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Lobster breeding seed production rearing, pit
culture and fattening in Cages
By
BHUKYA BHASKAR & DR. VINAY KUMAR VASE
FISHERIES
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Subphylum:Crustacea
Class:Malacostraca
Order:Decapoda
Introduction
• 25 species of reported to known from Indian coast Palinuridae(spiny lobster)
&Scyllaridae(slipperlobster).
Major Families:
• Nephropidae{clawed / true lobsters),
• Palinuridae{clawless/rock,spinylobsters),
• Scyllaridae(Sand /slipper lobsters) and
• Synaxidae(Coral lobsters).
• Commercially important Species:
• Panuliruspolyphagus-Mudspiny lobster distributed along Entire Indian coast,
majorly Gujarat and Maharashtra and its spawning peak during Aug-Oct
• P. homarus-Scalloped spiny lobster distributed in Rich in SWC and
kanyakumaricoast in SE and its spawning peak during SWC-Nov-Dec, SEC-Jan-
March
• P. ornatus-Ornate spiny lobster distributed in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala & TN
and its spawning peak during Year rounds at deeper water
• Thennusorientalis-Sand lobster distributed in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala and
Tamil Nadu and its spawning peak during November -April
• The lobster resource potential of Indian EEZ is 50,000 mt(Vijayakumaran and
Radhakrishnan, 2000).
• Both P.ornatus and P. homarusare reef dwelling species of a sedimentary nature
with broad environmental tolerances
• Highly social, preferring to congregate in groups in hollows, caves and crevices
within and beneath the reef structures.
Lifecycle of major commercially exploited lobster
• Male
 Males are usually larger insize
 Swimmerets nearest to carapace hard and sharp
 Pleopods are uniramous(exopodsonly).
 Second and third walking legs bigger.
 Gonopore at base of fifth walkingleg.
 Suddenlengtheningofthe2nd&3rdwalkinglegs-onsetofmaturity.
 Female
 Females are smaller
 Swimmerets soft and feathery
 Pleopods are biramous
 Dactylusof5thwalkinglegischelate.
 Gonoporeatbaseof3rdwalkingleg.
 Development of cement glands and sperm receptacle.
Breeding
• Tropical lobsters breed throughout the year.
• Panulirus homarus-shallow waters
• Panulirus ornatus and Panulirus polyphagus-deeper
areas for breeding.
• India becomes second country to breed sand
lobster in captivity by Dr.
Jeok.Kizhakudan,CMFRI,kovalam(2007)
• Olfactory(clawed), visual(spiny), auditory and tactile
stimuli have been known to play a role in the
attraction, recognition and choice of mates in
different lobster species
Courtship
• Lobsters can only mate after the female molts.
• mating, egg extrusion and hatching take place during inter
moult period when the shell is hard
• Successful mating a female to male ratio 2: 1 was found to
be sufficient.
• Mating takes place during night and the spermatophore is
deposited externally on to the sternal plates.
• The time lag between spermatophore deposition and egg
extrusion varies from 1 to 17 days
• If no mating -ovary gets resorbed and the haemolymph
colour changes from light blue to deep red.
Hatching
• Eggs on the abdominal pleopods change colour
from deep orange to deep brown before hatching
• Hatching takes place in batches only during early
morning hours and is usually completed in 1-3 days
• Hatchery phase is of shorter duration in sand
lobsters than spiny lobsters
• 25-30 days in sand lobsters
• 300 days in spiny lobsters
• The mean diameter of the egg is about 0.45 mm
Milestones in larval rearing
• Complete larval development of a spiny lobster was
achieved in1988when Kittaka achieved success in
rearing the phyllosomalarvae of the rock lobster
Jasuslalandii.The larval period of different species
ranged from 132-319 days
• The researchers at NIOT succeeded in rearing the
larvae of Panulirus homarus up to the 7"stage for
the first time in India (1993)
• Complete larval development of Thenus sp, was first
achieved in Australia by Mikam land Greenwood
(1997).
