf] cd{nf pkTosfdf cjl:yt 5 . of] :yfg cd{nf uf=lj=;= sf] j8f g+ ! df kb{5 h'g kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= !^ ;Fu l;df hf]l8Psf] 5 . cd{nfsf] 7"nLj];L kmfF6 leqsf] h}d'/] kmfF6 kf]v/fsf] s]Gb|af6 hDdf * ls=dL= sf] b'/Ldf kSsL ;8sn] hf]l8Psf] 5 -lrq !=!_ . h}d'/] kmfF6sf] ef}uf]nLs l:ylt x]bf{ ljr efudf cGo efusf] t'ngfdf cln ulx/f] 5, hxfF klxn] ;j}lt/sf]] kfgL] hDdf x'g] / k|fs[lts ?kd} b'x'gL vf]nf eO{ sfnL vf]nfdf lgsf; x'g] uYof]{ . :yfgLoaf;Lsf] egfO{ cg';f/ @)&) sflQs @# ut]af6 sd]/] ;]tf]df6f] ;lxtsf] kfgL d"n km'l6 sflnvf]nfdf ldl;g] qmd rln/xFbf d+l;/ # ut]af6 h}d'/] kmfF6sf] ;txdf j[Qfsf/ EjfË (Sinkhole) x? kg{ ;'? eO{ qmdzM EjfËx?sf] ;+Vof / cfsf/ a9b} uof] . d+l;/ !) ut]af6 d+l;/ @) ut] ;Ddsf] cjlwdf ;a}eGbf al9 ;+Vofdf EjfË k/] . of] k|ltj]bgsf] tof/L ldlt;Dddf ;f] If]qdf em08} ;osf] ;+Vofdf EjfË k/]sf 5g . b'x'gL vf]nf cf;kf; /x]sf EjfËx?sf] cfsf/ qmdzM 7'nf] x'Fb} EjfËx? Pscfk;df hf]l8g k'u]sf] cj:yf 5 . :yfgLoafl;s} egfO{ cg';f/ b'x'gL vf]nfsf] lz/tkm{ xfn k/]sf] klxnf] EjfË eGbf pQ/k"j{ sl/a @ ;o ld6/sf] b'/Ldf @)@) / @)^# ;fnlt/ klg EjfËx? k/]sf lyP -lrq !=@_ . sf:sL lhNnf gS;f lrq !=! M h}d'/] kmfF6, cd{nf uf =lj= ;=, sf:sLsf] Nff]s];g gS;f . 2|Page
  • 6. lrq !=@ M h}d'/] kmfF6df k/]sf EjfËx? / cGo hfgsf/L ;lxtsf] gSzf . !=@=! kfgLsf] l/rfh{ (Recharge) cj:yf  7"nLj];L kmfF6nfO{ tLglt/af6 cUnf kxf8n] 3]/]sf]n] hnfwf/ If]q kmfF6 If]qsf] t'ngfdf cToflws a9L 5 . of] If]q g]kfns} clws jif{f x'g] :yfGf xf] -6]an !=!_ , h;sf] sf/0f jif{ftsf] kfgL h}d'/]kmfF6df l/rfh{ e}/x]sf] 5 .  b'x'gL vf]nf jif}{e/L kfgL x'g] / :s"n -ZfflGt pRr df= lj=_ glhsaf6 e"ldut eO{ h}d'/] kmfF6nfO{ ;w}+ l/rfh{ u5{ .  h}d'/] kmfF6 j/Lk/Lsf] kxf8sf] km]bLdf b]lvPsf kfgLsf d"nx?n] klg h}d'/] kmfF6nfO{ l/rfh{ ul//x]sf 5g .  h}d'/] kmfF6sf] pQ/k"j{ tkm{ unf{¨ vf]nf af6 klg l/rfh{ e}/x]sf] 5 .  h}d'/] kmfF6df wfg v]tL ug]{ ePsfn] uXfx?df kfgL hld/xg] x'Fbf ToxfFaf6 klg l/rfh{ x'G5 . lautdf ePsf v]tsf ;fgf ;fgf uXfx?nfO{ 7"nf] agfPsfn] ubf{ Topsoil Psflt/ kftnf] x'g uO{ To; 7fpFaf6 a9L dfqfdf kfgL l/rf{h ePsf] kfOof] . dfly pNn]lvt >f]t tyf :yfgaf6 h}d'/]sf] ulx/f] efudf kfgL hDdf eO{ b'x'gL vf]nfaf6 sflnvf]nfdf lgsf; x'g] uYof]{ . xfn Tof] k|fs[lts jxfj /f]lsPsf] 5 . 3|Page
  • 7. 6]an !=! M kf]v/f :6]zgdf ut # aif{sf] clk|n b]lv cS6f]a/;Dd dfkg ul/Psf] jif{ftsf] clen]v . jif{dlxgf @)!! @)!@ @)!# clk|n %^=* !@*=* $) d] @*#=$ !*#=@ @&$ h'g $^@=$ $^)=^ @$#=* h'nfO{ !)@@=* *^)=^ *^$=^ cui6 %^) ^%(=$ %!(=@ ;]K6]Da/ %*)=$ *^)=^ ###=$ cS6f]a/ &(=@ @@&=^ @!$ hDdf #)$(=@ ##*)=* @$*( ->f]t M www.hydrology.gov.np, :6]zg M kf]v/f ._ !=@=@ k|fs[lts jxfj /f]lsg'sf sf/0f  Xo'dkfO{k sNe{6 jgfpg] qmddf b'x'gL vf]nfsf] jxfa ;tx (bed level) dfly p7g' .  v]tL tyf j;f]jf;sf nflu :yfgLo hgtfn] cltqmd0f ubf{ b'x'gL vf]nf k'l/g hfg' .  b'x'gL vf]nf k'l/+bf h}d'/] kmfF6df hDdf ePsf] kfgL ;'/lIft ?kn] ;txL tyf e"ldut /mkdf lgsf; x'g gkfpg' . o;/L xfn EjfË k/]sf] If]qdf kl5Nnf] bzsdf dfgj a:tL b|'t ultdf ljsf; x'Fb} uPsf] b]lvG5 . kf]v/f gu/sf] vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{sf] kfgLsf] kfOk ;f]lx If]qaf6 nluPsf] 5 . xfn ldlt @)&)÷(÷@@ ut] a]n'sL ;f] kfO{k klg km'6g uPsf] 5 . ;fy;fy} ;f] If]q zx/Ls/0f x'g] qmddf vfg]kfgL, lah'nL, kSsL ;8s nufotsf k"jf{wf/x? lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 . EjfË k/]sf] sf/0f oL k"jf{wf/x?df c;/ kg{ uPsf] 5 . 3/a:tL glhs tyf v]ltof]Uo hdLg EjfË kl/ hdLg efl;Psf] sf/0f :yfgLoaf;Ldf 8/qf;sf] cj:yf ;fy} ;du| kf]v/faf;Lsf] g} sf}t'xntf / lrGtfsf] ljifo aGg uPsf] 5 . ef}ule{s b[li6sf]0fn] cd{nf If]qsf] agf]6 ;txdf @) b]lv %) ;]lG6ld6/;Ddsf] df]6fO{sf] dlnnf] df6f]sf] tx, To;eGbf tn @ b]lv $ ld6/;Ddsf] u]u|]g / To;eGbf klg d'lg # b]lv !@ ld6/eGbf al9sf] r'go'Qm l;N6 -sd]/f] df6f]_ sf] tx /x]sf] 5 . u]u|]gsf] txaf6 kfgL ;lhn} l5g{ ;S5 / e"ldut hnk|jfx x'Gf] k|s[ltsf] 5 eg] tNnf] r'go'Qm sd]/] df6f] kfgLdf 3'nglzn k|s[ltsf] 5 . b'x'gL vf]nfsf] kfgL ;txaf6 aUg gkfO{ dflyNnf] ;txaf6 l5b{} tNnf] sd]/] df6f] sf6b} leqleq} kfgLsf kf]v/Lx? aGg] qmd ;'?d} e"ldut ?kdf ePsf] lqmofk|ltlqmofsf sf/0f kfgL] e"ldut ?kdf ;]tf] sd]/f] df6f] ;lxt aUg hfFbf sfnLvf]nf xfn ;]tLgbL h:tf] x'g uPsf] xf] . ljutdf b'x'gL vf]nfsf] k|fs[lts jxfj If]q % b]lv @) ld6/;Dd rf}8fO{ /x]sf] lyof] / tNnf] If]qdf ulxl/P/ aUg] ub{Yof] . xfn b'x'gL vf]nf cltqmd0fsf sf/0f axfj If]qsf] rf}8fO{ If]q # ld6/eGbf sd / sltko If]qdf jxfj If]q g} klxrfg ug{ g;lsg] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 . To;}ul/ vfg]kfgL laR5ofpg] tyf ;8s agfpg] qmddf Uofljog jfn (Gabion wall) nufO{ b'x'gL vf]nfsf] k|fs[lts ;txaf6 sl/a % ld6/ dfly prfO{df Xo'd kfO{k sNe6{ (Hume pipe culvert) agfOPsf] 5 . h;sf sf/0f k|fs[lts ?kdf ;txaf6 lgsf; eO{ sfnLvf]nfdf ldl;g' kg{] kfgL e"ldut ?kdf k|jfx x'g uPsf]n] e"ldut hn>f]tsf] ;tx (groundwater table) a9g uof] . 4|Page
  • 8. :yfgLaf;Lsf cg';f/ afF;v]t If]qdf klg Toxf“ /x]sf k|fs[lts v]fN;Lx?af6 sl/a !% jif{cl3;Dd kfgL aUg] ub{y] . xfn tL k|fs[lts vf]N;Lx? k"0f{ ?kdf cltqmldt eO{ v]t agfO{Psf 5g . o; If]qaf6 klg ;txL ?kdf aUg'kg{] kfgLsf] k|jfx cj?4 ePkl5 ;f] kfgL e"ldut k|jfxdf ldl;g uO{ e"ldut kfgLsf] rfk (pore water pressure) a9g uof] . b'x'gL vf]nf / sfnLvf]nfsf] bf]efg If]qdf ljut @ jif{df @=!@ ld6/ ;tx ulxl/g uPsf] 5 . ;fy;fy} sfnLvf]nf klZrdlt/ s6fg ub{} sl/a !) jif{df $% ld6/ klZrdlt/ ;/]sf] 5 . oL sf/0fn] ubf{ ;f] kmfF6df /x]sf] e"ldut hnsf] rfk a9g uof] / lgsf; glhlsFb} hfFbf ;]tf] r'go'Qm sd]/] df6f] ;lxtsf] d"n km'6g uO{ kfgLsf] lgsf; x'g yfNof] -lrq !=#_ . kfgLsf] lgsf; x'g yfn]kl5 e"–IfoLs/0f ;Fu;Fu} e"ldut ;'?ª aGb} r'go'Qm sd]/] df6f]sf] n]bf] ;lxt e"ldut kfgLsf] rfk qmdzM sd xF'Fb} hfFbf hldg d'lg /x]sf 9fF8 eGbf dflysf] hdLgsf] ef/jxg Ifdtf sd x'g uO{ ;txdf EjfË kg{ yfNof] . 5|Page
  • 9. -lgnf] P/f]n] l/rfh{ x'g] If]œf, kx]nf] P/f]n] b'x'gL vf]nf / /ftf] P/f]n] d'n km'6]sf] :yfg b]vfPsf] 5 ._ lrq !=# M h}d'/] kmfF6, cd{nfsf] u'un gSZff / ;]tf] Nf]bf] ;lxt d"n km'6]sf] :yfg . 6|Page
