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Mango: The King of Fruits and its Micronutrient Marvels
Mango is known as the "King of Fruits" because of its distinct flavor, sweet taste, and numerous
health benefits. Mango flesh is eaten in both its unripe and ripe states. Mangoes are often consumed
fresh, but they may also be used to produce a variety of beverages and processed foods. These
include pickles, chutneys, vinegar, beverages, sweets, meat tenderizers, and even dessert
flavorings. Along with an increase in the sale of fresh mangoes, there has also been a significant
increase in the trading of processed mangoes across the world. Mangoes, in addition to having
higher amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, have a varied range of bioactive chemicals
present in different portions of the plant, such as mangiferin, the main active element in mango
(Stohs et all. 2018).
NUTRITIONAL PROFILE
The nutritional value of mango fruit is enhanced by the presence of both macronutrients and
micronutrients. The macronutrient content of mango flesh varies somewhat amongst mango types.
A study was conducted to examine the macronutrient content of mango kernel flour (variety
Ikanekpo, Nigeria), and the macronutrient composition per kilogram was determined to be 500g
carbohydrate, 94g fat, 66.1g protein, and 28g fiber. The fat content of mango kernels ranges from
6 to 12 percent depending on dry matter, while the fatty acid profile revealed significant amounts
of oleic acid and stearic acid8. Mango seed fat has been recognized by European Union authorities
as a replacement for cocoa butter Mango seed kernel protein levels are normally low, but they
include essential amino acids, suggesting the presence of high-quality protein. It has also been
demonstrated that the pattern of limiting amino acids such as cysteine, valine, methionine, and
isoleucine varies amongst cultivars. According to a study on the macronutrient composition of
Egyptian mango seed kernel varieties such as Balady, Zebda, and Succary, the number of essential
amino acids found in mango seed kernel exceeds the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
recommended protein levels. Mango has a high fiber content, which can help with a number of
digestive issues. Many populations in developing countries that consume more fiber have been
shown to have a lower percentage of GI problems. Because it is associated with a decreased
incidence of illnesses such as obesity, cancer, diabetes, chronic bowel disease, and cardiovascular
disease (Johnson and Mutagenesis 2004), dietary fiber has various favorable effects on the gut ,as
well as overall health and other body functions. Keitt mango, which is produced and farmed in
Florida, has 1.4g and 1.6g of total dietary fiber per 100g fruit, respectively. Pectin, on the other
hand, is readily available (Mahattanatawee et all.2006) The mineral content of the fiber derived from
Haden mango peel is substantial, including zinc (32.5 mg/kg), magnesium (950 mg/kg), calcium
(4445 mg/kg), iron (175 mg/kg), and potassium (2910 mg/kg), all of which are necessary for
human health. Carotenoids, provitamin A carotenoids, and -carotene are abundant in the flesh of
several mango varieties (Ornelas-Paz et all.2007). In addition, mango flesh includes
dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbic acid. As a result, this fruit may be a rich source of vitamin C,
which has several health advantages. As a result, consuming mango fruit on a regular basis can
help people meet their recommended dietary needs for Vitamin C and Vitamin A, as well as other
macro and micronutrients, phenolic compounds, and dietary fiber. The nutritious makeup of
mango fruit is shown in Table 1.
Table1: Nutrient composition of Mango Fruit per 100 g (Jash and Brahmachari 2015)
Nutrients Quantity Nutrients Quantity
Fat 0.4g Saturated Fat 0.1g
Carbohydrates 28.1g Vitamin K 6.9 μg
Sugars 24.4g Vitamin E 1.8mg
Protein 0.82g Vitamin C 45.7mg
Calcium 16.5mg Vitamin B1 0.1mg
Phosphorus 18.2mg Vitamin B2 0.1mg
Magnesium 14.8mg Vitamin B6 0.119mg
Potassium 257mg Vitamin B12 120 μg
Copper 0.2mg Vitamin B5 0.3mg
Sodium 3.3mg Vitamin B3 1mg
Zinc 0.1mg Vitamin B9 43 μg
Selenium 1.0μg Chlorine 12.5mg
Iron 0.2mg Dietary Fiber 3g
Manganese 0mg Energy 448 KJ
3. MICRONUTRIENT COMPOSITION
A range of dietary components and nutrients are required for the normal functioning of the human
body. Phytonutrients in foods serve as both health boosters and disease preventatives. Mango is a
popular fruit due to its distinct flavor and nutritional value. (Figure 1) It contains a lot of vitamins
A, B, and C. In addition to vitamins, minerals such as calcium, salt, potassium, magnesium, iron,
and phosphorus are added. Mangoes also have tiny amounts of malic, citric, and tartaric acid
(Ghuniyal 2015).