Phyllosoma
• The eggs hatch into transparent, flat and leafy shaped larvae called as
Phyllosomalarvae.
• Has antennules, antennae, paired eyes and very long jointed setose
appendages for swimming. No pleopods has been developed
• There are 8-11Phyllosomastages(sometimes a pre-Phyllosoma, and
pro Phyllosoma)
• They are carried away by the currents even to oceanic regions and
moults several times before metamorphosing to the
postlarva(puerulus).
• Swims vertically and drifted with whim of currents.
• Phyllosomalarvae of P. homarushave been reared to stage 6 in 60
days.
• Recently larvae were reared to stage 8 in 42 days on a mixed diet of
Artemiaand plankton
Puerulus
• It is transparent, free swimming, non feeding post
larval stagethat moves inshore where it settles to
the bottom
• Puerulus becomes juvenile lobster which leads a
nectonic swimming life with well developed
appendages
• The size of this larvae is very large, having head,
thorax, abdominal regions, and is transparent as
glass
• A large carapace covers the first two thoracic
segments and head.
FOOD & FEEDING OF LOBSTER
• Larvae-omnivorous &opportunistic
• Eat zooplankton (water fleas, copepods, crab larvae,
eggs)
• & Phytoplankton (Diatom, dinoflagellates, filamentous
algae)
• Post larvae –
• larvae of crab & gastropods, copepods, fish eggs
(floating)
• small shell fish, marine worms, small sea urchins & a
little phytoplankton (settling)
• Juvenile & adult –Benthic Predators, nocturnal foragers
• Crab, shell fish, echinoderms, marine worms, dead
organisms
• Rarely eat algae & aquatic plants
Site selection
(1) Locality: The site should be preferably free from
cyclone and heavy rain.
(2) Water source and quality: areas of extreme salinity
fluctuations should be avoided for the fattening activity,
the mean temperature is always within the optimum
range of 26-33°C.
(3) Availability of lobster juveniles;
(4) Availability of live food organisms
(5) Infrastructure and communication facilities
(6) Power supply
(7) Labour force:
(8) Technical services and support
(9) Social, environmental and ecological impacts
(10) Market
Cost and Constraints
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
I. Stocking area
2.Stocking size and age
3. Stocking species
4.Stocking density
5. Fecundity & Survival
6.Harvesting size
7. Total breeding period
8. Water resources and treatment
Capital Cost
1.Quarantine / holding tanks 3x3x2m
2.Brooders tanks
3.Breeding tank
4.Hatching tanks
5.Larval rearing tank
6.Bore well /water supply
7.Motor/ Aerator/ Electrical work
8.Bucket, Hand net, roofing
Operational cost
1.Brooders
2.Feeds
3.Electricity charges
4.Communication charges
5.Wages
6.Maintenance and Management cost
7.Marketing and transportation
8.Miscellaneous
Total incurred cost=capital cost + operational cost
Constraints
• Inability to produce seeds in captivity due to
Its long and complex larval life
• Proper diet for different larval stages is
considered to be a major constraint in the
larval culture
• In rearing phyllosoma larvae Is maintenance
of exceptionally high water quality
throughout the rearing stage.
• Collection of large number of puerulus from
nature Is capital intensive and impractical
Recommendations:
• Protection of egg bearing lobsters and
avoiding them in fishing.
• Strict enforcement of Minimum Legal Size
(MLS) for fishing by the state governments
• Ban on operation of destructive fishing
gear(Trammel nets) and fishing by divers.
Traps with escape gaps to be promoted
• Establishment of marine reserves or lobster
Sanctuaries to maintain and protect breeding
stock
• Establishment of Artificial habitats to provide
additional substrate for young lobsters
(increase food production and protection
from predators)
Pit Culture Method cost economics
• The accounts provided below are taken from the recordings made by Rambhai in his
• diary, since the books of accounts of the cooperative could not be accessed during the
• visit. The income and expenditure shown for the first cycle is indicative of the economics
• of lobster fattening. The economics is highly favourable because the lobsters are fed with
• trash fish, which was otherwise wasted. The only out of pocket recurring expense is the
• cost of the net for catching juvenile lobsters, which has a life of less than one year.
