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MIS
SYSTEM CONCEPT
Definition of a system
A system is an orderly grouping of
interdependent components linked
together according to a plan to achieve
a specific objective.
Three basic implications of a
system
 Must be designed to achieve a
predetermined objective
 Interrelationships and interdependence
must exist among the components
 The objectives of the organisation as a
whole have a priority than the objectives
of the sub system
 A system is a set of elements (often called 'components'
instead) and relationships which are different from
relationships of the set or its elements to other elements
or sets.
 Most systems share common characteristics, including:
 Systems have structure, defined by
components/elements and their composition;
 Systems have behavior, which involves inputs,
processing and outputs of material, energy, information,
or data;
 Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a
system have functional as well as structural
relationships to each other.
 Systems may have some functions or groups of
functions
Elements or components of a
system
 Input - Capturing and assembling
 Processor - transformation
 Outputs - value to user
 Controls - guides the system
 Feedback - actual against standard
 Environment - Super system
 Boundaries and interface -limits when
interfaces with another
Characteristics of system
 Organisation - Structure &
Order
 Interaction -
 Interdependence -
 Integration - Holism
 Central objective - Common goal
Systems thinking
Systems Thinking has been defined as an approach to
problem solving, by viewing "problems" as parts of an
overall system, rather than reacting to specific part,
outcomes or events and potentially contributing to
further development of unintended consequences.
Systems thinking is not one thing but a set of habits or
practices within a framework that is based on the
belief that the component parts of a system can best
be understood in the context of relationships with
each other and with other systems, rather than in
isolation.
Systems thinking focuses on cyclical rather than linear
cause and effect.
Types of system
 Refer page 9 Aman Jindal (MIS)
Data Vs Information
Information System
The information system is a system of group of
interrelated components working together
towards a common goal by accepting inputs and
producing outputs in an organized
transformation process.
In this system there are three basic components or
functions are involved. i.e., Input, Processing
and Output.
1. Office Automation Systems
2. Transaction Processing Systems
3. Decision Support Systems
4. Management Information Systems
5. Expert Systems
Types of Information Systems
• Office automation systems are used to automate routine office tasks, such
as the creation of documents, billing, and others.
• Office automation systems can be built from off-the-shelf applications –
standard productivity software that most users are familiar with.
• In some office systems, commercial software may be customized to
perform specific tasks, but this is not always necessary.
Office Automation Systems
• A transaction processing system is used to handle the processing and
tracking of transactions.
• A transaction is an event that can occur as a series of steps, such as taking
and fulfilling an order from a customer.
Types of Information Systems -
Transaction Processing Systems
• A decision support system collects various types of business data, and is
used to generate special reports that help managers make decisions.
• A decision support system may use data from a company's transaction
processing system and from external sources, such as stock market reports,
information about competitors, and so on.
• These systems provide highly tailored, structured reports that can be used
for very specific business situations.
Types of Information Systems -
Decision Support Systems
Input and feedback
Query, model and
analysis results
Interaction
Manager or
Staff Specialist
Decision Support
Software
Mathematical modeling tools
Database manager
External Data Sources
Governmental
Customers and
Supplies
Competition and
global markets
• A management information system (MIS) is designed to provide
information that is design for use by different types of managers.
• This type of system can create reports that meet the needs of managers at
different levels.
• Senior-level managers need different types of information than mid- or
low-level managers. These people may need entirely different types of
information, or to view the same type of information in unique ways.
Types of Information Systems -
Management Information Systems
• An expert system is a specialized information system that performs tasks
normally done by people, such as making decisions.
• Expert systems are used to approve bank loans, make large-scale purchasing
decisions, and assist with medical diagnoses.
• Expert systems rely on huge, detailed databases (knowledge bases). Special
software, called an inference engine, analyzes data to answer questions or
make choices.
Types of Information Systems –
Expert Systems
What is MIS?
 Right Information
 To the right person
 At the right place
 At the right time
 In the right form
 At the right cost
MIS
 Definition
"An integrated user-machine system for
providing information to support
operations, management and decision
making functions in an organization. The
system utilizes computerized and
manual procedures; models for analysis,
planning, control and decision making;
and a database."
What is Management
Information System?
(MIS) are designed to provide past, present, and future routine
information appropriate for planning, organizing, and controlling
the operations of a functional area in an organization
A manual or computerized system that collects, processes, and
reports data needed to manage a planning delivery system.
An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing,
storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed
to carry out the functions of management
MIS
o MIS refers broadly to a computer- based system
that provides managers with the tools for
organizing, evaluating and efficiently running
their departments.
o In order to provide past, present and prediction
information, an MIS can include software that
helps in decision making, data resources such
as databases, the hardware resources of a
system, decision support systems, people
management and project management
applications, and any computerized processes
thatenable the department to run efficiently
Characteristics of MIS
 Management oriented
 Management directed
 User-machine system
 Integrated system
 Involves large planning
 Sub systems
 Data base
 Information as a resource
 Flexibility in use
Historical Perspective
•Electronic data processing (EDP),
•transaction processing systems (TPS)
•Decision support systems (DSS) was born
•Executive information systems EIS
•Expert systems
•Knowledge management systems
•Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems.
•MIS to e-commerce
History of the Role of IS
Data
Processing
Management
Reporting
Decision
Support
Strategic &
End User
Electronic
Commerce
1950-1960 1960-1970 1970-1980 1980-1990 1990-2000
Electronic
Data
Processing
- TPS
Management
Information
Systems
Decision
Support
Systems
- Ad hoc
Reports
End User
Computing
Exec Info Sys
Expert Systems
SIS
Electronic
Business &
Commerce
-Internetworked
E-Business &
Commerce
Components of MIS
1.Hardware
2.Software
3.Control
4.Databases and application programs
5.People
6.Telecommunications and networks
Typical Inputs and Outputs
 Inputs: Information from the TPS
 Outputs: hard and softcopy reports
 Scheduled reports
 On-demand reports
 Key-indicator (business
fundamentals)
 Exception reports
MIS 175 Spring 2002 Chapter 10 33
STRUCTURE OF MIS
MIS Structure may be described by variety of
different approaches, such as:
1. Physical components
2. IS Processing functions
3. Decision support (Structured & Un
structured)
4. Levels of management activities
5. Organisational functions
1. Physical components
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Database
4. Procedures
5. Operating personnel
6. Input and output
2. Processing functions
(What system does)
1. To process transactions
2. To maintain master files
3. To produce reports
4. To process enquiries
5. To process interactive support
applications
3. Based on output for
users
1. Transaction documents – sales invoice,
etc
2. Preplanned reports
3. Preplanned inquiries
4. Adhoc reports
5. User Machine dialog
5. Based on organisational
functions
Matrix of functional subsystems and management
activities such as strategic planning,
management control, operational control,
transaction processing
o Sales & Marketing subsystem
o Production subsystem
o Logistics subsystem
o Personnel subsystem
o Finance & accounting subsystem
o Information processing subsystem
o Top management subsystem
Impacts of MIS
 Economic Impact
 Transaction Cost Theory
 Organiastional & Behavioural Impact
 IS flattens organisations
 Virtual organisations
 Organisational resistance to change
Planning of MIS involves the following
steps:
 Defining the problem or decision area
 System objectives
 Establishing system constraints:
 Determining information needs:
 Determination of information sources:
 Finding out alternative solutions:
 Evaluating alternative solutions:
 Selecting the best alternative:
 Preparation of design report:
 Implementing and monitoring the selected alternative:
 Documentation
Decision Levels
Decision
Level
Description Example Type of Information
Strategic Competitive advantage,
become a market leader.