3.1 Vitamin
Mango includes vitamin A, which is necessary for vision and prevents muscle degeneration. Blood
circulation in the skin and mucous membranes increases when vitamin A is present. Mango is high
Nutritional Benefit
Maintains heart rate and blood pressure
Prevents heart disease (Vit. B6)
Helps to overcome weakness (iron)
Increase resistance against free radicals (Vit. C)
Prevents ulcers (fiber)
Protective against muscular degeneration (Vit. A)
Pharmacological Benefits
Anti-cancer
Anti-diabetic
Anti-bacterial
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-oxidant
Gastroprotective health
Fig. 1: Nutritional Benefits Mango (Mangifera indica)
in vitamin B6, commonly known as pyridoxine. Homocysteine, an amino acid present in the blood,
can cause damage to the linings of blood vessels. Pyridoxine lowers homocysteine levels, which
assists in the prevention of heart disease. Mangoes, both unripe and ripe, are high in vitamin C. It
has been demonstrated to reduce LDL cholesterol levels in the body. Mango also contains trace
levels of vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and pantothenic acid (Table 1).
Consumption of mangoes also increases resistance to free radicals and other pathogenic agents
(Stone et all.2017).
3.2 Fiber and minerals
Fiber assists in the breakdown of protein during digestion. It may be found in large quantities in a
mango. The prebiotic fiber aids in the growth and maintenance of healthy bacteria in the gut, which
aids in the prevention of disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and ulcers. Mango is beneficial
to anemic people due to its high iron content. Menopause causes female fragility, which can be
reduced by consuming mangoes to satisfy iron requirements. Fresh mangoes have a greater
potassium content, which is an essential element required by cells and a component of biological
fluids that play a vital part in heart rate and blood pressure maintenance. Mangoes include
phytochemicals that protect the body from free radical damage, such as beta carotene, astragalin,
and quercetin. (Mubarik et al. 2020).
4. PHARMACOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF MANGO
4.1 Mangiferin
It is a substance found in mango fruit, leaves, bark, and roots5. Mangiferin is a light-yellow
crystalline powder with a low ethanol solubility, a sparing solubility in water and ethanol, and an
insoluble solubility in acetone, diethyl ether, and n-hexane. Mangifera possesses a variety of
medicinal qualities, including antioxidant activity, a role in the pro-hypoglycemic activity,
cholesterol level management, and TNF expression modulation. (Imran et all.2017)
4.2 Anti-oxidant
Reactive oxygen species oxidation can alter the function and structure of biological components
such as DNA, protein, and lipids (ROS). Antioxidants such as vitamin C and E, as well as beta
carotene, are useful in avoiding this as well as the beginning of other chronic disorders.
Antioxidant defense assists in the treatment of chronic illnesses as well as in the prevention of
cancer. Because of the presence of hydroxyl groups and a C-glucosyl linkage, mangiferin has the
ability to scavenge radicals, according to (Saha et al.2016). Another study discovered that
hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation was dramatically reduced in human peripheral
blood cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mangiferin may be an iron chelator that protects against
UV radiation and hydroxyl radicals. Mangiferin was discovered to have the activity of
counterbalancing oxygen free radical generation caused by iron and toxicity in a study done by
(Pardo-Andreu et al.2006.) In one investigation, the protective nature of mangiferin against
oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide and cell death in MC3T3-E1 cultured cells was
studied. By regulating ERK5/Nrf2 signaling, mangiferin has been found to protect cells against
oxidative stress. This feature adds to its being considered as a viable therapy for osteoporotic
patients. Mangiferin's hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage was described
by (Pokorski et al.2000). In a different study, mangiferin protected hepatic tissues against arsenic-
induced oxidative damage.