• First cycle: 15/6/07 to 10/12/07
• Duration of cycle: about six months. The cycle was delayed due to lack of experience
• and time taken to collect seed (juveniles).
• Total area of 28 virdas and 3 tanks: 3144 sq feet.
• Income: Rs. 80,317/-
• (This is an aggregation of sales that took place on different days in different quantities.
• The prices ranged from Rs. 550 to 750/kg.. Assuming an average price of Rs. 650/kg. the
• total production was 123.5 kg.)
• Expenditure Amount( Rs.)
• Capital Expenditure:
1) Earthwork to make virdas (life 10 yrs.) 27,320/-
2) Cover net (life 3 years) 35,000/-
3) Diesel machine, PVC pipe etc. 23837/-
4) Hand-pump (drinking water facility on-site) 2160/-
5) Cement and stone material 12410/-
6) Weighing machine 500/-
7) Insulator box (received from FFDA) 3000/-
_______
• Total capital expenditure 104,227/-
Cont...
Recurring Expenditure:
1) Labour for preparing pits, cleaning, changing
water, etc. 1440/-
2) Cost of feeding (includes imputed cost of feed
@ Rs. 1/kg) 900/
3) Watch and ward 900/-
4) Cost of nets for catching juveniles (half allocated) 3000/-
• Total recurring cost 6240/-
• Contribution towards Capital Expenditure
• and cooperative overheads: 74,077/-
• Second Cycle: The complete information was not available.
However total income was
• similar at Rs. 80,076/- and the expenditure was likely to be
similar.
Cage Design & Stocking
• Cage Design
• The cage has a main frame made of 2
1/2 inch diameter GI Pipe with steel
woven mesh (2 x 2 x 1.2m) and
accommodated four inner cages (0.75
x 0.75 x 1.1m) with two layers of nylon
mesh with sizes 15mm x 15mm(inner)
and 5mm x 5mm (outer). A lifting
arrangement with pulleys was
provided for handing these inner cages
at site. The metallic body was painted
with nontoxic, food grade eco -
friendly, polymer based paint with
antifouling property. The second stage
of cage development the inner cage
volume was increased to 1 m3.
• Stocking
• Juveniles collected as by-catch can be
stocked at a density of 25-30/m2.
Initial body weight and carapace
length ofthe individual lobsters should
be recorded to assess the growth
performance and feed requirement.
Stocking of Lobsters Juveniles for fattening in cages by Dr.
Vinay Kumar, Scientist& Staff team of CMFRI, RC, Veraval
Nursery rearing
• Floating nursery cages dimension3mx3mx2m.
• StockingDensity-50-100pueruli/m2(submerged
cages).
• Finely chopped trash fish, crustaceans and molluscs
are used as food.
• Thenurseryphaselastsfor3-
6months,duringwhichthelobstersgrowto10-30g.
• Mortalityduringthenurseryphasemaybeashighas40
%butunderoptimalconditionsisusuallylessthan10per
cent.
Juvenile rearing
• In nature –juveniles are benthic
• In hatchery they are removed &
• placed in individual on-growing
• containers
• This is done to avoid cannibalism
• Containers placed in raceways with re-circulating
water
• Uneaten food removed in each day
• Juveniles kept in hatchery for 3 months
Moulting
• Within the first five to seven years of its life a
lobster may shed its shell up to 25 times
• Flex their bodies back and forth and eventually back
out of their old shell
• Lobsters that have just molted are called “jellies”
• No definite period the new shell to harden
• As lobster gets bigger, the number of molting
events decreases
• Adult lobsters only molt about once a year
Cage culture production cycle of Lobster
Collection & Transport of Lobster juveniles
• Studies conducted off Kovalamnear Chennai show that puerulii of three species P.
homarus, P. polyphagus and P. ornatussettle in rocky areas.