Long-term outlook.
New product that
will change the
industry.
External events, rivals,
sales, costs quality,
trends.
Tactical Improving operations
without restructuring the
company.
New tools to cut
costs or improve
efficiency.
Expenses, schedules,
sales, models, forecasts.
Operations Day-to-day actions to keep
the company functioning.
Scheduling
employees,
ordering supplies.
Transactions,
accounting, human
resource management,
inventory.
Why Study IS?
 Information Systems Careers
 Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning
(ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist,
consulting, etc.
 Knowledge Workers
 Managers and non-managers
 Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how
to use information technology.
 Computer Literacy Replacing
Traditional Literacy
 Key to full participation in western society
42
Functions of MIS
1. data processing
It includes the collection, transmission, storage,
processing and output of data. It simplifies
the statistics and reduces to the lowest cost
by supplying an unified format.
2. function of prediction
It predicts the future situation by applying
modern mathematics, statistics or
simulation.
3. function of plan
It arranges reasonably the plans of each
functional department in accordance with the
restrictions afforded by enterprises and provides
the appropriate planning reports according to
different management.
4. function of control
It monitors and inspects the operation of plans
and comprises with the differences between
operation and plan in accordance with the data
afforded by every functional department, and be
assistant to managers to control timely each
method by analyzing the reasons why the
differences comes into being
5. function of assistance
It derives instantly the best answers of
related problems by applying to various
of mathematics' mode and analyzing a
plentiful data stored in computers in the
hope of using rationally human
resource, financial resource, material
resource and information resource for
relative abundant economic benefits.
Functional Aspects of MIS
 MIS is an integrated collection of
functional information systems, each
supporting particular functional areas.
Schematic
An Organization’s
MIS
Financial
MIS
Marketing
MIS
Human
Resources
MIS
Etc.
Accounting
MIS
Drill down reports
Exception reports
Demand reports
Key-indicator reports
Scheduled reports
Databases
of
external
data
Databases
of
valid
transactions
Transaction
processing
systems
Business
transactions
Business
transactions
Extranet
Internet
Etc.
Financial MIS
 Provides financial information to all financial
managers within an organization.
 MIS has many responsibilities to the accounting
function. Payroll processing and reporting, as well
as tax accountability are major functions for the
MIS department. In addition, all reporting and
documentation for payroll and tax matters fall to
MIS. Weekly, monthly, quarterly and year-end
reporting to management are also important duties
for MIS. Compliance with all federal, state and
local agencies, as well as reports to both
governmental agencies and management are also
vital for your MIS department. Schematic
Financial statements
Uses and management
of funds
Financial statistics
for control
Operational
databases
Databases
of valid
transactions
for each
TPS
Transaction
processing
systems
Business
transactions
Business
transactions
Internet or
Extranet
Financial
MIS
Business
transactions
Databases of
external data
Databases of
internal data
Financial
DSS
Financial
ES
Financial
applications
databases
Customers,
Suppliers
Inputs to the Financial
Information System
 Strategic plan or corporate policies
 Contains major financial objectives and often
projects financial needs.
 Transaction processing system (TPS)
 Important financial information collected from
almost every TPS - payroll, inventory control,
order processing, accounts payable, accounts
receivable, general ledger.
 External sources
 Annual reports and financial statements of
competitors and general news items.
Financial MIS Subsystems and
Outputs
 Financial subsystems
 Profit/loss and cost systems
 Auditing
 Internal auditing
 External auditing
 Uses and management of funds
Manufacturing MIS
Schematic
Perhaps no other department depends on your MIS department more
than operations. Sales and profits information must be received at least
daily in order for your company to operate properly. Staffing decisions,
including scheduling assignments, are based on reports generated
through your MIS department. Monthly, quarterly and yearly financial
statements, as well as expense reporting information must be received by
operations from your MIS associates. Without MIS input, operations is
literally flying blind and cannot function properly in this highly competitive
environment.
Quality control reports
Process control reports
JIT reports
Operational
databases
Databases
of valid
transactions
for each
TPS
Transaction
processing
systems
Business
transactions
Business
transactions
Internet or
Extranet
Manufacturing
MIS
Business
transactions
Databases of
external data
Databases of
internal data
Manufacturing
DSS
Manufacturing
ES
Manufacturing
applications
databases
Customers,
Suppliers
MRP reports
Production schedule
CAD output
Inputs to the Manufacturing
MIS
 Strategic plan or corporate policies.
 The TPS:
 Order processing
 Inventory data
 Receiving and inspecting data
 Personnel data
 Production process
 External sources
Manufacturing MIS Subsystems
and Outputs
 Design and engineering
 Master production scheduling
 Inventory control
 Manufacturing resource planning
 Just-in-time inventory and manufacturing
 Process control
 Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
 Quality control and testing
Marketing MIS
 marketing function depends on MIS for many of
its most important activities. Sales and product
analysis information is required and generated
daily by your MIS department. Ordering
information, from which product details are
generated, must be quickly and accurately
received through the function of MIS associates.
Decisions on product placement, as well as
marketing strategies are created through the
efforts of MIS reports. Marketing management
makes all major decisions after analysis of data
generated by your MIS team.