4.3 Anti-diabetic
Mangiferin has a role in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance regulation. In diabetic rats, 8-
week treatment with mangiferin dramatically lowered plasma glucose and fat levels. Increased
AMP phosphorylation, which activates protein kinase, has been proven to enhance pancreatic beta-
cell mass, as well as glucose and insulin absorption. Collagen IV is the most important structural
collagen (protein), as it forms the backbone of the basement membrane. It acts as a barrier between
tissue compartments by forming a network beneath epithelial and endothelial cells. Mangiferin can
aid in the prevention of renal fibrosis and the reduction of collagen IV levels. Mangiferin
medication lowered kidney weight and renal issues for nine weeks, according to research. It also
aided in the normalization of blood urea nitrogen, which is required for bodily balance. It has been
discovered that plant-based diets effectively lower blood sugar levels and may assist to eliminate
the usage of standard pharmaceuticals as treatment. This also aids in the removal of any adverse
effects. Dr. Roy Chowdhury conducted clinical research in which he discovered that blood glucose
levels and glycemic index were lower in around 84 percent of patients who followed a strict
vegetarian diet that included raw mango fruit. The researchers also discovered that a warm water
extract of entire mango leaves or powder had favorable benefits in diabetics. (Mubarik et al. 2020)
4.4 Anti-bacterial
Several bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia, have
been demonstrated to be resistant to extract from mango stems and leaves. E. coli, Listeria
monocytogenes, and Salmonella were all shown to have activity. The antimicrobial activity of
mangiferin and gall tannin extracts against gram-negative and positive bacteria has been
demonstrated. Mangiferin travels through the GI system and is metabolized by colonic intestine
microorganisms into different phenolic acid derivatives, providing medical advantages. A number
of investigations have resulted in the analysis that inflammation in the intestine and impaired
motility of the gastrointestinal tract can be reduced effectively by mangiferin. Myeloperoxidase
activity, adhesion molecules, nitrate levels, and cytokines were significantly suppressed by the use
of mangiferin. Based on these investigations and results mangiferin was considered to possess
therapeutic potential against inflammatory bowel diseases. In a study it was observed that
mangiferin exhibited gastroprotective activity against ulcers, gastric lesion induced by ethanol and
indomethacin, as well as gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl depletion in mice. TNF, NF-B
subunit, IL-1, p65, and IL-8 are all inflammatory indicators that are inhibited by mangiferin. For
gastroprotective health, a plant-based diet high in mangiferin, as well as supplementation, might
be advantageous. (Mubarik et al. 2020)
4.6 Anti-inflammatory
Some common disorders characterized by chronic inflammation include IBD (inflammatory bowel
disease), ulcerative colitis, etc. These disorders also contribute towards mucosal damage in the
large intestine. The mucosa of patients with such diseases has been shown to form an increased
amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g., IL-1, IL-12. IL-6, and TNF-α. Mango extracts have
been found to play an anti-inflammatory role in the sample of murine with ulcerative colitis in an
experiment. It was seen that the symptoms like diarrhea, weight loss, and colon shortening were
reduced when the extract from Mangifera indica (mango) was used. Mangifera indica extract
decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines like iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and TNFR-2
in the tissues of the colon. Mangiferin also reduced the liver NLRP3 induced by LPS and D-
galactosamine. The extracts of mango provide protection against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and
galactosamine-induced acute liver inflammation. Mangifera indica extract decreased the
expression of proinflammatory cytokines like iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and TNFR-2 in the tissues
of the colon. Mangiferin also reduced the liver NLRP3 induced by LPS and D-galactosamine. The
extracts of mango provide protection against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Galactosamine-
induced acute liver inflammation. The ethanolic extract of the seed of mango is responsible to
promote cell death in both estrogen-positive and -negative breast cancer and not in normal breast
cells Mango polyphenolics and kernel have an effect on induction of apoptosis of breast cancer
cell lines, also polyphenol decreased cell proliferation. In estrogen-negative breast tumor cells, the
production of ROS which enhances cell death through Bax activation and cytochrome c release
has been related to the cytotoxic effect of mango seed extract. (Stohs et all. 2018).
