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MIXING OF PHARMACEUTICALS.pptx

The presentation describes mixing of solid, liquid and semisolid pharmaceutical dosage forms. It includes mechanisms of solid and liquid mixing, interparticle interactions-segregation, factors affecting mixing, applications of mixing and various equipments used for mixing of pharmaceuticals.

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Mixing of Pharmaceuticals
Mr. A.T. Sharma
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics
Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded
Mixing
• Definition: A process that tends to result in a
randomization of dissimilar particles within a
system.
• Blending
• Cohesive and Non-cohesive solids
Difference Between Solid Mixing and Liquid Mixing
Liquid Mixing
• Flow currents are
responsible for transporting
unmixed material to the
mixing zone adjacent to
impeller.
• Truly homogeneous liquid
phase can be observed.
• Small sample size is
sufficient to study degree of
mixing.
• Mixing requires low power.
Solid Mixing
• Flow currents are not
possible.
• Product often consists of
two or more easily
identifiable phases.
• Large sample is required.
• Mixing requires high power.
Applications
• Wet mixing in granulation
• Dry mixing in direct compression
• Dry blending of powders
• Production of pellets
MIXING OF PHARMACEUTICALS.pptx
Mixing Mechanisms

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MIXING OF PHARMACEUTICALS.pptx