Schematic
Sales by customer
Sales by salesperson
Sales by productOperational
databases
Databases
of valid
transactions
for each
TPS
Transaction
processing
systems
Business
transactions
Marketing
MIS
Databases of
external data
Databases of
internal data
Manufacturing
DSS
Manufacturing
ES
Marketing
applications
databases
Pricing report
Total service calls
Customer satisfaction
Inputs to Marketing MIS
 Strategic plan and corporate policies
 The TPS
 External sources:
 The competition
 The market
Marketing MIS Subsystems and
Outputs
 Marketing research
 Product development
 Promotion and advertising
 Product pricing
Human Resource MIS
 Human Resources relies heavily on your MIS
department. All benefits information, from
program administration fall to the MIS
department to implement and track.
 In addition, the training and development
department relies on MIS to enroll and monitor
participants in their training program through
their learning management systems.
 Performance reviews and salary administration
also must be managed through your MIS
department. All reports for all employees also
are a major accountability for the MIS team.
Benefit reports
Salary surveys
Scheduling reportsOperational
databases
Databases
of valid
transactions
for each
TPS
Transaction
processing
systems
Business
transactions
Human
Resource
MIS
Databases of
external data
Databases of
internal data
Manufacturing
DSS
Manufacturing
ES
Human
resource
applications
databases
Training test scores
Job applicant profiles
Needs and planning
reports
Inputs to the Human Resource
MIS
 Strategic plan or corporate policies
 The TPS:
 Payroll data
 Order processing data
 Personnel data
 External sources
Human Resource MIS
Subsystems and Outputs
 Human resource planning
 Personnel selection and recruiting
 Training and skills inventory
 Scheduling and job placement
 Wage and salary administration
Other MISs
 Accounting MISs
 Provides aggregated information on accounts
payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and
other applications.
 Geographic information systems (GISs)
 Enables managers to pair pre-drawn maps or
map outlines with tabular data to describe
aspects of a particular geographic region.
DECISION SUPPORT
SYSTEMS
A decision support system is a computer application
that helps users analyze problems and make business
decisions more confidently. It uses data routinely
collected in organizations and special analysis tools
to provide information support to complex decisions.
DSS is more suited to handling unique and non-routine
decision problems. Each problem might require a
different approach to problem definition, analysis and
resolution.
DECISION SUPPORT
SYSTEMS DSS is designed to support managerial decision-making, usually,
at middle and top levels of management.
 Decisions made at the top level are mostly futuristic and non-
repetitive in nature. Such decision situations are highly uncertain and
even specification of information requirements for decisions are
difficult.
 They are classified as non-programmable or unstructured decision
situations. The cost of a wrong decision is usually very high, for
example a decision to sell off a line of business.
 This is in sharp contrast to programmable or structured decisions
where the decision procedure can be well defined and every
information requirement can be pre-specified. Most of the decisions
taken at lower levels of management fall into this category.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DSS
 It is designed and run by managers.
 It contains a database drawn from internal files and external
environment.
 It focuses on decision processes rather than on transaction
processing.
 It is concerned with a small area of managerial activity or a small
part of a large problem.
 It permits managers to test the probable results of alternative
decisions.
 It supports decision-making, usually in solving semi-structured
complex problems.
 It helps in refining managerial judgment applied to problem solving.
 It improves managerial decisions and thereby managerial
effectiveness.
 The decision maker retains control over decisions throughout the
decision process.
QUICK RECAP
A combination of
Hardware
Software
Infrastructure and
Trained personnel
organized to facilitate
Planning
Control
Coordination and
Decision Making
in an organization.
DEFINITION:
 Executive Support System (ESS)
 Management Information System (MIS)
 Decision Support System (DSS)
 Knowledge Management System (KMS)
 Transaction Processing System (TPS)
 Office Automation System (OAS)
TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
An Executive Support System ("ESS") is
designed to help senior management make
strategic decisions.
Executive Support System
A management information system (“MIS”) is
mainly concerned with internal sources of
information and summarizes it into a series of
management reports.
Management Information
System
Decision-support systems ("DSS") are
specifically designed to help management make
decisions in situations where there is
uncertainty about the possible outcomes of
those decisions.
Decision Making System
Knowledge Management Systems ("KMS") exist
to help businesses create and share
information.
Knowledge Management
System
Transaction Processing Systems ("TPS") are
designed to process routine transactions
efficiently and accurately.
Transaction Processing
System
Office Automation Systems are systems that try
to improve the productivity of employee who
need to process data and information.
Office Automation System
Basically there are 5 components available.
Hardware
Software
Data
Procedures
People
Components of Information
System
The term hardware refers to machinery.
This category includes the computer itself,
which is often referred to as the central
processing unit (CPU), and all of its support
equipments.
Hardware
The term software refers to computer
programs and the manuals (if any) that support
them.
Software
Data are facts that are used by programs to
produce useful information.
Data
Procedures are the policies that govern the
operation of a computer system.
Procedures
People mean the end user of the Systems.
Every CBIS (Computer Based Information
System) needs people if it is to be useful.
People
 This slide is Intentionally left blank
The Systems Development
Life Cycle
 The Systems Development Life Cycle
(SDLC) is a 6 step procedure The six
steps of the SDLC are:
1. Analysis of the Current System
2. Define the new System
Requirements
3. Design the new System
4. Develop the new System
5. Implement the new System
6. Evaluate and Maintain the System
Step 1: Analysis of the
Current System
 an analysis of the current system
must be made to determine
problems, opportunities and
objectives.
 The goal of systems analysis is to
obtain a clear understanding of the
system and its shortcomings and to
determine opportunities for
improvement.
Step 2: Define New
Requirements
 A business could improve its MIS so that it
could handle more time cards per week. In
addition, it might want to add some features.
All of these would require changes to its
MIS.
Some required features could be:
 Automatically update personnel file
Automatically calculate regular and OT
hours
Automatically generate weekly/yearly to date
figures
Step 3: Design the New
System
 How the system is to be constructed is
determined. A computer specialist will be
brought in, and s/he will design the new
system.
The computer specialist has two goals to meet:
1. Design of the new system: Using design tools,
as well as systems flowcharts, program
flowcharts, etc., the computer specialist will
design the new system.
2. Controls and Security: Controls and security
passwords must be established here.
Step 4: Develop the New
System
 After the system has been designed and
approved, it must be developed. This is
when the hardware and software is actually
acquired.
 In addition, users must be trained on the new
system. Sometimes the vendors of the
software give training seminars. Also, any
new procedures or polices must be taught.
 Lastly, the system must be tested.