  • 10. efu @ cWoog ljlWf @=! 5nkmn cWoog 6f]nLsf ;b:ox?, :yfgLo / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;“u 5nkmn u/L ljleGg hfgsf/L xfl;n u/]sf] . @=@ pknJw ;+Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f ;Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx? h:t} M xjfO{ kmf]6f], :of6]nfO{6 Od]h, 6f]kf]u|flkmsn gS;fx?, ef}ule{s gS;f tyf k|ltj]bg, aiff{t ;DalGw clen]v, u'unkmf]6f] cflb . @=# :ynut lgl/If0f :ynut lgl/If0f cWoogsf] ;dfojlw leq ljleGg r/0fdf k|efljt If]q / cf;kf;sf] :ynut lgl/If0f u/L ljleGg k|sf/sf tYo tyf tYofÍx? ;+sng ul/of] . :ynut lgl/If0faf6 lgDgfg';f/sf] tYofÍ ;+sng ul/Psf] lyof] . != ef}u{le{s tYox? ;+sng ul/Psf] . @= cd{nf h}d'/] If]qsf] ;txL If]qaf6 kfgLsf] l/rfh{ x'g] :yfgsf] klxrfg ul/ gSzf+sg ul/Psf] . #= EjfËx? k/]sf] :yfgsf] lh=lk=P;= $= EjfËx?sf] k|s[ltsf] ljj/0f ;+sng ul/Psf] . %= ;]l8d]G6 ^= h}d'/] kmfF6df l5g]{ kfgL ^= h}d'/] kmfF6af6 lgsf; x'g] kfgL &= sfnLvf]nf / b'x'gLvf]nfsf] n]en ;e]{ *= sfnLvf]nfsf] Pn ;]Szgsf] (= sfnL vf]nfdf b'x'gL vf]nf gldl;+b} Upstream %) dL= df, b'x'gL vf]nf ldl;Pkl5 Downstream %) dL tn, b'x'gL vf]nfdf xfnsf] ;txdf ju]sf] kfgL / e"ldut d'njf6 lg:sLPsf] sd]/f] ;lxtsf] kfgL ul/ $ -rf/_ 7f“psf] kfgLsf] axfj dfkg ul/Psf] . 7|Page (sediment) (GPS) nf]s];g ul/Psf] . x?sf] gd"gf ;+sng ul/Psf] . (Input) sf] dfqfsf] dfkg ul/Psf] . (Output) sf] dfqfsf] dfkg ul/Psf] . (level survey) ul/Psf] (L-section) !))) dL= sf] . Fly level ;e]{ ul/Psf] .
  • 11. !)= b'x'gLvf]nfsf] s|; ;]Szg !!= h}d'/] kmfF6df k/]sf EjfË= -vfN8f_ x?sf] dfk lnOPsf]] . !@= k|efljt 3/, ;8s tyf v]ltof]Uo hldgsf] cjnf]sg ul/Psf] . (cross-section) tyf Pn ;]Szg ;j]{If0f ul/Psf] . cd{nf If]qdf EjfËx? kg{sf ;Defljt sf/0fx/m kQf nufpgsf] lgldQ ;+sng ul/Psf ;Dk"0f{ tYofÍx?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f ul/of] . To;} u/L lgdf{0f k|of]hgsf nflu b//]6 ljZn]if0f ;lxt cfjZos ;+/rgf l8hfOg ul/of] . @=$ cWoogsf] l;ldttf (Limitation of Study) of] cWoog b|'t kl/If0f, hf]lvd /f]syfd / Go"lgs/0fsf nflu tTsflns pkfox? kQf nufO{ lj:t[t kl/If0f ug{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy ePsf] xf] . t;y{ ;do, jh]6 / >f]t ;fwgsf] l;ldttf leq /lx k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . lj:t[t cWoogsf nflu cfjZos l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 . 8|Page
  • 12. efu # ljutsf cWoog kf]v/f pkTosfsf] pTkQL / o;sf] ef}ule{s agf]6 ;DaGwdf l:j; e"ueljb :j=6f]lg Xofug-;g !(^(_sf cg';f/ of] pkTosf klxn] Pp6f tfnsf] ?kdf /xsf] / cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6 cfPsf] 8]la|; (debris) n] el/g uO{ xfnsf] cj:yf jGg uPsf] xf] / Tof] tfnsf] cjz]ifsf] ?kdf xfn;Dd kf]v/fdf /x]sf tfnx? Tolx 7"nf] tfnsf] s]lx efu xf] . e'uf]nljb 8f= xs{ u'?Ësf] -;g !(^%_egfO{df rfFxL To:tf] tfn ge} k[YjLdf xnrn x'g] qmddf of] pkTosf aGof] / kl5 cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6 cfPsf] ;]l8d]G6n] el/P/ clxn]sf] cj:yf aGof] . oL dflysf egfO{ kl5sf cWoogstf{x? h:t} xd{g -;g !(&$_ odfgfsf -;g !(*@_ / Pd kmf]6{ -;g !(*&_ n] kf]v/f pkTosfsf] lj:t[t cWoog u/L ljutdf 7"nf] tfn g/x]sf] t/ o; pkTosfdf cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6 ;]tL gbLsf] af6f] eP/ ljleGg ;dodf 8]lj|; cfPsf] / o;/L 8]lj|; cfpFbf ;]tL gbLdf ldl;g cfpg] ;fgf vf]nfx? h:t} sfnL vf]nf, km';|] vf]nf, ljhok'/ vf]nf, xk{g, ofªbL tyf dlb{vf]nf / cGo zfvf vf]nfx?nfO{ y'g]sf] / ToxfF ;fgf tfnx? aGg uPsf] elgPsf] 5 . oL ;fgf tfnx? ePsf] eGg] a'‰g xfn ;Dd klg ePsf] km]jftfn, j]ugf;tfn, ?kftfn / cGo ;fgf tfnx? nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . sfnLvf]nf / cGo zfvf vf]nfx?sf] lsgf/df b]lvg] v}/f] /+usf] dl;gf] / clt g/d df6f]sf] cWoogaf6 klg pQm df6f] tnfpdf hd]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 . of] v}/f] df6f] ef}ule{s lx;fan] kl/If0f ubf{ Sn]O{ l;N6 (Clayey silt) b]lvG5 eg] o:sf] /f;folgs agf]6 sfaf]{g]6 cyf{t r'go'Qm 5 . oL dfly elgPsf ;fgf tfnx? sl/a %)) b]vL @),))) xhf/ jif{ klxnf ag]sf] xfn ;Ddsf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . kf]v/f pkTosfsf] s]lx :yfgx? h:t} x]Dhfj]zL, nfrf]s 3frf]s, lrKn]9'Ëf cf;kf;, dx]Gb|u'kmf cf;kf; / 5f]/]kf6g If]qsf] hldgdf ljutdf s]lx :yfgdf EjfË kg]{ u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 / ;fsf sf/0f :yflgo jfl;Gbfdf kf]v/fdf EjfË k5{ eGg] s'/f 1fg ePs} ljifo xf] . ef}ule{s ;"rgfsf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df ;b'kof]u xf]; eGg] wf/0ffn] ;g !((* df hd{g ;/sf/ / g]kfn ;/sf/, vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefusf] ;+o"Qm k|of;df kf]v/f pkTosfsf] ef}ule{s cWoog ul/Psf] lyof] . :ynut cWoogaf6 ;+slnt tYofÍx? tyf k|of]uzfnfaf6 k|fKt tYox?nfO{ ;dfj]z u/]/ kf]v/fsf] hf]lvdo'Qm If]q (Hazard prone area) nfO{ gS;fsg u/L !M%),))) dfgsf] Engineering and Environmental Geological Map of Pokhara Valley gfdsf] /+lug gS;f k|sfzg u/L ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ ;xh} pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 -lrq #=!) . pQm gS;fdf ;+efljt EjfË kg{ ;Sg] If]q, klx/f] hfg ;Sg] If]q tyf gbL lsgf/fdf afl9 tyf klx/f] uO{ hf]lvd x'g ;Sg] If]qsf] ;d]t l;df+sg ul/Psf] 5 . pQm gSzfdf xfn}dfq EjfË kg{ ;Sg] ;d:of b]lvPsf] cd{nf uf=lj=;=j8f g+= ! h}d'/] If]q cf;kf; klg j:tL ljsf;sf] nflu pko'Qm 7fpF xf]Og egL olsg ul/Psf] lyof] . of] If]q l;d;f/ h:tf] b]lvg] wflknf] / hldgsf] ef/ jxg Ifdtf klg cToGt Go"g ePsf] hfgsf/L e"–OlGhlgol/ª gS;fdf k|:6 b]vfOPsf] 5 . o;/L pQm If]qdf j:tL ljsf;sf] qmd x]bf{ ;g 9|Page
  • 13. !(&(, !((! / !((^ df lvlrPsf xjfO{ kmf]6f]sf] cWoog af6 ;f] ;do ;Dd vf;} j:tL ljsf; ePsf] b]lv+b}g . ;g !((* df e"–OlGhlgol/ª gS;f tof/ ubf{ klg vx/] vf]nf 5]p5fp hxfF xfn hldgdf crfgs EjfËx? ag] s'g} 3/x? ag]sf lyPgg . cd{nf lrq #=!M vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefun] ;g !((* df tof/ kf/]sf] kf]v/fsf] e"–OlGhlgol/ª gSZffsf] s]lx c+z . 10 | P a g e
