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Fundamentals of Lubrication and Wear

Lubrication Fundamentals:
Lubricating Oil Basics
PRESENTED BY: Dwon Ruffin, TestOil Analysts
What is the Function of a Lubricant?
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Function #1: Lubricate

Protect

Reduce Friction and Wear
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #2: Cool
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #3: Clean
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #4: Protect
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #5: Seal
Lubricate

Transmit Power

Cool

LUBRICANT

Seal

Clean

Protect

Function #6: Transmit Power
Lubricant Types
• Mineral Oils
– Crude Oil
– Solvent Refining
– Hydro-Cracking

• Synthetic Fluids
– Man made or altered
– Molecules have identified structure
– Properties are predictable
API Base Oil Categories
Category

Sulfur (%)

Saturates (%)

Viscosity
Index

Manufactured

Group I

>0.03

and/
or

<90

80 to 120

Solvent Refining

Group II

<0.03

and

>90

80 to 120

Hydrocracking

Group III

<0.03

and

>90

>120

Hydrocracking
and ISO
Dewaxing

Group IV

Polyalphaolefin (PAO) – Synthetic Hydrocarbon

Group V

Esters, silicones, PAG,
Mineral Oil vs. Synthetic
• Mineral Oil
– Molecules not uniform

• Synthetic
– Molecules nearly identical
Mineral Oils Refining Process
• Crude Oil Distillation Process
Synthetic Oils
• Advantages
– Extended range of
service temperatures
– Resistant to oxidation
– Extended service life
– Cleaner system
– Energy savings due to
lower internal friction

• Disadvantages

– Cost
– Compatibility issues
•
•
•
•

seals
paints
packings
other fluids

– Higher disposal costs
– Film strength
consideration for gear
applications
Additives
• Chemical compounds added to
impart specific properties
• Added to improve performance
characteristics
• Formulated to provide specific
set of performance parameters
• Can have detrimental side
effects
Lubricating Oils
• Composed of base oil and additives
– 70 - 95% Base Oil

Gear Oil
AW Hydraulic Oil
Engine Oil

Turbine Oil
R&O Hydraulic
Oil

Transmission
Fluid

Compressor Oil
Common Additives

Oil additives are
chemical compounds
that improve the
lubricant performance
of base oil
Typical Additive Packages
Oil Type

Magnesium

Calcium

Zinc

Phosphorus

EP Gear

0

0

0

220

AW Hydraulic

0

40

320

450

Turbine Oil

0

0

0

0

Compressor Oil

0

0

0

0

550

1300

1100

1200

0

2500

1100

1200

PCMO (gas)
HDMO (diesel)

parts per million (ppm)
Viscosity
Defined as a fluid’s resistance to flow
Most important characteristic of an oil
and has a direct correlation to
temperature.
Kinematic Viscosity
Reported in Centistokes (cSt)
Measured at 40 or 100 degrees C
Saybolt Viscosity
Reported in Saybolt Universal
Seconds (SUS)
Measured at 100 or 210 degrees F
ISO Viscosity Grades
SAE Oil Weight
Multi-Grade Oils
Weight that oil
emulates in cold
temperatures

Stands for
“winter”

Oil weight under
normal operating
conditions (warm)

10 w 30
A 10 w 30 is an SAE 30 weight oil that acts like a 10
weight oil in the winter.
Proper Viscosity
Factors that effect proper choice of viscosity
LOAD, TEMPERATURE & SPEED

• Low viscosity
–Good cooling
–Poor load handling
–Low internal friction

• High viscosity
–Poor cooling
–Good load handling
–High internal friction
Rules of Thumb
• Load
– The higher the load, the heavier the oil
– The lighter the load, the lighter the oil

• Temperature
– The lower the temperature, the thinner the oil
– The higher the temperature, the thicker the oil

• Speed
– The faster the speed, the lighter the oil
– The slower the speed, the heavier the oil
THANK YOU!
Any Questions?
www.testoil.com

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Lubrication Fundamentals: Lubricating Oil Basics

Editor's Notes

  1. Physically separate opposing friction surfaces with the oil film reduces friction reduces wear reduces the amount of energy needed Additives enhance the ability of the oil to reduce friction and wear
  2. Oil absorbs heat generated by the friction surface Transfer heat to reservoir where it is dispersed Oil can pass through a cooler to assist in heat exchange (left image) A newly commissioned fire water pump at a Middle East refinery repeatedly suffered high non drive end (NDE) bearing temperatures during periodic test runs and eventually caused a bearing failure. It was revealed that bearing failure was caused by a lack of lubrication since the failed bearing showed signs of lube oil starvation. However, the constant level oiler sight glass showed the oil level as full. (right Image) This bearing displays the results of high running temperatures commonly associated with over-greasing. When the dropping point is reached, the bearing begins to bleed, the grease runs dry and eventually failure occurs.
  3. Oil holds contaminants in suspension Carries them away from friction surface settle out in reservoir filtered out Additives disperse solids, avoiding sludge formation Oil is periodically changed removing contaminants from system
  4. Physical boundary (oil film) protects surfaces from corrosion Additives enhance rust and oxidation inhibiting properties. Some oils use alkaline additives to neutralize acid as it is formed Lubricant Viscosity Oil viscosity is just as important as oil quantity to ensure adequate lubrication. Required viscosity depends on operating temperature. Inadequate lubricant viscosity appears as a highly glazed or glossy surface. As damage progresses, the surface appears frosty and eventually spalls. This type of spalling is fine-grained compared to the more coarsely grained pattern produced by fatigue failure. In the frosty stage, the fine slivers of metal pulled from the raceway create a “nap” that can sometimes be felt. The frosted area will feel smooth in one direction but have a distinct roughness in the other. As metal is “pulled” from the surface, pits appear and frosting advances to pulling.
  5. Oil forms a viscous seal to keep water and dirt out Grease serves as a physical barrier
  6. Fluid under pressure actuates moving parts Oil cleanliness is essential Oil must have anti-foaming characteristics Some systems require fire resistant fluids (Image) Too much grease volume (overgreasing) in a bearing cavity will cause the rotating bearing elements to begin churning the grease, pushing it out of the way, resulting in energy loss and rising temperatures. This leads to rapid oxidation (chemical degradation) of the grease as well as an accelerated rate of oil bleed, which is a separation of the oil from the thickener. The heat that has been generated over time along with the oil bleed eventually will cook the grease thickener into a hard, crusty build-up that can impair proper lubrication and even block new grease from reaching the core of the bearing. This can result in accelerated wear of the rolling elements and then component failure.
  7. Chemical compounds added to impart specific properties Added to improve performance characteristics Formulated to provide specific set of performance parameters Can have detrimental side effects
  8. Oil additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil Anti-Wear Additives Zinc Phosphorus EP Additives Phosphorus Molybdenum Detergents &amp; Dispersants Magnesium Sodium Calcium Alkaline Additives Calcium Anti Foam Additives Silicon Viscosity Index Improvers Pour Point Depressants Rust &amp; Oxidation Inhibitors Barium Tackifiers
  9. ISO Viscosity Grade Refers to Kinematic Viscosity at 40 degrees C ISO VG 68 = 68 cSt @ 40C
  10. SAE - Oil Weight Automotive Grade (10w-30, 30, 5w-40) Gear Grade (75w-90, 80w-90) Oil’s Kinematic Viscosity at 100 degrees C is compared to SAE scale Image description Steel balls of equal weight dropped into test tubes filled with motor oil fall at different rates. Their rate of fall depends on the viscosity of the oil. The ball traveling through the light SAE 20 oil has traveled farthest, while the ball in the heavy SAE 50 has traveled least