Step 5: Implement the New
System
After the system has been developed and
tested, it must be implemented. According to
the type of organizations
 Direct Implementation
 Parallel Implementation
 Phased Implementation
 Pilot Implementation
Step 6: Post-implementation
Evaluation and Maintenance
After the system has been implemented,
and has been running for a few months,
an evaluation is made to determine if it
is meeting its objectives.
MIS Planning
The management information system needs
good planning. This system should deal with
the management information not with data
processing alone. It should provide support
for the management planning, decision
making and action. It should provide support
to the changing needs of business
management.
 Following are the contents of MIS planning
1. Set MIS Goals and
Objectives
It is necessary to develop the goal and
objectives for the MIS which will support the
business goals.
The MIS goals and objectives will consider
management philosophy, policy constraints,
Business risk, internal and external
environment of the organization and
business.
The goals and objectives of the MIS would be
so stated that they can be measured.
2. Strategy for Plan
Achievement
 a) Development Strategy : Ex. an online, batch
, a real time
 b) System Development Strategy : Designer
selects an approach to system development like
operational verses functional, accounting verses
analysis.
 c) Resources for the Development : Designer
has to select resources. Resources ca be in-
house verses external, customized or use of
package.
 d) Manpower Composition : The staff should
have the staffs of an analyst, and programmer
3. The Architecture of MIS
 The architecture of the MIS plan
provides a system and subsystem
structure and their input, output and
linkage. It spells out in details the
subsystem from the data entry to
processing, analysis to modeling and
storage to printing.
4. The System Development
Schedule
A schedule is made for development of the
system. While preparing a schedule due
consideration is given to importance of
the system in the overall information
requirements. This development
schedule is to be weighed against the
time scale for achieving certain
information requirements.
5. Hardware and Software Plan
Giving due regards to the technical and
operational feasibility, the economics of
investment is worked out. Then the plan
of procurement is made after selecting
the hardware and software. One can
take the phased approach of investing
starting from the lower configuration of
hardware going to the higher as
development take place.
Approaches to Development
of MIS
There are two basic approaches for
development of MIS
a) System development life
cycle
The system development life cycle have
following steps of development :
i) Systems Planning
ii) Systems Analysis
iii) Systems Design
iv) Systems Implementation
v) Systems Operation and Support (System
Maintenance)
b) Prototyping
Prototyping is the process of creating an
incomplete model of the future full-
featured system, which can be used to
let the users have a first idea of the
completed program or allow the clients
to evaluate the program
Systems Analyst
 Systems analysts act as
 Outside consultants to businesses
 Supporting experts within a business
 As change agents
 Analysts are problem solvers, and
require communication skills
 Analysts must be ethical with users and
customers
Strategic
Level
Operational
Level
Knowledge
Level
Higher
Level
A systems analyst
may be involved with
any or all of these
systems at each
organization level
Operational Level
 Transaction Processing System (TPS)
 Process large amounts of data for routine business
transactions
 Boundary-spanning
 Support the day-to-day operations of the company
 Examples: Payroll Processing, Inventory
Management
Knowledge Level
 Office Automation System (OAS)
 Supports data workers who share information, but do
not usually create new knowledge
 Examples: Word processing, Spreadsheets, Desktop
publishing, Electronic scheduling, Communication
through voice mail, Email, Video conferencing
 Knowledge Work System (KWS)
 Supports professional workers such as scientists,
engineers, and doctors
 Examples: computer-aided design systems, virtual
reality systems, investment workstations
Higher Level
 Management Information System (MIS)
 Support a broad spectrum of organizational tasks including decision
analysis and decision making
 Examples: profit margin by sales region, expenses vs. budgets
 Decision Support System (DSS)
 Aids decision makers in the making of decisions
 Examples: financial planning with what-if analysis, budgeting with
modeling
 Expert System (ES)
 Captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving a
particular problem which leads to a conclusion or recommendation
 Examples: MYCIN, XCON
Mycin: expert system was designed to identify bacteria causing severe
infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis, and to recommend
antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for patient's body weight
AI
Strategic Level
 Executive Support System (ESS)
 Helps executives by providing graphics to make unstructured strategic decisions in
an informed way
 Examples: drill-down analysis, status access
For example, when viewing your company's total worldwide sales for each month
of this year, you might drill down to see October's sales by country, then again
to see October's sales in Afghanistan by product and so on.
 Group Decision Support System (GDSS)
 Permit group members to interact with electronic support “group think”
 Examples: email, Lotus Notes
For example: polling, questionnaires, brainstorming, and scenario creation
 Computer-Supported Collaborative Work System (CSCWS)
 CDCWS is a more general term of GDSS
 May include software support called “groupware” for team collaboration via network
computers
 Example: video conferencing, Web survey system
 The role of an analyst is to help
organizations understand the challenges
before them to make this transition and to
ensure that the needs and expectations of
the client are represented correctly in the
final solution.
 Each company needs to define the specific
roles and responsibilities that an analyst
plays in their organization. However, the
general roles and responsibilities of an
analyst are defined below.
 In general, the analyst is responsible for
ensuring that the requirements set forth by
the business are captured and documented
correctly before the solution is developed
and implemented.
 . In some companies, this person might be
called a Business Analyst, Business Systems
Analyst, Systems Analyst or a Requirements
Analyst.
 . While each of these titles has their
particular nuances, the main responsibility of
each is the same - to capture and document
the requirements needed to implement a
solution to meet the clients' business needs.
 . If requirements are not captured and
documented, the analyst is accountable. If
the solution meets the documented
requirements, but the solution still does not
adequately represent the requirements of the
client, the analyst is accountable.
 Process Responsibilities
 Once the Analysis Phase begins, the
analyst plays a key role in making sure
that the overall project successfully
meets the client needs. This includes:
 Analyzing and understanding the current state
processes to ensure that the context and
implications of change are understood by the
clients and the project team
 Developing an understanding of how present
and future business needs will impact the
solution
 Identifying the sources of requirements and
understanding how roles help determine the
relative validity of requirements
 Developing a Requirements Management Plan
and disseminating the Plan to all stakeholders
 Identifying and documenting all business,
technical, product and process requirements
 Working with the client to prioritize and
rationalize the requirements
 Helping to define acceptance criteria for
completion of the solution
 Again, this does not mean that the analyst
physically does all of this work. There may
be other people on the team that contribute,
including the project manager. However, if
the finished solution is missing features, or if
the solution does not resolve the business
need, then the analyst is the person held
accountable.