  • 14. efu $ xfnsf] cj:yf $=! :yfgLo hgtfsf] ck]Iff / u'gf;f] cd{nf 7"nLj];L hf]uLd0fL -h}d/]_ kmfF6df :yfgLox?sf] b}lgs h:tf] j}7s j:g], 5nkmn ug]{, :yfgLo k|zf;g ;“u ;dGjo / ;xsfo{df tTsfn ;+jf]wg ug'{kg]{ sfo{x?sf jf/]df ;Nnfx lng] nufotsf sfo{ ePsf 5g . oBkL :yfgLo hgtfsf] dfux? u'gf;f]x? d"ntM b]xfo jdf]lhdsf 5g . -s_ -v_ -u_ -3_ -ª_ -r_ -5_ -h_ -em_ vx/] -b'x'gL_ vf]nfsf] kfgLsf] :yfoL lgsf; sfo{ ug'{kg]{ . sfnLvf]nfdf r]s 8ofdsf] lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ . j}slNks ;8s tof/ ug'{kg]{ . kf]v/f pkTosfdf nluPsf] vfg]kfgLsf] kfOknfO{g :yfgfGt/ jf ;'/Iff ug'{kg]{ . ljB't÷6]nLkmf]g kf]n÷tf/÷nfOg :yfgfGt/0f ug'{kg]{ . kLr jf6f] agfpFbf lgdf{0f ePsf] Xo'd kfOk sNe6{sf] :yfgdf kSsL k'n jgfpg' kg]{ . hf]lvdk"0f{ hUuf ÷3/ kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt pknAw u/fpg' kg]{ . cNksflng / bL3{sflng pkfox? ;lxtsf of]hgfx? sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg'kg]{ . dx]Gb|u'kmf–sfnfd'8f u|fld0f ;8s lkr ubf{ nfu]sf] vr{sf] e'QmfgL x'g jfFsL /sdsf] Aoj:yf x'g' kg]{ . $=@ Ifltsf] ljj/0f cf+lzs 3/ Iflt eO{ lj:yflkt ePsf v]t 3/ Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf eO{ lj:yflkt ePsf / wfg v]t Ejf+u kl/ hUufdf c;/ k/]sf hUufwgLsf] gfd -6]jn $=@++=! / $=@++=@_ df / pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/ -6]jn $=@=#_ df pNn]v eP adf]lhd 5 . h; cg';f/ xfn ;Dd wfg v]t EjfË kl/ hUufdf c;/ k/]sf hUufwgLx? #) hgf /x]sf 5g . 6]an $=@=! M cf+lzs 3/ IftL eO{ lj:yflkt ePsf 3/d'nL / kl/jf/ ;+Vof . ef8fdf j:g]sf] qm=;+= 3/d'nLsf] gfd kl/jf/ ;+Vof s}lkmot gfd s'De l;+ -o; axfb'/_ bdfO{ xfn 6]s axfb'/ eGg] ! !# ;/]sf] o'=s]= yf]s axfb'/ g]kfnL @ $ lxdnfn cfrfo{ cfkm}{ # % ;/]sf] led axfb'/ sfsL{ cfkm}{ $ $ ;/]sf] e'k]Gb| cfrfo{ cfkm}{ @^ hDdf 11 | P a g e
  • 15. 6]an $=@M@ M pRr hf]lvdsf sf/0f 3/ IftL x'g] ;Defjgf eO{ lj:tflkt ePsf 3/ kl/jf/ ;+Vof . qm=;+= ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( !) !! 3/d'nLsf] gfd /fh' tdfË -xfn o'=s]=_ jn/fd cfrfo{ lty{ axfb'/ tdfË s'df/ 5Gt]n k"0f{ axfb'/ lj=s= 3gZofd cfrfo{ /fwLsf kf}8]n eO{ >L ;fsL{ plbd axfb'/ u'?Ë lty{ axfb'/ lj=s= ltn axfb'/ lj=s= ef8fdf j:g]sf] gfd r'g axfb'/ tdfË /lj tdfË cfkm} cfkm} cfkm} cfkm} ef8fdf a:g] cfkm} cfkm} cfkm} cfkm} kl/jf/ ;+Vof s}lkmot * ;/]sf] $ ;/]sf] & hfg]÷cfpg] $ ;/]sf] % hfg]÷cfpg] % hfg]÷cfpg] !) ;/]sf] $ ;/]sf] & hfg]÷cfpg] % hfg]÷cfpg] $ hfg]÷cfpg] ^# hDdf 6]an $=@=# M ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/ pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf] ljj/0f . qm=;+= ! @ # $ k"jf{wf/sf] gfd dx]Gb|u'kmf sfnfd'8f u|f=;= vfg]kfgL nfO{g -kf]v/f vfg]kfgL ljB't nfO{g 6]lnkmf]g nfO{g ljj/0f s}lkmot pRr hf]lvddf #)) ld= #)) ld= #)) ld= #)) ld= $=# :yfgLo :t/df ;d:ofsf] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ePsf k|of;x?        k|efljt If]qsf] lgl/If0f . :yfgLox?;+u 5nkmn . k|efljt If]qsf] klxrfg / ;+s]t . lhNnf ljkb Aoj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7s . Ifltsf] ljj/0f nut tof/L . :yfgLox?nfO{ ;"lrt ug]{ Pj+ ;fjwfgLsf pkfox?sf] hfgsf/L . ljkbsf] d"n sf/0f klxrfg ug{ lj1x?af6 k|f/lDes cWoog sfo{ ;DkGg e} k|f/lDes k|ltj]bg k|fKt .  ;f]xL k|ltj]bgsf cfwf/df] b'x'gL vf]nfsf] jxfj If]q sfod x'g] u/L Excavation u/L kfgLsf] lgsf; lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] .  Ifltsf] ljj/0f ;lxtsf] nut Pj+ :yfoL glb lgsf; sfod ug{ n=O{= -k|f/lDes_ tof/ u/L s]Gb|df l;kmfl/z ul/Psf] .  k|efljt If]qdf lgdf{0f sfo{ Pj+ hUuf lsgj]r /f]Ssf /fVg] lg0f{o ul/Psf] . 12 | P a g e
  • 16. efu % EjfË kg{'sf sf/0fx/m %=! ef}ule{s sf/0f -Geological and hydrogeological factors_ cd{nfsf] h}d'/] Ps ;fgf] tnfpsf] ?kdf /x]sf] / tnfpdf qmdzM ;]tL glbaf6 cfPsf] r'go'Qm l;N6 ;fOhsf] df6f] y'lk|Psf] / pQm l;N6 dfyL j/Lk/Lsf 8fF8faf6 em/]sf] klx/f] tyf sfnLvf]nfaf6 cfPsf] r§fgsf 6'qmf (Gravel) / jfn'jf (sand) y'lk|Psf] b]lvG5 . oL b'j} tx /fd|/L ghd]sf] cj:yf (unconsolidated stage) df 5g . dflyNnf] tx hf] sandy gravel xf], Tof] l5b|bf/ (Permeable) 5 / o;af6 ;lhn} ;txsf] kfgL l5g{ ;Sb5 . tNnf] l;N6 (silt) sf] tx h;df s]lx df6f] (Clay) sf] dfqf 5 . o;df ;fwf/0f cj:yfdf kfgL l5g{ lgs} ;do nfUb5, t/ of] l;N6df ;fgf ;fgf lr/fx? (fractures) 5g ;fy} u|fe]n / o;sf] l;dfgfdf Undulating Surface ePsf] cj:yf 5 . of] l;N6 r'go'Qm (calcareous) klg 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf of] tx e"ldut kfgLaf6 lj:tf/} leHg] / r'go'Qm ePsf]n] kfgLdf ldl;g] klg x'G5 . h}d'/] If]qdf hldgsf] ;txd'gL ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] efudf sl/a @) b]lv %) ;]=dL= hlt humus soil -v]tL of]Uo df6f]_ 5 . To; df6f]sf] tn sandy gravel 5 . of] Gravel sf] df]6fO{ sl/a @ b]lv $ dL6/ hlt 5 . pQm u|fe]nsf] tx d'gL v/fgL tyf v}/f] /+usf] ghd]sf] g/d Clayey Silt 5, h;nfO{ :yflgox?n] sd]/f] df6f] eGb5g . o:sf] df]6fO{ # b]vL !@ dL6/ ;Dd /x]sf] vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefuaf6 ;g !((* df ul/Psf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 lrq %=!_ . of] l;N6sf] tx h}d'/] kmfF6sf] tNnf] efudf s8f r§fg dfyL km}lnPsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . of] l;N6df dl;gf lr/f / Undulating Sarface df u|fe]naf6 l5/]sf] kfgL lj:tf/} ;f]l;G5 / kfgLn] k"0f{ ?kdf leH5 . o;/L l;N6 leHb} hfFbf saturated cj:yf eO{ e"ldut ?kdf kfgLsf] rf“k ;[hgf x'G5 . rf“ksf sf/0f hdLgsf] le/fnf] efu tkm{ u|fe]n / l;N6sf] l;dfgfsf] glhssf] efu x'Fb} e"ldut kfgLn] lgsf; vf]H5 . tNnf] efult/ e"ldut kfgLn] lgsf; vf]Hbf cfˆgf] af6f]df /x]sf] sdhf]/ r'go'Qm l;N6nfO{ ;d]t lj:tf/} 3'nfp“b} nfg] x'G5 . e"ldut ?kdf lj:tf/} rln/x]sf] kfgLn] l;N6nfO{ ;d]t jufO{ sdhf]/ ef}ule{s agf]6 ePsf] :yfg tkm{ lgsf; vf]H5 . lgsf; x'g] qmddf cd{nfsf] h}d'/]df sfnLvf]nftkm{ b'x'gL vf]nfsf] klxnfsf] k|fs[lts lgsf; eGbf sl/a @% dL6/ tNf l;N6 ldl;Psf] n]bf] kfgLsf] d'n km'6]sf] 5 . of] n]bf] kfgLsf] d"n nuftf/ jlu/x]sf] 5 . lrq %=! M h}d'/] If]qsf] hdLgsf] agfj6sf] lrq . 13 | P a g e