References
Stohs S, Swaroop A, Moriyama H, Bagchi M, Ahmad T, Bagchi DJJNHS. 2018. A Review on
Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Abilities of Mango (Mangifera indica) Leaf
Extract and Mangiferin. 5:303.
Johnson IJMRF, Mutagenesis MMo. 2004. New approaches to the role of diet in the prevention of
cancers of the alimentary tract. 551(1-2):9-28.
Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EAJJoa, chemistry f.
2006. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.
54(19):7355-7363
Ornelas-Paz JdJ, Yahia EM, Gardea-Bejar AJJoa, chemistry f. 2007. Identification and
Quantification of Xanthophyll Esters, Carotenes, and Tocopherols in the Fruit of Seven Mexican
Mango Cultivars by Liquid Chromatography− Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization− Time-
of-Flight Mass Spectrometry [LC-(APcI+)-MS]. 55(16):6628-6635.
Jash SK, Brahmachari GJb. 2015. Chemical profile and health benefits of fruit mango—an
emerging functional food: An update. 2:3
Ghuniyal JJIJoPR, Review. 2015. Ethanomedical, chemical, pharmacological, toxicological
properties of Mangifera indica: a review. 4(10):51-64.
Stone KL, Lui LY, Christen WG, Troen AM, Bauer DC, Kado D, Schambach C, Cummings SR,
Manson JEJJoB, Research M. 2017. Effect of combination folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12
supplementation on fracture risk in women: a randomized, controlled trial. 32(12):2331-2338
Mubarik et al. 2020, A Review on Pharmacological and Nutritional Benefits of Mango (Mangifera indica
Linn): A Remedy for Cancer, Diabetes and Gastrointestinal Infections AJLS, 3 (2): 82-92
Imran M, Arshad MS, Butt MS, Kwon J-H, Arshad MU, Sultan MTJLih, disease. 2017.
Mangiferin: a natural miracle bioactive compound against lifestyle-related disorders. 16(1):84.
Saha S, Sadhukhan P, Sil PCJB. 2016. Mangiferin: A xanthonoid with multipotent anti-
inflammatory potential. 42(5):459-474

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Mango: The king of Fruits and It's Micronutrients

  • 1. Mango: The King of Fruits and its Micronutrient Marvels Mango is known as the "King of Fruits" because of its distinct flavor, sweet taste, and numerous health benefits. Mango flesh is eaten in both its unripe and ripe states. Mangoes are often consumed fresh, but they may also be used to produce a variety of beverages and processed foods. These include pickles, chutneys, vinegar, beverages, sweets, meat tenderizers, and even dessert flavorings. Along with an increase in the sale of fresh mangoes, there has also been a significant increase in the trading of processed mangoes across the world. Mangoes, in addition to having higher amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, have a varied range of bioactive chemicals present in different portions of the plant, such as mangiferin, the main active element in mango (Stohs et all. 2018). NUTRITIONAL PROFILE The nutritional value of mango fruit is enhanced by the presence of both macronutrients and micronutrients. The macronutrient content of mango flesh varies somewhat amongst mango types. A study was conducted to examine the macronutrient content of mango kernel flour (variety Ikanekpo, Nigeria), and the macronutrient composition per kilogram was determined to be 500g carbohydrate, 94g fat, 66.1g protein, and 28g fiber. The fat content of mango kernels ranges from 6 to 12 percent depending on dry matter, while the fatty acid profile revealed significant amounts of oleic acid and stearic acid8. Mango seed fat has been recognized by European Union authorities as a replacement for cocoa butter Mango seed kernel protein levels are normally low, but they include essential amino acids, suggesting the presence of high-quality protein. It has also been demonstrated that the pattern of limiting amino acids such as cysteine, valine, methionine, and isoleucine varies amongst cultivars. According to a study on the macronutrient composition of Egyptian mango seed kernel varieties such as Balady, Zebda, and Succary, the number of essential amino acids found in mango seed kernel exceeds the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended protein levels. Mango has a high fiber content, which can help with a number of digestive issues. Many populations in developing countries that consume more fiber have been shown to have a lower percentage of GI problems. Because it is associated with a decreased incidence of illnesses such as obesity, cancer, diabetes, chronic bowel disease, and cardiovascular disease (Johnson and Mutagenesis 2004), dietary fiber has various favorable effects on the gut ,as well as overall health and other body functions. Keitt mango, which is produced and farmed in