 Analyst Skills
 Generally, analysts must have a good set of
people skills, business skills, technical skills
and soft skills to be successful. These
include:
 Having good verbal and written
communication skills, including active
listening skills.
 Being well organized and knowing good
processes to complete the work needed for
the project.
 Building effective relationships with clients to
develop joint vision for the project.
 Assisting the project manager by managing
client expectations through careful and
proactive communications regarding
requirements and changes.
 Negotiating skills to build a final consensus
on a common set of requirements from all
clients and stakeholders.
 Ensuring that stakeholders know the
implications of their decisions, and providing
options and alternatives when necessary.
 Multiple Roles
 Depending on the size of your projects, an
analyst’s time may be allocated one of the
following ways.
 They may have a full-time role on a large
project.
 They may have analyst responsibilities for
multiple projects, each of which is less than full
time, but the combination of which adds up to a
full-time role.
 They may fill multiple roles, each of which
requires a certain level of skill and responsibility.
On one project, for instance, they may be both
an analyst and a beta tester.
MIS concepts

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MIS concepts

  • 1. MIS
  • 2. SYSTEM CONCEPT Definition of a system A system is an orderly grouping of interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective.
  • 3. Three basic implications of a system  Must be designed to achieve a predetermined objective  Interrelationships and interdependence must exist among the components  The objectives of the organisation as a whole have a priority than the objectives of the sub system
  • 4.  A system is a set of elements (often called 'components' instead) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.  Most systems share common characteristics, including:  Systems have structure, defined by components/elements and their composition;  Systems have behavior, which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy, information, or data;  Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships to each other.  Systems may have some functions or groups of functions
  • 5. Elements or components of a system  Input - Capturing and assembling  Processor - transformation  Outputs - value to user  Controls - guides the system  Feedback - actual against standard  Environment - Super system  Boundaries and interface -limits when interfaces with another
  • 6. Characteristics of system  Organisation - Structure & Order  Interaction -  Interdependence -  Integration - Holism  Central objective - Common goal
  • 7. Systems thinking Systems Thinking has been defined as an approach to problem solving, by viewing "problems" as parts of an overall system, rather than reacting to specific part, outcomes or events and potentially contributing to further development of unintended consequences. Systems thinking is not one thing but a set of habits or practices within a framework that is based on the belief that the component parts of a system can best be understood in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems, rather than in isolation. Systems thinking focuses on cyclical rather than linear cause and effect.
  • 8. Types of system  Refer page 9 Aman Jindal (MIS)
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Information System The information system is a system of group of interrelated components working together towards a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. In this system there are three basic components or functions are involved. i.e., Input, Processing and Output.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. 1. Office Automation Systems 2. Transaction Processing Systems 3. Decision Support Systems 4. Management Information Systems 5. Expert Systems Types of Information Systems
  • 17. • Office automation systems are used to automate routine office tasks, such as the creation of documents, billing, and others. • Office automation systems can be built from off-the-shelf applications – standard productivity software that most users are familiar with. • In some office systems, commercial software may be customized to perform specific tasks, but this is not always necessary. Office Automation Systems
  • 18. • A transaction processing system is used to handle the processing and tracking of transactions. • A transaction is an event that can occur as a series of steps, such as taking and fulfilling an order from a customer. Types of Information Systems - Transaction Processing Systems
  • 19.
  • 20. • A decision support system collects various types of business data, and is used to generate special reports that help managers make decisions. • A decision support system may use data from a company's transaction processing system and from external sources, such as stock market reports, information about competitors, and so on. • These systems provide highly tailored, structured reports that can be used for very specific business situations. Types of Information Systems - Decision Support Systems
  • 21. Input and feedback Query, model and analysis results Interaction Manager or Staff Specialist Decision Support Software Mathematical modeling tools Database manager External Data Sources Governmental Customers and Supplies Competition and global markets
  • 22. • A management information system (MIS) is designed to provide information that is design for use by different types of managers. • This type of system can create reports that meet the needs of managers at different levels. • Senior-level managers need different types of information than mid- or low-level managers. These people may need entirely different types of information, or to view the same type of information in unique ways. Types of Information Systems - Management Information Systems
  • 23. • An expert system is a specialized information system that performs tasks normally done by people, such as making decisions. • Expert systems are used to approve bank loans, make large-scale purchasing decisions, and assist with medical diagnoses. • Expert systems rely on huge, detailed databases (knowledge bases). Special software, called an inference engine, analyzes data to answer questions or make choices. Types of Information Systems – Expert Systems
  • 24.
  • 25. What is MIS?  Right Information  To the right person  At the right place  At the right time  In the right form  At the right cost
  • 26. MIS  Definition "An integrated user-machine system for providing information to support operations, management and decision making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computerized and manual procedures; models for analysis, planning, control and decision making; and a database."