  • 17. dfly elgP em} e"ldut kfgL lgsf; x'g] qmddf l;N6 / u|fe]nsf] l;dfgfsf] cf;kf; af6} ;fgf ltgf kfgLsf af6f]x?sf] (Solution Channel) ljsf; x'G5 . oL kfgLsf af6fx?df /x]sf] r'go'Qm l;N6 lj:tf/} kfgL ;“u jUb} n]bf]sf] ?kdf aflx/ cfpFbf l;N6 /x]sf] 7fpF lj:tf/} IfoLs/0f x'G5 / vfnL 7fpF aGg hfG5 . o;/L tNnf] efu kfgLn] lvofO{ vfnL eP kl5 To; eGbf dfly /x]sf] sdhf]/ u|fe]nsf] ef/jxg Ifdtf sd x'g hfG5 . h;sf sf/0f u|fe]nsf] tx ;d]t tn v:5 / ;txdf To:sf] c;/ kl/ hldg efl;G5 / EjfË sf] ?k lnG5 . o;/L ;'?df ;fgf] cfsf/df efl;Psf] :yfgsf] EjfË lj:tf/} tnsf] l;N6 ju] kl5 7"nf] EjfËsf] ?kdf ljsf; eO{ h}d'/]df ;d:of b]lvPsf] xf] -lrq %=@_ . f] lrq %=@ M h}d'/] If]qsf] hldgsf] agfj6 EjfËdf b]lvPsf] . h}d'/] If]qsf] kfgLsf] ah]6 ;Gt'ngsf] hfgsf/Lsf nflu ljleGg :yfgdf kfgLsf] axfj (discharge) ldlt @)&) kf}if @ ut] dfkg ul/Psf] lyof] -6]an %=!_ . 6]an %=! M h}d'/] If]qsf] ljleGg :yfgdf dfkg ul/Psf] kfgLsf] axfj . qm=;+= ! @ # kfgLsf] Input/output Input $ Output % :yfg unf{Ë vf]nf zflGt pRr df=la= glhs b'x'gL vf]nf unf{Ë vf]nf / sfnLvf]nfsf] bf]efg sd]/] ;]tf] n]bf] df6f] ;lxt xfn} km'6]sf] d"n b'x'gL vf]nfdf xfn} k"g{:yflkt ug{ xfn} vlgPsf] gfnfsf] tNnf] efu :yfgsf] prfO -lkm6_ ##%@ ##%^ ##)& Afxfj -ln=÷;]s]08_ !@=&^ )=(* !=!@ #!*# *=) #!(% !@=($ h}d'/] If]qdf l5g]{ kfgL (input) sf] dfqf hDdf sl/a !$ ln6/ k|lt ;]s]G8 dfkg ul/Psf] lyof] eg] ;f] If]qaf6 aflx/ lgsf; ePsf] kfgL (output) sf] dfqf hDdf sl/a @! 14 | P a g e
  • 18. ln6/ k|lt ;]s]G8 dfkg ul/Psf] lyof] . dfkg ug{ g;lsPsf] af“sL input sf] dfqf h}d'/] If]qsf] klZrd / pŒf/tkm{ kxf8sf] km]bdf cjl:yt kfgL /;fPsf] / d"n km'6]sf] If]qaf6 x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . t/, unf{Ë vf]nf af6 e"ldut eO{ uPsf]] kfgL h}d'/]tkm{ jf cGo tkm{ k|jfx ePsf] osLg ug{ sl7g ePsf]n] cfjZos cWoogsf nflu lzkmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 . %=@ e""–/f;folgs sf/0f (Geochemical factors) h}d'/] kmfF6sf] pTktL x'Fbf Toxf“ hDdf ePsf] l;N6 df6f] ;]tL glbn] cGgk"0f{ If]qaf6 r'go'Qm n]bf]sf] ?kdf NofPsf] dflgPsf] 5 . o:tf] l;N6 g/d cj:yfdf /x]sf]n] Tof] ;lhn} kfgLdf ldl;G5 / kfgL;“u} ;lhn} aU5 . ToxfFaf6 NofOPsf] r'go'Qm l;N6sf] gd"gf vfgL tyf e"ue{ ljefusf] k|of]uzfnfdf /f;folgs k/LIf0f ubf{ r'g (CaO = #%% / MgO = @ %) /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . o; If]œfdf ;xtaf6 jUg] cToflws kfgL hj/h:tL hldg leq l5g]{ cj:yf ag]sf]n] kfgLn] sd]/f] df6f]nfO{ :ofr'/]6 (saturate) u/L cem sdhf]/ jgfpg] / kfgLdf 3'Ng] cj:yf jGof] . ;fy;fy} sfnLvf]nfaf6 lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lsf ?kdf 9'Ëf, lu§L / jfn'jf lgsfNg] qmddf vf]nf ulxl/+b} hfFbf :ofr'/]6 e};s]sf] sd]/f] df6f]df rf“k j9g uO{ 3'Ng ;'? eof] . ;txsf] kfgL leq l5g]{ qmddf ;fw/0ftof sfj{g8fO{cS;fO{8 UofF; ;f]:g] u5{ / ;8]un]sf] emf/kft;“u /f;folgs k|ltlqmof x'bf“ kfgL xNsf clDno (acidic) x'g] ub{5 . of] clDno kfgL r'go'Qm sd]/f] df6f]sf] ;fgf] l5qaf6 tn hfFbf /f;folgs k|ltlqmof eO{ lj:tf/} ;fgf kfO{k h:tf jf6f]x? jGb5g / tL Ps cfk;df hf]l8bf hldg d'lg kfgL jUg] hfnf] jGb} hfG5 . hj r'go'Qm sd]/f] df6f] 3'Nb} hfG5, cem} w]/} clDno kfgL jUg] u/L 7"nf] x'Fb} hfG5 . tNnf] efudf o;/L vfnL x'Fb} hfFbf ;f]sf] kl/k"lt{ ug{ dflysf] sdhf]/ hldgn] wfGg g;sL v:g uO{ EjfË kg{ uPsf] b]lvG5 . e"ldut kfgLsf] jxfjsf] ult k|fs[lts cj:yfdf cToGt Go"g x'g] ub{5 . t/ ck|fs[lts ?kn] o;sf] ult j9g hfFbf of] k|sf]ksf] ;[hgf x'g uPsf] b]lvG5 . %=# lhof]6]lSgsn sf/0f (Geotechnical factors) h}d'/] If]qdf kfOg] clayey silt k|fs[lts ?kdf ghd]sf] g/d / sd ef/jfxg Ifdtf ePsf] df6f] xf] . o;sf] ef/jxg Ifdtf sl/a ! d]ufkf:sn (Mpa) hlt 5 eGg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . of] silt kfgLdf ;lhn} ldl;g] / efl;g ;Sg] vfnsf] 5 . To;}n] of] l;N6 ePsf] hldgdf lgdf{0fsf sfo{x? ubf{ ljif]z ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' kg]{ jf lgdf{0fsf sfo{x? gu/L hldg ;'xfFpbf] v]tL ug{ ;'emfj ;d]t lbOPsf] 5 . h}d'/] If]qdf d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] kfgLdf /x]sf] ;]l8d]G6sf] (sediment) dfœff lrq %=# df lbOPsf] 5 . ha d"n km'6L n]bf] kfgL sfnL vf]nfdf ldl;g yfNof] ;a}sf] Wofgfsif{0f eof] . t/, hdLg leq l;N6sf] tx lvOg] k|s[of klxn] b]lv rln/x]sf] lyof] . e"ldut d"njf6 lg:sL /x]sf] sd]/f] ;lxtsf] kfgLdf sl/j & k|ltzt -cfotg÷cfotg_ sd]/f] df6f] ldl;P/ uO/x]sf] kfOof] . d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] kfgLdf /x]sf] ;]l8d]G6sf] (sediment) sieve analysis lrq %=# df lbOPsf] 5 . h}d'/] If]qdf k/]sf EjfËx/msf] s'n cfotg nueu !),))) So"ljs ld6/ 15 | P a g e
  • 19. b]lvPsf] 5 . EjfËsf] cfotg, d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] df6f]df ePsf] ;]l8d]G6sf] dfqf / ;dosf] t'ngfTds cWoog ubf{ hdLg d'gL e"ldut kfgLsf sf/0f df6f] lvOg] / aUg] qmd w]/} klxn] b]lv nuftf/ rln/x]sf] k|:6 x'G5 . (0.002-0.06 – silt; 0.06-.2 - fine sand; 0.2 - 0.6 - medium sand; 0.6 - 2 - coarse sand) lrq %=# M h}d'/] If]qdf d"n km'6L au]sf] n]bf] kfgLdf /x]sf] ;]l8d]G6sf] 16 | P a g e sieve analysis .