  • 2. Florida, has 1.4g and 1.6g of total dietary fiber per 100g fruit, respectively. Pectin, on the other hand, is readily available (Mahattanatawee et all.2006) The mineral content of the fiber derived from Haden mango peel is substantial, including zinc (32.5 mg/kg), magnesium (950 mg/kg), calcium (4445 mg/kg), iron (175 mg/kg), and potassium (2910 mg/kg), all of which are necessary for human health. Carotenoids, provitamin A carotenoids, and -carotene are abundant in the flesh of several mango varieties (Ornelas-Paz et all.2007). In addition, mango flesh includes dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbic acid. As a result, this fruit may be a rich source of vitamin C, which has several health advantages. As a result, consuming mango fruit on a regular basis can help people meet their recommended dietary needs for Vitamin C and Vitamin A, as well as other macro and micronutrients, phenolic compounds, and dietary fiber. The nutritious makeup of mango fruit is shown in Table 1. Table1: Nutrient composition of Mango Fruit per 100 g (Jash and Brahmachari 2015) Nutrients Quantity Nutrients Quantity Fat 0.4g Saturated Fat 0.1g Carbohydrates 28.1g Vitamin K 6.9 μg Sugars 24.4g Vitamin E 1.8mg Protein 0.82g Vitamin C 45.7mg Calcium 16.5mg Vitamin B1 0.1mg Phosphorus 18.2mg Vitamin B2 0.1mg Magnesium 14.8mg Vitamin B6 0.119mg Potassium 257mg Vitamin B12 120 μg Copper 0.2mg Vitamin B5 0.3mg Sodium 3.3mg Vitamin B3 1mg Zinc 0.1mg Vitamin B9 43 μg Selenium 1.0μg Chlorine 12.5mg Iron 0.2mg Dietary Fiber 3g Manganese 0mg Energy 448 KJ
  • 3. 3. MICRONUTRIENT COMPOSITION A range of dietary components and nutrients are required for the normal functioning of the human body. Phytonutrients in foods serve as both health boosters and disease preventatives. Mango is a popular fruit due to its distinct flavor and nutritional value. (Figure 1) It contains a lot of vitamins A, B, and C. In addition to vitamins, minerals such as calcium, salt, potassium, magnesium, iron, and phosphorus are added. Mangoes also have tiny amounts of malic, citric, and tartaric acid (Ghuniyal 2015). 3.1 Vitamin Mango includes vitamin A, which is necessary for vision and prevents muscle degeneration. Blood circulation in the skin and mucous membranes increases when vitamin A is present. Mango is high Nutritional Benefit Maintains heart rate and blood pressure Prevents heart disease (Vit. B6) Helps to overcome weakness (iron) Increase resistance against free radicals (Vit. C) Prevents ulcers (fiber) Protective against muscular degeneration (Vit. A) Pharmacological Benefits Anti-cancer Anti-diabetic Anti-bacterial Anti-inflammatory Anti-oxidant Gastroprotective health Fig. 1: Nutritional Benefits Mango (Mangifera indica)
  • 4. in vitamin B6, commonly known as pyridoxine. Homocysteine, an amino acid present in the blood, can cause damage to the linings of blood vessels. Pyridoxine lowers homocysteine levels, which assists in the prevention of heart disease. Mangoes, both unripe and ripe, are high in vitamin C. It has been demonstrated to reduce LDL cholesterol levels in the body. Mango also contains trace levels of vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and pantothenic acid (Table 1). Consumption of mangoes also increases resistance to free radicals and other pathogenic agents (Stone et all.2017). 3.2 Fiber and minerals Fiber assists in the breakdown of protein during digestion. It may be found in large quantities in a mango. The prebiotic fiber aids in the growth and maintenance of healthy bacteria in the gut, which aids in the prevention of disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and ulcers. Mango is beneficial to anemic people due to its high iron content. Menopause causes female fragility, which can be reduced by consuming mangoes to satisfy iron requirements. Fresh mangoes have a greater potassium content, which is an essential element required by cells and a component of biological fluids that play a vital part in heart rate and blood pressure maintenance. Mangoes include phytochemicals that protect the body from free radical damage, such as beta carotene, astragalin, and quercetin. (Mubarik et al. 2020). 4. PHARMACOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF MANGO 4.1 Mangiferin It is a substance found in mango fruit, leaves, bark, and roots5. Mangiferin is a light-yellow crystalline powder with a low ethanol solubility, a sparing solubility in water and ethanol, and an insoluble solubility in acetone, diethyl ether, and n-hexane. Mangifera possesses a variety of medicinal qualities, including antioxidant activity, a role in the pro-hypoglycemic activity, cholesterol level management, and TNF expression modulation. (Imran et all.2017) 4.2 Anti-oxidant