  • 27. What is Management Information System? (MIS) are designed to provide past, present, and future routine information appropriate for planning, organizing, and controlling the operations of a functional area in an organization A manual or computerized system that collects, processes, and reports data needed to manage a planning delivery system. An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management
  • 28. MIS o MIS refers broadly to a computer- based system that provides managers with the tools for organizing, evaluating and efficiently running their departments. o In order to provide past, present and prediction information, an MIS can include software that helps in decision making, data resources such as databases, the hardware resources of a system, decision support systems, people management and project management applications, and any computerized processes thatenable the department to run efficiently
  • 29. Characteristics of MIS  Management oriented  Management directed  User-machine system  Integrated system  Involves large planning  Sub systems  Data base  Information as a resource  Flexibility in use
  • 30. Historical Perspective •Electronic data processing (EDP), •transaction processing systems (TPS) •Decision support systems (DSS) was born •Executive information systems EIS •Expert systems •Knowledge management systems •Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. •MIS to e-commerce
  • 31. History of the Role of IS Data Processing Management Reporting Decision Support Strategic & End User Electronic Commerce 1950-1960 1960-1970 1970-1980 1980-1990 1990-2000 Electronic Data Processing - TPS Management Information Systems Decision Support Systems - Ad hoc Reports End User Computing Exec Info Sys Expert Systems SIS Electronic Business & Commerce -Internetworked E-Business & Commerce
  • 32. Components of MIS 1.Hardware 2.Software 3.Control 4.Databases and application programs 5.People 6.Telecommunications and networks
  • 33. Typical Inputs and Outputs  Inputs: Information from the TPS  Outputs: hard and softcopy reports  Scheduled reports  On-demand reports  Key-indicator (business fundamentals)  Exception reports MIS 175 Spring 2002 Chapter 10 33
  • 34. STRUCTURE OF MIS MIS Structure may be described by variety of different approaches, such as: 1. Physical components 2. IS Processing functions 3. Decision support (Structured & Un structured) 4. Levels of management activities 5. Organisational functions
  • 35. 1. Physical components 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Database 4. Procedures 5. Operating personnel 6. Input and output
  • 36. 2. Processing functions (What system does) 1. To process transactions 2. To maintain master files 3. To produce reports 4. To process enquiries 5. To process interactive support applications
  • 37. 3. Based on output for users 1. Transaction documents – sales invoice, etc 2. Preplanned reports 3. Preplanned inquiries 4. Adhoc reports 5. User Machine dialog
  • 38. 5. Based on organisational functions Matrix of functional subsystems and management activities such as strategic planning, management control, operational control, transaction processing o Sales & Marketing subsystem o Production subsystem o Logistics subsystem o Personnel subsystem o Finance & accounting subsystem o Information processing subsystem o Top management subsystem
  • 39. Impacts of MIS  Economic Impact  Transaction Cost Theory  Organiastional & Behavioural Impact  IS flattens organisations  Virtual organisations  Organisational resistance to change
  • 40. Planning of MIS involves the following steps:  Defining the problem or decision area  System objectives  Establishing system constraints:  Determining information needs:  Determination of information sources:  Finding out alternative solutions:  Evaluating alternative solutions:  Selecting the best alternative:  Preparation of design report:  Implementing and monitoring the selected alternative:  Documentation
  • 41. Decision Levels Decision Level Description Example Type of Information Strategic Competitive advantage, become a market leader. Long-term outlook. New product that will change the industry. External events, rivals, sales, costs quality, trends. Tactical Improving operations without restructuring the company. New tools to cut costs or improve efficiency. Expenses, schedules, sales, models, forecasts. Operations Day-to-day actions to keep the company functioning. Scheduling employees, ordering supplies. Transactions, accounting, human resource management, inventory.
  • 42. Why Study IS?  Information Systems Careers  Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc.  Knowledge Workers  Managers and non-managers  Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology.  Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy  Key to full participation in western society 42
  • 43. Functions of MIS 1. data processing It includes the collection, transmission, storage, processing and output of data. It simplifies the statistics and reduces to the lowest cost by supplying an unified format. 2. function of prediction It predicts the future situation by applying modern mathematics, statistics or simulation.
  • 44. 3. function of plan It arranges reasonably the plans of each functional department in accordance with the restrictions afforded by enterprises and provides the appropriate planning reports according to different management. 4. function of control It monitors and inspects the operation of plans and comprises with the differences between operation and plan in accordance with the data afforded by every functional department, and be assistant to managers to control timely each method by analyzing the reasons why the differences comes into being
  • 45. 5. function of assistance It derives instantly the best answers of related problems by applying to various of mathematics' mode and analyzing a plentiful data stored in computers in the hope of using rationally human resource, financial resource, material resource and information resource for relative abundant economic benefits.
  • 46. Functional Aspects of MIS  MIS is an integrated collection of functional information systems, each supporting particular functional areas. Schematic
  • 47. An Organization’s MIS Financial MIS Marketing MIS Human Resources MIS Etc. Accounting MIS Drill down reports Exception reports Demand reports Key-indicator reports Scheduled reports Databases of external data Databases of valid transactions Transaction processing systems Business transactions Business transactions Extranet Internet Etc.
  • 48. Financial MIS  Provides financial information to all financial managers within an organization.  MIS has many responsibilities to the accounting function. Payroll processing and reporting, as well as tax accountability are major functions for the MIS department. In addition, all reporting and documentation for payroll and tax matters fall to MIS. Weekly, monthly, quarterly and year-end reporting to management are also important duties for MIS. Compliance with all federal, state and local agencies, as well as reports to both governmental agencies and management are also vital for your MIS department. Schematic
  • 49. Financial statements Uses and management of funds Financial statistics for control Operational databases Databases of valid transactions for each TPS Transaction processing systems Business transactions Business transactions Internet or Extranet Financial MIS Business transactions Databases of external data Databases of internal data Financial DSS Financial ES Financial applications databases Customers, Suppliers
  • 50. Inputs to the Financial Information System  Strategic plan or corporate policies  Contains major financial objectives and often projects financial needs.  Transaction processing system (TPS)  Important financial information collected from almost every TPS - payroll, inventory control, order processing, accounts payable, accounts receivable, general ledger.  External sources  Annual reports and financial statements of competitors and general news items.
  • 51. Financial MIS Subsystems and Outputs  Financial subsystems  Profit/loss and cost systems  Auditing  Internal auditing  External auditing  Uses and management of funds
  • 52. Manufacturing MIS Schematic Perhaps no other department depends on your MIS department more than operations. Sales and profits information must be received at least daily in order for your company to operate properly. Staffing decisions, including scheduling assignments, are based on reports generated through your MIS department. Monthly, quarterly and yearly financial statements, as well as expense reporting information must be received by operations from your MIS associates. Without MIS input, operations is literally flying blind and cannot function properly in this highly competitive environment.
  • 53. Quality control reports Process control reports JIT reports Operational databases Databases of valid transactions for each TPS Transaction processing systems Business transactions Business transactions Internet or Extranet Manufacturing MIS Business transactions Databases of external data Databases of internal data Manufacturing DSS Manufacturing ES Manufacturing applications databases Customers, Suppliers MRP reports Production schedule CAD output
  • 54. Inputs to the Manufacturing MIS  Strategic plan or corporate policies.  The TPS:  Order processing  Inventory data  Receiving and inspecting data  Personnel data  Production process  External sources
  • 55. Manufacturing MIS Subsystems and Outputs  Design and engineering  Master production scheduling  Inventory control  Manufacturing resource planning  Just-in-time inventory and manufacturing  Process control  Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)  Quality control and testing
  • 56. Marketing MIS  marketing function depends on MIS for many of its most important activities. Sales and product analysis information is required and generated daily by your MIS department. Ordering information, from which product details are generated, must be quickly and accurately received through the function of MIS associates. Decisions on product placement, as well as marketing strategies are created through the efforts of MIS reports. Marketing management makes all major decisions after analysis of data generated by your MIS team. Schematic
  • 57. Sales by customer Sales by salesperson Sales by productOperational databases Databases of valid transactions for each TPS Transaction processing systems Business transactions Marketing MIS Databases of external data Databases of internal data Manufacturing DSS Manufacturing ES Marketing applications databases Pricing report Total service calls Customer satisfaction
  • 58. Inputs to Marketing MIS  Strategic plan and corporate policies  The TPS  External sources:  The competition  The market
  • 59. Marketing MIS Subsystems and Outputs  Marketing research  Product development  Promotion and advertising  Product pricing
  • 60. Human Resource MIS  Human Resources relies heavily on your MIS department. All benefits information, from program administration fall to the MIS department to implement and track.  In addition, the training and development department relies on MIS to enroll and monitor participants in their training program through their learning management systems.  Performance reviews and salary administration also must be managed through your MIS department. All reports for all employees also are a major accountability for the MIS team.