  • 20. efu ^ lgisif{ tyf ;'emfj ^=! lgisif{ sf:sL lhNnf cd{nf uf=lj=;= h}d'/] 7"nLj];L kmfF6 efl;g'sf] d'Vo sf/0fdf ;f] If]qdf /x]sf] sdhf]/ / kfgLn] ;lhn} IfoLs/0f ug{ ;Sg] r'go'Qm l;N6 -:yfgLosf cg';f/ sd]/] df6f]_ sf] tx x'g' xf] . b'x'gL vf]nf nufotsf cGo vf]N;Lx?sf] k|fs[lts jxfjnfO{ cj?2 ubf{ e"dLut kfgLsf] n]en a9g uO{ rfk a9g uof] . ;fy} k|fs[lts / dfgjLo sf/0fn] sfnL vf]nf ulxl/g uO{ e"dLut ;'?Ë tNnf] efudf d"n km'6L n]bf] kfgL sfnL vf]nfdf ldl;g hfFbf kfgLsf] rfk sd eO{ e"dLut ;'?Ëx? tyf 9fF8x? dfyLsf] hdLg efl;g uof] / ;txdf EjfË k¥of] . ;f] If]qsf] e"–OlGhlgol/Ë gS;f ;g !((* df g} tof/ eO;sf]sf], t/ a:tL ljsf; tyf k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ug]{ qmddf ;f] gS;fsf] pkof]u ul/Psf] b]lvPg . e" pkof]u sfo{df ef}ule{s tYox?nfO{ j]jf:tf ug'{ / k|fs[lts cj:yf hyfefjL vnaNofpg' g} cd{nf If]qdf EjfË kg]{ k|sf]ksf] sf/0f xf] . kf]v/f nufot of] If]q cToflws jiff{ x'g] If]q ePsfn] jiff{ ofd cuf8L g} /f]syfdsf pkfox? canDag ul/g' kb{5 / gul/Pdf eofjx l:ylt cfpg ;Sg] b]lvG5 . ^=@ tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? / nfut cg'dfg ^=@=!= tTsfn ul/g'kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? M  h}d'/]kmfF6 If]qsf] e"–ef}lts ;e]{ (Geophysical Investigation) kZrft dfq ;f] If]qsf] e"ldut ef}ule{s ca:yfsf] af/]df oyfy{ hfgsf/L x'g] ePsfn] ;f] kZrft dfq lgdf{0f ;DaGwL lg0f{o ug{ plrt x'g] . To;sf/0f xfnnfO{ ;f] If]qdf lgdf{0f ;DaGwL ;Dk'0f{ sfo{x?df k|ltaGw nufpg' plrt x'g] .  b'x'gL tyf vx/] vf]nfsf] cltqmldt e"–efunfO{ gfkLaf6 /]vfÍg u/L vf]nfsf] :yfoL l;dfgf sfod ug]{ . To;} u/L af+;v]t If]qaf6 lautdf aUg] vf]N;L tyf gfnfx?nfO{ k"g{:yfkgf ug'{kg]{ .  EjfË (Sinkhole) x?nfO{ df6f] tyf u|fe]nn] k'/L To;nfO{ sDKofS;g (Compaction) ug]{ .  vx/] tyf b'x'gL vf]nfdf hDdf ePsf] u|fe]n x6fO{ kfgLsf] lgsf; lgsfNbf b'x'gL vf]nfsf] b'a} lsgf/ tyf tNnf] ;txdf IfoLs/0f (Erosion) x'g] x'Fbf ;f]sf] arfpsf nflu k|:tflat l8hfOg (Design) cg';f/sf ;+/rgfx? lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ .  xfn d"nkm'6L n]bf] kfgL au]sf] :yfgsf] klZrd xfn kSsL ;8s;Fu ;dfgfGt/ x'g] u/L klZrd tkm{ sl/a #) dL= nDafO{ / !) ld6/ ulx/fO{ -n]bf] kfgL au]sf] ;'?Ësf] 17 | P a g e
  • 21. klxrfg u/L ;f] eGbf tn_ ePsf] 6«]Gr vgL ;f] df k|:tflat Design cg';f/sf] lhof]6]S:f6fOn k|of]u u/L 6«]Grdf df6f] e/L sd]/f] df6f]sf] n]en;Dd sDKofS;g ug]{ .  sfnL vf]nfsf] e"IfoLs/0f / ulxl/g] qmdnfO{ lgoGq0fsf nflu b'x'gL vf]nf / sfnL vf]nfsf] bf]efg b]vL tn dfyL % j6f a]8af/x? !)) dL= km/sdf agfpg], %)) dL= l/e]6d]G6 agfpg] / afFsL /x]sf] efudf klg lgoGq0f ub}{ Aoal:yt ub}{ hfg] . k|efljt If]qaf6 hfg] kSsL ;8sdf xfnnfO{ ;s];Dd ;jf/L ;fwg ;+rfng lg?T;flxt ug]{ / olb ug}{ kg]{ ePdf xNsf ;jf/L ;fwgdfq} ;+rfng x'g lbg] . t;y{ xfnnfO{ h}d'/] If]qsf] klZrdkl§sf] kfvfaf6 a}slNks ?kdf ;jf/L ;fwg ;+rfng ug{ lbg' pko'Qm x'g] . k|efljt If]qdf a9L kfgL k|of]u ul/g'kg]{ v]tLx? ug{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ . ^=@=@ nfut cg'dfg dfly pNn]lvt tTsfn ul/g' kg]{ /f]syfdsf pkfox? dWo] lgDg cg';f/ pNn]lvt sfo{x?sf] nfut cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .  EjfË (Sink hole) x? tTsfn} k'g{ .  b'x'gL vf]nfdf ;]ld k/ldojn ^%) ld6/sf] nfdf] kSsL gfnf lgdf{0f u/L b'a} tkm{ afof] OlGhlgol/Ë sfo{ ;d]t ug{ .  h}d'/] kmfF6sf] dflyNnf] efudf b]lvPsf d'nnfO{ ;+sng u/L ;'/lIft lgsf; ug{sf] lgldt $$) dL= Sofr 8«]g lgdf{0f ug{ .  b'x'gL vf]nf sfnL vf]nfdf ldl;g] l9s tyf lsgf/f ;+/If0f ug]{ ug'{ kg]{ ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug{ .  xfn d"nkm'6L n]bf] kfgL au]sf] :yfgsf] klZrd xfn kSsL ;8s;Fu ;dfgfGt/ x'g] u/L klZrd tkm{ sl/a #) dL= nDafO{ / !) ld6/ ulx/fO{ ePsf] 6«]Gr vgL ;f] df k|:tflat Design cg';f/sf] lhof]6]S;6fOn k|of]u u/L 6«]Grdf df6f] e/L sd]/f] df6f]sf] dflyNnf] n]en;Dd sDofS;g ug{ . dfly pNn]lvt sfo{x?sf nflu ?= %,@!,@&))).– -kfFr s/f]8 PSsfO; nfv ;QfO{; xhf/ sf] nfut cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . b//]6 laZn]if0f ;lxtsf] nfut cg'dfg, l8hfOg tyf 8«OËx? Pg]S; @ / Pg]S; # df ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . EjfË kg]{ tyf hldg efl;g] IftL x'gaf6 arfpg] qmddf IftL x'g uPsf AolQmut ;DktL tyf ;+/rgf cflbsf] IftLk'tL{sf] nflu lhNnf b}la k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt sf:sL dfkm{t x'g l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 . ^=@ eljiodf ul/g'kg]{ sfo{x?  h}d'/]kmfF6, cd{nf If]qsf] e"ldut ef}ule{s ca:yfsf] oyfy{ hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{sf lgldQ e"–ef}lts ;e]{If0f (Electric Resistivity Tomography, Shallow Seismic Refraction, Ground Penetrating Radar) sfo{ ug'{ kg]{ . 18 | P a g e
  • 22.  h}d'/]kmfF6sf] klZrd / pQ/ tk{msf] kfvfaf6 km'6]sf d'nx? Aoal:yt u/L kfgLnfO{ b'x'gL vf]nf x'Fb} sfnL vf]nfdf lgsf; ug]{ Aoa:yf ldnfpg] .  zflGt pRr df=la= sf] pQ/tkm{af6 cfPsf] vx/] vf]nf -b'x'gL vf]nf_ sf] kfgL h}d'/]kmfF6 leq k|jfx ePsf] b]lvPsfn] ;f] vx/]sf] kfgLnfO{ e"ldut k|jfxdf hfg' cufa} lgoGq0f u/L ;'/lIft tl/sfn] ;txaf6 lgsf; ug]{ .  k|efljt If]qdf s'g} lgdf{0f sfo{ ug'{ k'j{ df6f]sf] OlGhlgol/Ë u'0fsf] kl/If0f (Geotechnical Investigation) clgjfo{ u/L ef/jxg Ifdtfsf cfwf/df lgdf{0f sfo{ ug]{ Aoa:yf ldnfpg] .  sfnL vf]nfsf] ;xfos vf]nf -unf{Ë vf]nf_ af6 sl/a !# nL= k|lt ;]s]G8 kfgL hldgdf e"ldut eO{ uPsf]n] ;f] kfgL h}d'/]tkm{ jf cGo tkm{ k|jfx ePsf] lgSof}{n u/L h}d'/] kmfF6 tkm{ k|jfx ePsf] ca:yf b]lvPdf unf{Ë vf]nfaf6 h}d'/] kmfF6 tkm{ kfgL l/rf{h x'g] sfo{ lgoGq0f ug{ cfjZos lgdf{0f sfo{ ug]{ .  h}d'/] If]qsf] e"agf]6df r'go'St sd]/f] df6f] ePsf sf/0f kfgLdf clDnokg a9g ;Sg] lqmofsnfk ePsf] v08df ;d:of emg a9g ;Sg] ePsfn] kfgLsf] clDnokg ;DaGwL cWoog ug'{ kg]{ . 19 | P a g e
  • 23. 20 | P a g e
  • 25. A. Kali Khola 1. Salient Features of Kali Khola VDC Armala-1, Kaski Zone Gandaki Zone Tributaries Ghurkuna Khola, Garlang Khola, Duhuni Khola, Grami Khola, Majkuna, Tupke Khola, Dhand Khola etc. Nature of Khola Boulder stage, degradation nature, 1.31m bed is degrading per year (in comparison June, 2011). Developed Area Paddy field in right and left bank of Khola but now newly settlement is rapidly developing. Total Length of Kali Khola 11 Km. Catchment Area 41 Sq. Km. Maximum elevation of Catchment area 1962 m (msl) Minimum level 960 m (msl) Average l-slope of Kali khola 1:20, 1:100. 1:200 Near DuhuniKhola confluence 1:40 Average width of Khola 65 m Near Duhuni Khola confluence 50 m Design scour depth 3.10 m Length of protection 500 m revetments and five bed bars (around confluence point which is highly critical area) Total estimate of protection works (See Annex 3). Protection by GI create boxes, RCC Cut-off (bed bar), Geotextile etc. Kali khola originate in the north part of Pokhara valley from Mahabharat range at Kali Khola at an elevation of nearly 1962m. The length of Khola is 11 km up to Seti River at Bhalam Dobilla. It is one of the importtant tributary of the Seti River. 1|Page