  • 5. Reactive oxygen species oxidation can alter the function and structure of biological components such as DNA, protein, and lipids (ROS). Antioxidants such as vitamin C and E, as well as beta carotene, are useful in avoiding this as well as the beginning of other chronic disorders. Antioxidant defense assists in the treatment of chronic illnesses as well as in the prevention of cancer. Because of the presence of hydroxyl groups and a C-glucosyl linkage, mangiferin has the ability to scavenge radicals, according to (Saha et al.2016). Another study discovered that hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation was dramatically reduced in human peripheral blood cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mangiferin may be an iron chelator that protects against UV radiation and hydroxyl radicals. Mangiferin was discovered to have the activity of counterbalancing oxygen free radical generation caused by iron and toxicity in a study done by (Pardo-Andreu et al.2006.) In one investigation, the protective nature of mangiferin against oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide and cell death in MC3T3-E1 cultured cells was studied. By regulating ERK5/Nrf2 signaling, mangiferin has been found to protect cells against oxidative stress. This feature adds to its being considered as a viable therapy for osteoporotic patients. Mangiferin's hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage was described by (Pokorski et al.2000). In a different study, mangiferin protected hepatic tissues against arsenic- induced oxidative damage. 4.3 Anti-diabetic Mangiferin has a role in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance regulation. In diabetic rats, 8- week treatment with mangiferin dramatically lowered plasma glucose and fat levels. Increased AMP phosphorylation, which activates protein kinase, has been proven to enhance pancreatic beta- cell mass, as well as glucose and insulin absorption. Collagen IV is the most important structural collagen (protein), as it forms the backbone of the basement membrane. It acts as a barrier between tissue compartments by forming a network beneath epithelial and endothelial cells. Mangiferin can aid in the prevention of renal fibrosis and the reduction of collagen IV levels. Mangiferin medication lowered kidney weight and renal issues for nine weeks, according to research. It also aided in the normalization of blood urea nitrogen, which is required for bodily balance. It has been discovered that plant-based diets effectively lower blood sugar levels and may assist to eliminate the usage of standard pharmaceuticals as treatment. This also aids in the removal of any adverse effects. Dr. Roy Chowdhury conducted clinical research in which he discovered that blood glucose
  • 6. levels and glycemic index were lower in around 84 percent of patients who followed a strict vegetarian diet that included raw mango fruit. The researchers also discovered that a warm water extract of entire mango leaves or powder had favorable benefits in diabetics. (Mubarik et al. 2020) 4.4 Anti-bacterial Several bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia, have been demonstrated to be resistant to extract from mango stems and leaves. E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella were all shown to have activity. The antimicrobial activity of mangiferin and gall tannin extracts against gram-negative and positive bacteria has been demonstrated. Mangiferin travels through the GI system and is metabolized by colonic intestine microorganisms into different phenolic acid derivatives, providing medical advantages. A number of investigations have resulted in the analysis that inflammation in the intestine and impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract can be reduced effectively by mangiferin. Myeloperoxidase activity, adhesion molecules, nitrate levels, and cytokines were significantly suppressed by the use of mangiferin. Based on these investigations and results mangiferin was considered to possess therapeutic