  • 61. Benefit reports Salary surveys Scheduling reportsOperational databases Databases of valid transactions for each TPS Transaction processing systems Business transactions Human Resource MIS Databases of external data Databases of internal data Manufacturing DSS Manufacturing ES Human resource applications databases Training test scores Job applicant profiles Needs and planning reports
  • 62. Inputs to the Human Resource MIS  Strategic plan or corporate policies  The TPS:  Payroll data  Order processing data  Personnel data  External sources
  • 63. Human Resource MIS Subsystems and Outputs  Human resource planning  Personnel selection and recruiting  Training and skills inventory  Scheduling and job placement  Wage and salary administration
  • 64. Other MISs  Accounting MISs  Provides aggregated information on accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and other applications.  Geographic information systems (GISs)  Enables managers to pair pre-drawn maps or map outlines with tabular data to describe aspects of a particular geographic region.
  • 65. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS A decision support system is a computer application that helps users analyze problems and make business decisions more confidently. It uses data routinely collected in organizations and special analysis tools to provide information support to complex decisions. DSS is more suited to handling unique and non-routine decision problems. Each problem might require a different approach to problem definition, analysis and resolution.
  • 66. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS DSS is designed to support managerial decision-making, usually, at middle and top levels of management.  Decisions made at the top level are mostly futuristic and non- repetitive in nature. Such decision situations are highly uncertain and even specification of information requirements for decisions are difficult.  They are classified as non-programmable or unstructured decision situations. The cost of a wrong decision is usually very high, for example a decision to sell off a line of business.  This is in sharp contrast to programmable or structured decisions where the decision procedure can be well defined and every information requirement can be pre-specified. Most of the decisions taken at lower levels of management fall into this category.
  • 67. CHARACTERISTICS OF DSS  It is designed and run by managers.  It contains a database drawn from internal files and external environment.  It focuses on decision processes rather than on transaction processing.  It is concerned with a small area of managerial activity or a small part of a large problem.  It permits managers to test the probable results of alternative decisions.  It supports decision-making, usually in solving semi-structured complex problems.  It helps in refining managerial judgment applied to problem solving.  It improves managerial decisions and thereby managerial effectiveness.  The decision maker retains control over decisions throughout the decision process.
  • 69. A combination of Hardware Software Infrastructure and Trained personnel organized to facilitate Planning Control Coordination and Decision Making in an organization. DEFINITION:
  • 70.  Executive Support System (ESS)  Management Information System (MIS)  Decision Support System (DSS)  Knowledge Management System (KMS)  Transaction Processing System (TPS)  Office Automation System (OAS) TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 71. An Executive Support System ("ESS") is designed to help senior management make strategic decisions. Executive Support System
  • 72. A management information system (“MIS”) is mainly concerned with internal sources of information and summarizes it into a series of management reports. Management Information System
  • 73. Decision-support systems ("DSS") are specifically designed to help management make decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. Decision Making System
  • 74. Knowledge Management Systems ("KMS") exist to help businesses create and share information. Knowledge Management System
  • 75. Transaction Processing Systems ("TPS") are designed to process routine transactions efficiently and accurately. Transaction Processing System
  • 76. Office Automation Systems are systems that try to improve the productivity of employee who need to process data and information. Office Automation System
  • 77. Basically there are 5 components available. Hardware Software Data Procedures People Components of Information System
  • 78. The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipments. Hardware
  • 79. The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Software
  • 80. Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Data
  • 81. Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. Procedures
  • 82. People mean the end user of the Systems. Every CBIS (Computer Based Information System) needs people if it is to be useful. People
  • 83.  This slide is Intentionally left blank
  • 84. The Systems Development Life Cycle  The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a 6 step procedure The six steps of the SDLC are: 1. Analysis of the Current System 2. Define the new System Requirements 3. Design the new System 4. Develop the new System 5. Implement the new System 6. Evaluate and Maintain the System
  • 85. Step 1: Analysis of the Current System  an analysis of the current system must be made to determine problems, opportunities and objectives.  The goal of systems analysis is to obtain a clear understanding of the system and its shortcomings and to determine opportunities for improvement.
  • 86. Step 2: Define New Requirements  A business could improve its MIS so that it could handle more time cards per week. In addition, it might want to add some features. All of these would require changes to its MIS. Some required features could be:  Automatically update personnel file Automatically calculate regular and OT hours Automatically generate weekly/yearly to date figures
  • 87. Step 3: Design the New System  How the system is to be constructed is determined. A computer specialist will be brought in, and s/he will design the new system. The computer specialist has two goals to meet: 1. Design of the new system: Using design tools, as well as systems flowcharts, program flowcharts, etc., the computer specialist will design the new system. 2. Controls and Security: Controls and security passwords must be established here.
  • 88. Step 4: Develop the New System  After the system has been designed and approved, it must be developed. This is when the hardware and software is actually acquired.  In addition, users must be trained on the new system. Sometimes the vendors of the software give training seminars. Also, any new procedures or polices must be taught.  Lastly, the system must be tested.
  • 89. Step 5: Implement the New System After the system has been developed and tested, it must be implemented. According to the type of organizations  Direct Implementation  Parallel Implementation  Phased Implementation  Pilot Implementation
  • 90. Step 6: Post-implementation Evaluation and Maintenance After the system has been implemented, and has been running for a few months, an evaluation is made to determine if it is meeting its objectives.
  • 91. MIS Planning The management information system needs good planning. This system should deal with the management information not with data processing alone. It should provide support for the management planning, decision making and action. It should provide support to the changing needs of business management.  Following are the contents of MIS planning
  • 92. 1. Set MIS Goals and Objectives It is necessary to develop the goal and objectives for the MIS which will support the business goals. The MIS goals and objectives will consider management philosophy, policy constraints, Business risk, internal and external environment of the organization and business. The goals and objectives of the MIS would be so stated that they can be measured.