• Thereis no information on settlement density of pueruliianywhere along the Indian
coast (Radhakrishnan, 2012).
• Juveniles can be collected from surf ridden and coral areas by handpicking or from
by-catches of fishing gears (bottom-setgill nets, trammel nets, traps, trawl nets etc)
Transport of juveniles:
• i. Floating ice blockspacked in polythene bags should be used for chilling the
holding tank in case of high temperature
• ii. Lobsters should be tied with rubber band from the spine at the carapace to
abdomen to reduce the movement.
• bamboo baskets having a layer of straw/ soaked in seawater are used to transport
lobsters
• iv. Over this layer of straw, ice blocks packed in polythene bags should be placed
and a second layer of seawater soaked-straw should cover this
• V. Such immobilized live lobsters should be placed over the second layer of straw.
• Moist beach sand, bamboo and palmyrahleaf baskets, gunny bag materials, hay,
saw dust, wood shavings etc in thermocolboxes, polypropylene bottle, polythene
bagsare used for live transport of lobsters.
• The "berried" females are captured from the wild, using pots.
• Transport in containers filled with seaweeds to prevent the eggs drying out shows
good result
Quarantine
• The healthy animals should be given malachite
green bath treatment (at 0 .25 ppm concentration)
for 1 hour on alternate days for three times totally.
• 1)Active swimming behaviour;
• 2) Functioning of appendages;
• 3) Fungal Protozoan infections;
• 4)Tail or pleopoderosion or black spot occurrence;
• 5)Mortality rate, and
• 6) Environmental stress and survival rate.
Acclimatization and stocking
• Animals have to be acclimatized for 2 weeks before
stocking in fattening tanks.
Size group (g) Stocking density
(nos/m²)
50-75 25-30
75-100 20-25
100-125 8-10
125-150 6-8
Feeding
• The lobsters can be fed with the feeds available near
the site like clams, trash fishes and mussels.
• Lobsters were fed with trash fish, small crabs, marine
worms and clams @ 10% bodyweight and also on
compounded feeds.
• The spiny lobster is a selective feeder, preferring shell
fish to scale fish .
• Natural food items such as mussels, clams, squids, trash
fish etc. could be used as fattening diets .
• Artificial diets could be used as supplementary diet for
fattening.
• Lobsters feed before nightfall
• Highest intake is at the beginning and end of the moult
• Maximum feed intake was observed @ 13.1% of
bodyweight (Average 5-10%)
Water quality parameters
Salinity 30-35 ppt
Temperature 26-33ºC
PH 7.5-8.5
DO >4.5mg/l
NH3-N <1 ppm
Free Ammonia -NH4+ < 0.25ppm
Nitrate-NO2-N <0.25 ppm
Sampling and monitoring
• Sampling can be done in once in 30 days.
• animals of small size group (60 -7 0g) moult twice
within two months
• large size group (150 -160 g) moult only once within
the same period
• Growth can be assessed on their weight increment.
• Recordthe weight of freshly moulted animals only
after their exoskeleton hardens (2-4 days after
moulting).
• This will minimize the handling stress to the
animals.
Harvesting
• Ten days before the date of harvesting the lobsters
should be given a quarantine treatment using
O.5ppm malachite green for a period of one hour in
order to remove the algal deposits if any in the
carapace of lobsters.
• lobsters can be harvested using a hand netwithout
damaging the antennae or other part of the body.
Land based FRP tanks
• In Vizhinjam, Southwest coast of India, growth of
• Juveniles and sub adults of P. homaruswas studied
in FRP tanks and Cages
• Specific growth rates 0.45% and 0.50%of the body
weight were obtained per day in FRP tanks and sea
cages respectively.
• Better survival was obtained in the cage(75%) than
in tanks (71%).
Fattening in outdoor cages
• (a) site selection
• (b) cage deployment and stocking
• (c)feeding
• (d) sampling
• (e) cage maintenance
• The above results show that the capital costs can be
recovered during the first year itself.