potential against inflammatory bowel diseases. In a study it was observed that mangiferin exhibited gastroprotective activity against ulcers, gastric lesion induced by ethanol and indomethacin, as well as gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl depletion in mice. TNF, NF-B subunit, IL-1, p65, and IL-8 are all inflammatory indicators that are inhibited by mangiferin. For gastroprotective health, a plant-based diet high in mangiferin, as well as supplementation, might be advantageous. (Mubarik et al. 2020) 4.6 Anti-inflammatory Some common disorders characterized by chronic inflammation include IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), ulcerative colitis, etc. These disorders also contribute towards mucosal damage in the large intestine. The mucosa of patients with such diseases has been shown to form an increased amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g., IL-1, IL-12. IL-6, and TNF-α. Mango extracts have been found to play an anti-inflammatory role in the sample of murine with ulcerative colitis in an experiment. It was seen that the symptoms like diarrhea, weight loss, and colon shortening were reduced when the extract from Mangifera indica (mango) was used. Mangifera indica extract decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines like iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and TNFR-2 in the tissues of the colon. Mangiferin also reduced the liver NLRP3 induced by LPS and D-
  • 7. galactosamine. The extracts of mango provide protection against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and galactosamine-induced acute liver inflammation. Mangifera indica extract decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines like iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and TNFR-2 in the tissues of the colon. Mangiferin also reduced the liver NLRP3 induced by LPS and D-galactosamine. The extracts of mango provide protection against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Galactosamine- induced acute liver inflammation. The ethanolic extract of the seed of mango is responsible to promote cell death in both estrogen-positive and -negative breast cancer and not in normal breast cells Mango polyphenolics and kernel have an effect on induction of apoptosis of breast cancer cell lines, also polyphenol decreased cell proliferation. In estrogen-negative breast tumor cells, the production of ROS which enhances cell death through Bax activation and cytochrome c release has been related to the cytotoxic effect of mango seed extract. (Stohs et all. 2018). References Stohs S, Swaroop A, Moriyama H, Bagchi M, Ahmad T, Bagchi DJJNHS. 2018. A Review on Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Abilities of Mango (Mangifera indica) Leaf Extract and Mangiferin. 5:303. Johnson IJMRF, Mutagenesis MMo. 2004. New approaches to the role of diet in the prevention of cancers of the alimentary tract. 551(1-2):9-28. Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EAJJoa, chemistry f. 2006. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits. 54(19):7355-7363 Ornelas-Paz JdJ, Yahia EM, Gardea-Bejar AJJoa, chemistry f. 2007. Identification and Quantification of Xanthophyll Esters, Carotenes, and Tocopherols in the Fruit of Seven Mexican Mango Cultivars by Liquid Chromatography− Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization− Time- of-Flight Mass Spectrometry [LC-(APcI+)-MS]. 55(16):6628-6635. Jash SK, Brahmachari GJb. 2015. Chemical profile and health benefits of fruit mango—an emerging functional food: An update. 2:3
  • 8. Ghuniyal JJIJoPR, Review. 2015. Ethanomedical, chemical, pharmacological, toxicological properties of Mangifera indica: a review. 4(10):51-64. Stone KL, Lui LY, Christen WG, Troen AM, Bauer DC, Kado D, Schambach C, Cummings SR, Manson JEJJoB, Research M. 2017. Effect of combination folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 supplementation on fracture risk in women: a randomized, controlled trial. 32(12):2331-2338 Mubarik et al. 2020, A Review on Pharmacological and Nutritional Benefits of Mango (Mangifera indica Linn): A Remedy for Cancer, Diabetes and Gastrointestinal Infections AJLS, 3 (2): 82-92 Imran M, Arshad MS, Butt MS, Kwon J-H, Arshad MU, Sultan MTJLih, disease. 2017. Mangiferin: a natural miracle bioactive compound against lifestyle-related disorders. 16(1):84. Saha S, Sadhukhan P, Sil PCJB. 2016. Mangiferin: A xanthonoid with multipotent anti- inflammatory potential. 42(5):459-474