  • 26. 2. Discharge calculation of Kali Khola By 1. Dickens formula Q p = C d A 3/4 Where, Qp = Maximum flood discharge in cumecs A = Catchment Area Cd = Dicken coefficient Area = 41 Sq.Km Cd =11.5 (11.5 for northern part of India) Hence Q p =11.5 *41^ 0.75 =186 m3/sec 2.WECS Method Q 100 =14.63(A) ^ 0.732 =14.63*41^ 0.732 =211 m3/sec Adopt 211 m3/sec 3. Scour depth calculation Design parameters Catchment area = 41 sq. Km High flood discharge = 211 m3/sec River, l-slope = 1:40, 1:100 (effected area) Manning’s coefficient = 0.04 Silt average in bed = 5mm Silt factor = 1.76 (D m ) ^.5 = 1.76*5^0.5 =3.91 2|Page
  • 27. Normal scour depth = 0.47(Q/F)^1/3 = 0.47*(211/3.91)^0.5 = 1.8 m. Factor for right angle (K) = 2.25 = 2.25*1.8 = 4.1m Average depth of water in high flood = 2.1 m For launching apron =2.1*1.5 =3.10 m Use 4.5m as mattress Depth of bed bar =3.10 m Use 1:2:4 RCC wall having top crest one meter with 1:8 U/S and D/S of wall protect by gabion crate box in launching apron and add (1x1x1) m. concrete blocks in D/S of wall. Water way (P) = 4.75(Q)^0.5% = 4.75(211)^0.5 =68 m. may be contrast by 80 % B. Duhuni Khola 1. Salient Features of Duhuni Khola VDC Armala-1, Kaski Zone Gandaki Zone Tributaries Khahare and Small Kholsi. Nature of Khola Boulder stage on land slide materials aggradations nature. Developed Area Entirely, paddy field in right and left bank and settlements rapidly developed. Total Length of Kali Khola 650 m. Catchment Area 0.16 Sq. Km. Maximum elevation of 3|Page
  • 28. Average l-slope of Kali Khola 1:20, 1:60, 1:80, 1:100 Near Duhuni Khola confluence 1:40 Average width of Khola 2.50 m Near confluence 4m Design discharge 3.00 m3/sec Maximum depth of sinkhole depth 8.5 m Length of protection 650 m lining with cascade Total estimate of protection works (See Annex 3). Protection by GI create, RCC, RRM, Soling, Bioengineering, Geo-textile, Sinkhole filling, Sprig plugging. Box Culvert etc. 2. Discharge calculation By 1. Dickens formula Q p = C d A 3/4 Where, Q p = Maximum flood discharge in cumecs A= Catchment Area(800x200)m =0.16 Km sq. C d = Dicken coefficient Area = 0.16 Sq.Km. Cd =11.5 (11.5 for northern part of India) Hence, Q p =11.5 *0.16^ 0.75 =2.909 m3/sec 2. Rain fall Method Assume, maximum 2500mm rain fall per day =2500/100*10^4/24*3600 =2.89 m3/sec Adopt =3.0 m3/sec 4|Page
  • 29. 3. In upper reach 1/3 of land is exist 0.053 Sq.Km Q pu =11.5 *0.05^ 0.75 =1.25 m3/sec Water way (P) = 4.75(Q)^0.5% = 4.75(2.9)^0.5 =8.8 m. For cross section limitation lining is proposed. Design parameters Catchment area = 0.16 Sq. Km High flood discharge = 2.90 m3/sec River, l-slope = 1:100, 1:80, 1:40 and Steep slope Manning’s coefficient = 0.02 Silt average in bed = 5mm Silt factor = 1.76 (D m ) ^.5 = 1.76*5^0.5 =3.91 Normal scour depth = 0.47(Q/F)^ 1/3 = 0.47*(211/3.91)^0.5 = 1.8 m. Factor for right angle (K) = 2.25 = 2.25*1.8= 4.1m Average depth of water in high flood= 2.1 m For launching apron =2.1*1.5 =3.15 m Use 4.5m as mattress for kali khola Design of channel section 5|Page
  • 30. 4. 0+000 to 0+250 Design parameters L-section channel(S) = 1:100 Discharge(Q) = 1.25 m3/sec Manning’s coefficient (N) =0.02 Area (A) =0.5 m2 Assume,For Upper Reach Section is rectangle Q =A*V =A*1/N*S ^½*R ^2/3 =A*1/0.02*1/100^½*A/P ^2/3 =0.6*1/0.02*1/100^½*.0.6/2.1 ^2/3 =0.6*50*0.1*0.42 =1.26 m3/sec = Hence safe O.K. Existing bed is 2.0 m Assume, for Middle portionSection is Trapezoidal 5. 0+250 to 0+600 Design parameters L-section channel(S) = 1:80 Design discharge (Q) = 3.00 m3/sec Manning’s coefficient (N) =0.025 Area (A) =1.40 m2 Assume, for Upper Reach Section is rectangle Q =A*V =A*1/N*S ^½*R ^2/3 6|Page
  • 31. =A*1/0.025*1/80^½*1.4/3.17^2/3 =1.4*40*1/80^½*0.44 ^2/3 =1.4*40*0.111*0.57 =3.54 m3/sec = Hence safe O.K. Existing river bed is 2.5m 6. 0+600 to 0+650 Design parameters L-section channel(S) = Steeps Design discharge (Q) = 3.00 m3/sec Manning’s coefficient (N) =0.025 Area (A) =1.40 m2 5m length and one m depth eight cascade up to Kali Khola bed. Perforated pipe and geo-textile used for lateral drain to channel. A box culvert proposed for vehicle crossing. Bio-engineering is suitable for sustainable protection of Nala. 7. Discharge measurement (2070/9/2 and3) by surface floating and current meter methods. Discharge measurement of surface water of Kali Khola (U/S 60m and D/S 50m), surface flow of Duhuni Khola and Spring water from new channel at confluence point. 1 60m U/S of Confluence point (Q) 1 =374.0 lps 2 50 D/S of Confluence point (Q) 2 =353.5 lps 3 Surface flow of Dhuhune Khola (Q) 3 =11.5 lps 4 Remaining spring flow (Q 1 -Q 2 -Q 3 ) =9.0 lps 7 % (silt and clay) noted in laboratory. 7|Page
  • 48. Summary of Cost of Structures Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. S No 1 2 3 4 5 Name of Structures Unit Quantity E/w fillling in sinkholes in layer wise and with well compaction all complete all lead and lift and gabion protection in No deep section Construction of Channel lining and bioengineering (650)m in Duhune Khola ( 50m c/c joints). No Construction of Catch Drain in hill sides of Khola to connected natural surfafe drain (U/S and D/S ) 400m (50m c/c No joints) Construction of Revetment for protection of Kali Khola U/S 250 and D/S 250 of Duhune confluence point. Rm. Construction of Bed bar in Kali khola to protect further degradin of Khola Total 5 Nos, U/S 2 and D/S 2 of confluence of Rm. Dhuhune Khola Rate F/Y 2070-71 Amount 1.00 3,674,129 3,674,129 1.00 8,175,580 8,175,580 1.00 3,849,891 3,849,891 500.00 86,501 43,250,295 5.00 2,358,204 11,791,018 Total Say NRs. 70,740,913 52,127,000.00 Remarks