  • 93. 2. Strategy for Plan Achievement  a) Development Strategy : Ex. an online, batch , a real time  b) System Development Strategy : Designer selects an approach to system development like operational verses functional, accounting verses analysis.  c) Resources for the Development : Designer has to select resources. Resources ca be in- house verses external, customized or use of package.  d) Manpower Composition : The staff should have the staffs of an analyst, and programmer
  • 94. 3. The Architecture of MIS  The architecture of the MIS plan provides a system and subsystem structure and their input, output and linkage. It spells out in details the subsystem from the data entry to processing, analysis to modeling and storage to printing.
  • 95. 4. The System Development Schedule A schedule is made for development of the system. While preparing a schedule due consideration is given to importance of the system in the overall information requirements. This development schedule is to be weighed against the time scale for achieving certain information requirements.
  • 96. 5. Hardware and Software Plan Giving due regards to the technical and operational feasibility, the economics of investment is worked out. Then the plan of procurement is made after selecting the hardware and software. One can take the phased approach of investing starting from the lower configuration of hardware going to the higher as development take place.
  • 97. Approaches to Development of MIS There are two basic approaches for development of MIS
  • 98. a) System development life cycle The system development life cycle have following steps of development : i) Systems Planning ii) Systems Analysis iii) Systems Design iv) Systems Implementation v) Systems Operation and Support (System Maintenance)
  • 99. b) Prototyping Prototyping is the process of creating an incomplete model of the future full- featured system, which can be used to let the users have a first idea of the completed program or allow the clients to evaluate the program
  • 100. Systems Analyst  Systems analysts act as  Outside consultants to businesses  Supporting experts within a business  As change agents  Analysts are problem solvers, and require communication skills  Analysts must be ethical with users and customers
  • 101.
  • 102. Strategic Level Operational Level Knowledge Level Higher Level A systems analyst may be involved with any or all of these systems at each organization level
  • 103. Operational Level  Transaction Processing System (TPS)  Process large amounts of data for routine business transactions  Boundary-spanning  Support the day-to-day operations of the company  Examples: Payroll Processing, Inventory Management
  • 104. Knowledge Level  Office Automation System (OAS)  Supports data workers who share information, but do not usually create new knowledge  Examples: Word processing, Spreadsheets, Desktop publishing, Electronic scheduling, Communication through voice mail, Email, Video conferencing  Knowledge Work System (KWS)  Supports professional workers such as scientists, engineers, and doctors  Examples: computer-aided design systems, virtual reality systems, investment workstations
  • 105. Higher Level  Management Information System (MIS)  Support a broad spectrum of organizational tasks including decision analysis and decision making  Examples: profit margin by sales region, expenses vs. budgets  Decision Support System (DSS)  Aids decision makers in the making of decisions  Examples: financial planning with what-if analysis, budgeting with modeling  Expert System (ES)  Captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving a particular problem which leads to a conclusion or recommendation  Examples: MYCIN, XCON Mycin: expert system was designed to identify bacteria causing severe infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis, and to recommend antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for patient's body weight AI
  • 106. Strategic Level  Executive Support System (ESS)  Helps executives by providing graphics to make unstructured strategic decisions in an informed way  Examples: drill-down analysis, status access For example, when viewing your company's total worldwide sales for each month of this year, you might drill down to see October's sales by country, then again to see October's sales in Afghanistan by product and so on.  Group Decision Support System (GDSS)  Permit group members to interact with electronic support “group think”  Examples: email, Lotus Notes For example: polling, questionnaires, brainstorming, and scenario creation  Computer-Supported Collaborative Work System (CSCWS)  CDCWS is a more general term of GDSS  May include software support called “groupware” for team collaboration via network computers  Example: video conferencing, Web survey system
  • 107.  The role of an analyst is to help organizations understand the challenges before them to make this transition and to ensure that the needs and expectations of the client are represented correctly in the final solution.
  • 108.  Each company needs to define the specific roles and responsibilities that an analyst plays in their organization. However, the general roles and responsibilities of an analyst are defined below.
  • 109.  In general, the analyst is responsible for ensuring that the requirements set forth by the business are captured and documented correctly before the solution is developed and implemented.
  • 110.  . In some companies, this person might be called a Business Analyst, Business Systems Analyst, Systems Analyst or a Requirements Analyst.
  • 111.  . While each of these titles has their particular nuances, the main responsibility of each is the same - to capture and document the requirements needed to implement a solution to meet the clients' business needs.
  • 112.  . If requirements are not captured and documented, the analyst is accountable. If the solution meets the documented requirements, but the solution still does not adequately represent the requirements of the client, the analyst is accountable.
  • 113.  Process Responsibilities  Once the Analysis Phase begins, the analyst plays a key role in making sure that the overall project successfully meets the client needs. This includes:
  • 114.  Analyzing and understanding the current state processes to ensure that the context and implications of change are understood by the clients and the project team  Developing an understanding of how present and future business needs will impact the solution  Identifying the sources of requirements and understanding how roles help determine the relative validity of requirements  Developing a Requirements Management Plan and disseminating the Plan to all stakeholders
  • 115.  Identifying and documenting all business, technical, product and process requirements  Working with the client to prioritize and rationalize the requirements  Helping to define acceptance criteria for completion of the solution
  • 116.  Again, this does not mean that the analyst physically does all of this work. There may be other people on the team that contribute, including the project manager. However, if the finished solution is missing features, or if the solution does not resolve the business need, then the analyst is the person held accountable.
  • 117.  Analyst Skills  Generally, analysts must have a good set of people skills, business skills, technical skills and soft skills to be successful. These include:
  • 118.  Having good verbal and written communication skills, including active listening skills.  Being well organized and knowing good processes to complete the work needed for the project.  Building effective relationships with clients to develop joint vision for the project.  Assisting the project manager by managing client expectations through careful and proactive communications regarding requirements and changes.
  • 119.  Negotiating skills to build a final consensus on a common set of requirements from all clients and stakeholders.  Ensuring that stakeholders know the implications of their decisions, and providing options and alternatives when necessary.
  • 120.  Multiple Roles  Depending on the size of your projects, an analyst’s time may be allocated one of the following ways.  They may have a full-time role on a large project.  They may have analyst responsibilities for multiple projects, each of which is less than full time, but the combination of which adds up to a full-time role.  They may fill multiple roles, each of which requires a certain level of skill and responsibility. On one project, for instance, they may be both an analyst and a beta tester.