• Cage Culture Method:
• First Cycle: From 23/5/07 to 12/12/07
• Income (from 65 cages): Rs. 54,118/-
• Expenditure:
• Capital Expenditure:
• 1) Bamboo material (life 10 yrs) 37,000/-
• 2) Cover net (life 3 yrs) 29,000/-
• 3) Weighing machine 500/-
• 4) Labour to make cages 4000/-
• 5) Labour to tie double cover nets 2700/-
• Total Capital cost 73,200/-
Total Capital cost 73,200/-
Recurring costs:
1) Watch and ward 900/-
2) Placing and anchoring the cage 400/-
3) Marketing cost 180/-
4) Repair of cages 700/-
5) Cost of feeding 400/-
6) Nylon nets to catch lobster (half cost allocated)
17,000/-
• Total recurring cost 19580/-
• Contribution towards capital cost and overheads
34,538/-
• Second Cycle: The total income was 54000/- from 66
cages and the expenditure pattern was similar.
SWOT Analysis
• Strengths
• - The main strength exists in terms of the institutional capital that has
been built
• up over time in the form of 21 fisheries SHGs, which are working on
• cooperative principles. These SHGs will need further capacity building
inputs
• from the staff of PLC.
• - Lobster and crab fattening have already been demonstrated in two
villages and
• this has evoked a lot of interest among the target community who see
it as a
• possible way out from stress migration.
• - A repository of experiential knowledge has been built up on the
subject and a
• team of workers have been trained who can help replicate the model
in other
• villages.
• - Although the method has been developed locally, the fisher-folk are
open to
• the use of scientific principles and methods. They routinely measure
the
• temperature, pH and salinity using modern instruments provided to
them,
• under the guidance of PLC’s resource person.
• - PLC as a facilitating institution can provide the necessary guidance,
support
• and linkages for the activity to grow and flourish
• Weaknesses
• - Many members of the SHGs are engaged in non-fishing
livelihoods and may
• not have the same commitment as the ones who are actually doing
the fishing
• work.
• - The books of accounts of the mandals are presently written in a
manner that
• makes it difficult to extract information about the lobster trials.
Hence the
• mandals’ accountants may need some guidance to write the
accounts in a
• manner that reflect the performance of the trials separately and/
or to bring out
• periodic statements on the income and expenditure of the trials.
• - Both PLC and the SHGs are presently dependent on Rambhai as
the key
• resource person. Since Rambhai is a senior citizen and has recently
had an
• angiography done, there is an urgent need to build up a youthful
team which
• can pick up the necessary knowledge and skills under his guidance.
• - PLC is expected to be a knowledge center apart from a platform
for sharing
• issues, ideas and innovations. It should be strong in
documentation, procuring
• information from other institutions and providing the necessary
linkages. This
• does not seem to be happening to the extent that it should. As
such the
• documentation team and knowledge center needs to be
strengthened.
Cont...
• Opportunities
• - Lobster is a high value produce, which fetches a good price in the local
• market itself.
• - There is scope to move up the value chain over time and keep on improving
• the price realization through collective marketing. Veraval located about 100
• kms away is a major center for exporting fish. It has at least two large
• processing houses, which deal with lobsters.
• - Even when consumed locally it is good as it has high nutritive value
• - The local shore-line has some good spots where juveniles are found in
• adequate quantities
• - Plenty of suitable sites are available on the local shoreline for both the
• methods of lobster fattening. The use of alternative methods and materials
e.g
• cement pits can further extend the scope of this activity in other sites as
well.
• - There is scope and interest among the target communities to develop this
• activity as this can save them from distress migration. Opportunities for
• diversifying into other forms of mariculture also exist and remain to be
• tapped.
• - Similar experiments are being conducted in Tuticorin with support from the
• Department of Biotechnology. In other countries such as Vietnam lobster
• fattening is a big industry. There is much to learn from these and other such
• experiences.