  • 49. Abstract of Cost Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Earth work excavation in (new trench openning and pluging springhole). S No 1 2a Details of work Unit Quantity E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for 10m deep all m3 lead and lift Rate Amount 3 134.34 136019.25 80% use localmaterial 9767.25 80.00 781380.00 Making well compacted field by filling with ordinary local soils in 15 cm thick layers and hand compaction withsprinkling water all complete 20% use from barrow pit m3 4 5 6 1085.25 775.00 841068.75 m2 3 330.00 162.50 53625.00 Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x 150 mm. With two way double knot including cutting wire, netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire 8 S.W.G. box size =3x1.5x0.45 m m2 Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper place with all completed. m3 918 272.91 250531.38 963.00 1621.50 1 Job Total NRs. 1561504.50 50000.00 Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. Dewatering of works LS Remarks By excavator 1012.50 Making well compacted field by filling with ordinary local soils in 15 cm thick layers and hand compaction withsprinkling water all complete m 2b F.Y. 2070-71 3,674,129
  • 50. Detailed Estimate Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Earth work excavation in (new trench openning and pluging springhole). F/Y- 2070-71 S No Details of work No 1 E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for 10m deep all lead and lift Trench (West side of road) 2 Length Breadth Height Quantity Remarks Making well compacted field by filling with ordinary local soils in 15 cm thick layers and hand compaction withsprinkling water all complete 1 3.75 9.00 3 1012.50 m 1 Trench 87 Nos sinlholes 30.00 30.00 3.75 9.00 1012.50 9840.00 3 10852.50 m 3 Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. 1 4 4 Supply of commercial 8 S.W.G.Gabion wire Mesh wire 8 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.45 m = 13.05 m2 for protection of D/S steep slope Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x 150 mm. With two way double knot including cutting wire, netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire 8 S.W.G. box size =3x1.5x0.75 m=15.75m2 10 Box 6 Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper place with all completed. Launching Bank protection both sides Base cascade Dewatering 2 330.00 m 11.0 26.29 kg per box 50 Box Total 5 30.00 31.00 kg per box 918 m2 2 2 2 10.00 350.00 50.00 4.50 1.50 3.00 0.45 0.75 0.45 40.50 787.50 135.00 3 963.00 m L.S
  • 51. Abstract of Cost Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Lining Channel 650mand Catchdrain 440 m S No 1 2 3 4 Details of work E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for all lead and lift E/W in back filling with watering and compaction layer by layer from all lead and lift all complete Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. Supply and fitting of 75mm dia HDPE pipe in channel side 5m c/c, 30 cm above from bed level Unit Quantity F/Y 2070-71 Rate Amount m3 559.82 134.34 75,206.21 m 3 704.38 80.00 56,350.40 m2 2962.12 164.50 487,268.74 RM 11,861.01 86.27 137.48 5 Supply and stone solling 3 m 256.76 2251.13 472,737.30 6 RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all complete Rinforcement steel bar all complete (Nominal reinforcement in channel 40kg/ m3 ang for slab 1.5% kg/m3) Supply and Wooden form works all complete 1:4 RRM works all complete Dewatering of works durining construction of works Bioengineerg works (Bammboo 200 nos, Baish 1000 Nos and Vetever etc) all complete. Site clearance all complete Total NRs m3 420.6 9522.00 3,504,096.00 Kg m2 m3 9057.4 1459.8 63.6 112.49 568.74 8063.50 41,396.32 209,296.32 2,967,368.00 LS 1 100,000.00 LS LS 1 1 200,000.00 50,000.00 7 8 9 10 11 12 8,175,580 Remarks
  • 52. Detailed Estimate Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Lining Channel 650mand Catchdrain 440 m S No 1 No Details of work E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for all lead and lift U/S Channel transition Channel Cutoff Desilting basin Brest wall Channel Culvert Cutoff Lauching appron Length 1 1 1 2 1 10 1 1 1 1 Breadth Height 0.60 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.60 1.50 0.30 1.50 0.60 0.45 4.00 1.80 100.00 4.25 2.30 3.25 550.00 1.80 4.25 4.50 0.30 3.00 1.80 0.50 2.30 1.50 2.30 5.00 0.50 15.00 1 1 1 15 100.00 20.00 550.00 3.25 1.50 35.20 3.70 1.50 2 215.686 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 4.00 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 1.00 100.00 2.30 550.00 100.00 500.00 50.00 0.30 0.30 0.30 5.50 1.05 1.00 0.30 1.80 2.30 2.30 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.36 0.19 0.18 6.60 1.26 1.20 0.18 27.00 0.79 189.75 4.50 22.50 2.25 256.76 m3 2 1 1 2 4.00 4.25 4.00 4.00 0.30 0.30 0.30 1.80 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.72 0.38 0.36 8.64 Total 2 E/W in back filling 3 Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. Channel side and bed Khahare Channel side and bed Brest wall 4 5 6 Supply and fitting of 75mm dia HDPE pipe in channel side 5m c/c, 30 cm above from bed level Stone solling U/S Channel cutoff Kharare cutoof D/S at kali khola cutoff Culvert foundation Abutment Slab (transition) Parapet (one m extended) Channel bed Trench Bed of large channel Side wall RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all complete U/S Channel cutoff Kharare cutoff D/S at kali khola cutoff Culvert foundation F/Y- 2070-71 Quantity Remarks 1/5 of E / W 0.72 1.62 54.00 2.55 3.17 73.12 379.50 13.50 1.27 30.37 559.82 m3 559.82 m3 704.38 m3 150.00 704.00 2035.00 73.12 2962.12 m2 0.20 86.27 RM.