  • 1. Mixing of Pharmaceuticals Mr. A.T. Sharma Assistant Professor Department of Pharmaceutics Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded
  • 2. Mixing • Definition: A process that tends to result in a randomization of dissimilar particles within a system. • Blending • Cohesive and Non-cohesive solids
  • 3. Difference Between Solid Mixing and Liquid Mixing Liquid Mixing • Flow currents are responsible for transporting unmixed material to the mixing zone adjacent to impeller. • Truly homogeneous liquid phase can be observed. • Small sample size is sufficient to study degree of mixing. • Mixing requires low power. Solid Mixing • Flow currents are not possible. • Product often consists of two or more easily identifiable phases. • Large sample is required. • Mixing requires high power.
  • 4. Applications • Wet mixing in granulation • Dry mixing in direct compression • Dry blending of powders • Production of pellets
  • 7. Interparticle Interactions - Segregation • Particle characteristics like size, size distribution, shape and surface influence the interparticle interactions in a powder bed. • Inertial Forces: Tend to hold neighbouring particles in a fixed relative position. - van der Waals forces - Electrostatic forces - Surface forces • Gravitational Forces
  • 8. Van der Waals forces • Weak but general attractive or repulsive forces between neutral atoms or molecules. • Differ from covalent or ionic bonding Electrostatic forces • The attractive or repulsive force between two electrically charged objects. Surface/ Interface forces: • Cohesive forces – prevent intimate mixing • Frictional forces – lumps • Depends on SA, surface roughness, surface polarity, surface charge, moisture • For effective mixing, surface to surface interactions should be minimum – surface treatment
  • 9. Reasons of Segregation • Poor flow properties of powder bed • Wide differences in particle sizes • Differences in mobilities of individual ingredients • Differences in particle density and shape • Transporting stage • Dusting stage
  • 10. Gravitational Forces • Tend to improve the movement of two adjacent particles or groups of particles. • Tumbling action promotes inter-particulate movement due to gravitational forces. • Motion of particles – contact with the mixer surface or/and from contact with one other • These motions accelerate translational and rotational mode of single particle or group of particles • Particle – particle collisions: Exchange of momentum • Continuous exchange of momentum between translational and rotational mode necessary for effective mixing.
  • 11. Efficiency of momentum transfer depends upon- • Elasticity of collisions • Coefficient of friction • SA of contact • Surface roughness • Centrifugal forces
  • 12. Factors Affecting Mixing • Nature of the surface • Density of the particles • Particle size • Particle shape • Particle charge • Proportion of materials
  • 13. Twin Shell Blender/ V Cone Blender • V shaped shell, stainless steel or transparent plastic • Small – 20kg/ 35rpm • Large – 1 tonne/ 15rpm • Loading – two hatches • Emptying – apex port • Material loaded – 50 to 60% of volume • Rotation - tumbling motion • V inverted – splitting • Splitting and dividing repeated • High speed – dusting/ segregation • Low speed – poor mixing
  • 14. Double Cone Blender • Charged and discharged – same port • Efficient for small amount of powders • Speed – size, shape of tumbler, nature of material- 30-100rpm • Method- same as V cone blender
  • 15. Ribbon Mixer Principle: • Shear mixing by ribbon shaped moving blades – breaks lumps and aggregates • Convective mixing Construction: o Non-movable horizontal cylinder trough open at top o Two helical blades, same shaft o Blades with right and left twist – connected to fixed speed drive o Top loading, bottom discharge o Lid at top
  • 17. Sigma Blade Mixer Principle: • Shear mixing and kneading actions with sigma shaped blades • Convective mixing by cascading Construction: o Double trough shaped stationary bowl o Two sigma shaped blades horizontally fitted o Fixed speed drive o Loading from top, unloading by tilting by rack- and-pinion drive
  • 19. Planetary Mixer Principle: • Shear between a moving blade and stationary wall • Blade tears mass apart • Mixing arm moves in two ways, around own axis and around central axis – no dead spot • Plates in blade are sloped – powder makes upward movement - convective mixing
  • 20. Construction • Vertical cylindrical shell – removable • Mixing blade at top • Mixing shaft driven by planetary gear train with variable speed drive
  • 21. Liquid Mixing • Formation of homogeneous mass • Agitation: Induced motion of a material in a specified way, usually in a circulatory pattern inside a container • Mixing: Random distribution into one another of two or more separate phases • Applications: Manufacture of emulsions, suspensions, solutions, aerosols
  • 22. Mechanism of Liquid Mixing • Bulk transport • Turbulent mixing • Laminar mixing • Molecular diffusion
  • 24. Propellers • Contains a no. of blades • Right or left handed • Deep tank – Push-pull propeller • Small size • Speed 8000rpm • Uses: - High mixing capacity - Liquid of maximum viscosity of 2 pascals.second, slurries with 10% solids - Gas-liquid dispersions, multivitamin elixirs, disinfectant solutions
  • 26. Turbines • A circular disc with no. of short blades • Diameter: 30-50% • Speed: 50-200rpm • Blades straight, curved, pitched or vertical • Near the turbine, zone of rapid currents, high turbulence, and intense shear • Diffuser ring – stationary, perforated ring surrounding turbine – reduce swirling and vortexing
  • 28. Paddles • A central hub with two long flat vertical blades • Pitched, hemispherical with large SA • A shaft with hub-blades rotates – 100rpm • Radial and tangential push • Deep tanks – several blades one above other • Very low speed – agitation in unbaffled tank • High speed – baffled tank
  • 31. Silverson Mixer - Emulsifier Principle: • Intense shear forces and turbulence by high speed rotors • Liquids pass through fine interstices of perforated metal sheets • Circulation through head by suction in inlet at bottom of head • Rapid breakdown of liquid into smaller globules
  • 32. Construction: • Long supporting columns connected to motor – support head • Shaft at centre – one end to motor, other to head • Head has turbine blades • Blades surrounded by a mesh, enclosed by a cover with openings.
  • 34. Working: • Head dipped completely in vessel containing liquids • Motor started – shaft rotates head and turbine blades with very high speed • Pressure difference created – liquid sucked from bottom • Intense mixing • Centrifugal force expel contents with great force through mesh and openings of cover • Intake and expulsion – circulation – break down of globules Uses: Emulsions and creams of fine particle size
  • 35. Thank You…!!! (Disclaimer: The images and diagrams in this presentation have been downloaded from the google source. I am grateful to all the publishers & the google.)