• - The overall trend in coastal areas shows that agricultural productivity is
• affected due to salinity ingress and fisheries is declining. In arid coastal areas
• such as Bhavnagar-Amreli this is leading to severe migration and alternative
• livelihood options need to be generated to restore the lives of these families
to normalcy.
• Threats
• - Lobster fattening is a risky business because of a number
of environmental
• factors that may not always be easy to control. These
factors can lead to both
• loss of stock as well as equipment. The risk factors are
somewhat different for
• the two methods of culture as shown in tables 2 and 3
below.
• - The fishermen themselves are at risk while working in the
creeks as baby
• sharks and poisonous marine creatures can attack them.
Many people prefer
• not to take up this occupation because of such risks.
• - In some villages social equations are not favourable
leading to jealousy.
• Lobster fattening is particularly vulnerable to sabotage and
ways of protecting
• the stock must be found out.
• - Less than half the members in the SHGs are actually
involved in fishing
• activity. The existing institutions need to be strengthened
and membership
• rules as wells as rules for sharing responsibility and
benefits need to be
• worked out.
Risk Assessment of Pit& Cage culture Method
Lobster fattening abroad
• Lobster fattening abroad
• On-growing of wild-caught seed lobsters is widely practiced in
Vietnam, the Philippines,
• and Indonesia. Farming is typically on a subsistence scale (limited
by the availability of
• seed) although the magnitude of production in Vietnam is
collectively very large
• (estimates vary from 1,000 to 1500 tonnes annually). In Australia
and New Zealand,
• lobster seed cannot be taken for aquaculture except under strict
and limited pilot license
• conditions. However, there is some in-sea and on-land holding of
legal-size lobsters for weight gain and/or more favourable (niche)
marketing. At present, the Rock Lobster
• aquaculture industry in South Australia involves taking a small
proportion of legal sized
• Rock Lobster (from the fishery) and holding them in sea-based
pontoons in Port Lincoln and Kangaroo Island until the off-season
Cont..
• Vietnam is probably the only nation doing spiny lobster farming on a large scale.
Here
• juveniles are harvested from the wild and stocked in cages and fattened upto
market size
• of one kilograms within 12 to 18 months. (www.shrimpnews.com/FreeNewsBack
• Issues/FreeNewsMar2007016.html) In Vietnam, cage culture of lobsters started in
the
• year of 1992 in the Khanh Hoa province, and significant expansion took place in the
• Southern Central Vietnam from Da Nang city to Binh Thuan province in the year of
2000
• Ornate or spiny rock lobster (Panulirus ornatus) is the most important cultured
species
• among others (P. hormarus, P. timpsoni, and P. longipes). There are approximately
• 35,000 cages of which approximately 20,000 cages are located in the coastal waters
• mainly of the Khanh Hoa sea. These marine cages are responsible for
approximately
• 1,500 metric tonnes of products and valued more than US$40 million in 2003. The
• average profit margin is 50%. Therefore, lobster cage culture is a profitable industry
• with the profit more than US$ 20 million annually. This industry involved more than
• 4,000 farmers/households and created 100 employment in grow-out farms a year
Floating cage:
• Floating cage:
• The bag of the floating cage is supported
• normally by a wooden frame with buoys.
• Lobster cages in the Nha Trang bay (Khanh Hoa)
belong to this kind. This kind of cage is
• commonly located in waters with the depth of 10-
20 m, e.g. in the Nha Trang bay.
Wooden fixed cage
• The framework is made of salt-resistant wood. Wooden stakes with
10-15cm diameter and 4-5m length are embedded every 2 meters so
as to create a rectangular or square shape. The bottom area of a farm
is normally 20-40 square meter, but may be as much as 200-400
square meters.
• cage size is also varied. Each cage normally has a cover. The cage may
be on or offbottom.
• Fixed off-bottom cage is about 0.5 m far from the seabed. Fixed on-
bottom cage is lined with a layer of sand. This kind of cage is suitable
for sheltered bays and behind islands where there is shelter from big
waves and typhoons.