  • 53. Detailed Estimate Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Lining Channel 650mand Catchdrain 440 m 1 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 Slab Parapet (one m extended) Channel bed Trench Bed of large channel Side wall 7 8 9 Rinforcement steel bar all complete (Nominal reinforcement in channel 40kg/ m3 ang for slab 1.5% kg/m3) Slab Channel Total Wooden form works U/S Channel cutoff Kharare cutoof D/S at kali khola cutoff Culvert foundation Slab Parapet (one m extended) Channel bed Trench Bed of large channel Side wall (inner side) Side wall (inner side) Side wall (inner side) 1:4 RRM works all complete Abutment Brest wall 10 11 12 Dewatering Bio-engineerg works (Bammboo 200 nos, Baish 1000 Nos and Vetever grass etc). Site clearance all complete 4.00 4.00 1.00 100.00 2.30 550.00 100.00 500.00 50.00 5.50 0.30 0.30 1.80 2.30 2.30 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.75 1.00 0.80 F/Y- 2070-71 6.60 0.72 0.36 27.00 1.58 189.75 22.50 150.00 12.00 420.61 m3 777.15 8280.20 9057.35 Kg 4 2 2 2 1 4 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 4.00 4.25 4.00 11.60 4.60 6.00 1.00 100.00 4.60 550.00 100.00 500.00 50.00 2 15 1.05 0.53 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.75 1.00 0.80 4.00 3.25 LS 4.80 2.55 2.40 13.92 1.38 7.20 1.20 30.00 1.38 165.00 150.00 1000.00 80.00 1459.83 m2 25.20 38.39 63.59 m3 1.00 Job LS LS 1.00 Job 1.00 Job 3.00 1.50
  • 54. Abstract of Cost Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Checkdam (Bedbar) across the Khola (50m) F/Y 2070-71 S No 1 Details of work E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed wet soils including disposal for all lead and lift Unit Quantity m3 Rate Amount 628.75 134.34 84466.27 2 E/W in back filling m3 209.58 80.00 16766.66 3 Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. m2 1205.00 162.50 195812.50 4 1:2:4 PCC works all complete m3 80.32 9522.00 764807.04 5 Supply of Heavy 8 S.W.G.Gabion wire wiving all complete m2 Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper place with all completed. m3 2390 272.91 652254.90 232.50 434 1621.50 568.72 376998.75 247097.46 6 7 8 9 m2 Supply and Wooden form works all complete Dewatering of works durining construction of LS works LS Site clearance all complete Total NRs 1 1 10,000.00 10,000.00 10000.00 10000.00 2,358,204 Remarks
  • 55. Detailed Estimate Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Check Dam (Bed Bar) across the Khola (50m) F/Y- 2070-71 S No 1 2 3 3 4a 4b 5 No Details of work Length Breadth E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for all lead and lift Khola bed 1 50.00 1 50.00 U/S launching 1 50.00 D/S launching Total E/W in back filling with compaction in layer 1/ 3 of E / W wise 1:2:4 PCC works all complete Cutoff wall on 1st one m below R/S and L/S R/S and L/S 1 2 2 2 1 Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. U/S and D/s Launching Supply of commercial 8 & 10 S.W.G.Gabion wire Mesh wire 8 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.45 m = 13.05 m2 Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x 150 mm. With two way double knot including cutting wire, netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire 10 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.75 m = 15.75 m2 50.00 3.00 2.00 2.75 4.50 4.50 3.10 0.45 0.45 Quantity Remarks 3 426.25 m 101.25 101.25 3 628.75 m 3 209.58 m 50.00 50.00 100.00 Box Height 10.57 0.70 0.70 0.15 0.15 0.15 79.27 0.63 0.42 80.32 m3 10.50 3.10 1050.00 155.00 1205.00 m2 26.29 kg per box 68.89 Box 33.00 Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper place with all completed. 2390 m2 U/S Launching D/S Launching 50.00 50.00 4.50 4.50 0.45 0.45 101.25 101.25 202.50 Cutoff Sub Total 6 1 1 1 50.00 1.50 3.10 232.50 232.50 m3 2 2 2 2 2 50 11 3 2 1 0.15 15.00 17.00 0.38 0.70 15 315 102 2 1 434 m2 Supply and Wooden form works all complete Cut-off 7 8 Dewatering of works durining construction of works Site clearance all complete LS LS 1 1
  • 56. Abstract of Cost Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Revetment for Kali Khola (Per m) F/Y 2070-71 S No 1 Details of work E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed wet soils including disposal for all lead and lift Unit Quantity Rate Amount m3 6.30 134.34 846.34 3 2.10 80.00 168.00 2 E/W in back filling 3 Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. m2 Supply of commercial 8 S.W.G.Gabion wire wiving all complete m2 Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper place with all completed. m3 14.50 162.50 2356.25 148.92 272.91 40641.15 24.97 1621.50 40488.85 Dewatering of works durining construction of LS works LS Site clearance all complete Total NRs 1 1 1000.00 1000.00 1000.00 1000.00 86,500.59 4 5 6 7 m Remarks
  • 57. Detailed Estimate Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Revetment for Kali Khola Both sides (Per m) F/Y- 2070-71 S No 1 2 3 Details of work No Length E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for all lead and lift Khola bed both sides 2 4.50 6 1.00 Revetment wall layer Total E/W in back filling with compaction in 1/ 3 of E / W layer wise Supply and & using Geo-Textile in Slope of Earthen Embankment at proper place with all completed. U/S and D/s Launching 2 2 Supply of commercial 8 & 10 S.W.G.Gabion wire Mesh wire 8 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.45 m = 13.05 m2 4b Making rectangular gabion box mesh size 150 x 150 mm. With two way double knot including cutting wire, netting etc. all complete. Mesh wire 10 S.W.G.Box size 3m x 1.5m x 0.75 m = 15.75 m2 2.00 Box 5 Supply and filling of Boulder/stones in Gabion crate boxes and closing ,tightening the gabion boxes at proper place with all completed. Launching both sides 6 7 Wall both sides Sub Total Dewatering of works durining LS construction of works LS Site clearance all complete 149 m2 2 6 1.00 0.50 0.45 0.75 1.00 1.00 26.29 kg per bo 33.00 3 4.05 m 2.25 3 6.30 m 9.00 5.50 14.50 m2 236.54 236.54 Kg 66 box 4.50 4.50 0.45 1.00 1.50 0.75 1 1 Quantity Remarks 3 2.10 m 4.50 2.75 9.00 Box 4a Breadth Height 18.22 6.75 6.75 m3
  • 58. Abstract of Cost Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Catch Drain 400 m S No Details of work Unit Quantity 1 E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for all lead and m3 300.00 lift 2 E/W in back filling with watering and compaction layer by layer from all lead and lift m3 60.00 all complete 3 RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all complete m3 90.0 4 Rinforcement steel bar all complete (Nominal Kg 1800.0 reinforcement in channel 40kg/ m3 5 Supply and Wooden form works all complete m2 840.0 LS 1 6 Site clearance all complete Total NRs F/Y 2070-71 Rate Amount 134.34 40,302.00 80.00 4,800.00 9522.00 3,504,096.00 112.49 41,396.32 568.74 209,296.32 50,000.00 3,849,891 Remarks
  • 59. Detailed Estimate Name of works : Natural disaster Area, Armara-1, Jaimure Dhulibesiphant, Kaski. Name of Work : Construction of Catch Drain 400 m F/Y- 2070-71 S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Details of work No Length Breadth Height E/W in excavation for foundation in gravel mixed soils including disposal for all lead and lift 1 400.00 Catch drain (average) Total E/W in back filling 1/5 of E / W RCC1:2:4 works in channel lining all complete 1 400.00 Catch drain (.4+.7+.4) Reinforcement steelbar 20kg/m3 Wooden form works Catch drain Site clearance all complete 2 2 400.00 400.00 Quantity Remarks 1.25 0.60 300.00 3 300.00 m 3 60.00 m 1.50 0.15 90.00 3 90.00 m 1800.00 Kg 0.65 0.40 LS 520.00 320.00 840.00 m2 1.00 Job