• Submerged Cage:
• The framework is made of iron with a diameter of
15-16mm. The bottom shape is rectangular or
square with an area normally between 1-16 square
meter. The height is 1.0-1.5m. The cage has a cover
and a feeding pipe. This kind of cage is common for
nursing lobster seed in Nha Phu lagoon, and for
grow-out farming in the Cam Ranh bay in Khanh
Hoa, and in Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen provinces.
Potential Aquatic species for sea farming in Indi
Sl. No. Name of Species Scientific name
• 1 Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer
• 2 Grouper Epinephelus spp
• 3 Milkfish Chanos chanos
• 4 Mullet Mugil cephalus
• 5 Silver Pomfret Pampus argenteus
• 6 Cobia Rachycentron spp.
• 7 Tunas Thunnus sp, Euthunnus sp.
• 8 Mud Crab Scylla serrata
• 9 Rock lobster Panulirus spp
• 10 Edible oyster Crassostrea spp.
• 11 Pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, P.margaritifera
• 12 Mussels Perna viridis, P. indica
• 13 Clams Anadara granosa, Paphia malabarica
• 14 Sea cucumber Holothuria scabra
• 15 Sea weeds Gracilaria, Gelidiella, Kappaphycus
• Thanks TO YOUR TIME AND ATTENTION
• Acknowledgement to CMFRI scientists and technical
& supporting, team & Crab Farmers of Gujarat

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Lobster breeding seedproduction and rearing and fattening in Cages

  • 1. Lobster breeding seed production rearing, pit culture and fattening in Cages By BHUKYA BHASKAR & DR. VINAY KUMAR VASE FISHERIES Kingdom:Animalia Phylum:Arthropoda Subphylum:Crustacea Class:Malacostraca Order:Decapoda
  • 2. Introduction • 25 species of reported to known from Indian coast Palinuridae(spiny lobster) &Scyllaridae(slipperlobster). Major Families: • Nephropidae{clawed / true lobsters), • Palinuridae{clawless/rock,spinylobsters), • Scyllaridae(Sand /slipper lobsters) and • Synaxidae(Coral lobsters). • Commercially important Species: • Panuliruspolyphagus-Mudspiny lobster distributed along Entire Indian coast, majorly Gujarat and Maharashtra and its spawning peak during Aug-Oct • P. homarus-Scalloped spiny lobster distributed in Rich in SWC and kanyakumaricoast in SE and its spawning peak during SWC-Nov-Dec, SEC-Jan- March • P. ornatus-Ornate spiny lobster distributed in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala & TN and its spawning peak during Year rounds at deeper water • Thennusorientalis-Sand lobster distributed in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and its spawning peak during November -April • The lobster resource potential of Indian EEZ is 50,000 mt(Vijayakumaran and Radhakrishnan, 2000). • Both P.ornatus and P. homarusare reef dwelling species of a sedimentary nature with broad environmental tolerances • Highly social, preferring to congregate in groups in hollows, caves and crevices within and beneath the reef structures.
  • 3. Lifecycle of major commercially exploited lobster
  • 4. • Male  Males are usually larger insize  Swimmerets nearest to carapace hard and sharp  Pleopods are uniramous(exopodsonly).  Second and third walking legs bigger.  Gonopore at base of fifth walkingleg.  Suddenlengtheningofthe2nd&3rdwalkinglegs-onsetofmaturity.  Female  Females are smaller  Swimmerets soft and feathery  Pleopods are biramous  Dactylusof5thwalkinglegischelate.  Gonoporeatbaseof3rdwalkingleg.  Development of cement glands and sperm receptacle.
  • 5. Breeding • Tropical lobsters breed throughout the year. • Panulirus homarus-shallow waters • Panulirus ornatus and Panulirus polyphagus-deeper areas for breeding. • India becomes second country to breed sand lobster in captivity by Dr. Jeok.Kizhakudan,CMFRI,kovalam(2007) • Olfactory(clawed), visual(spiny), auditory and tactile stimuli have been known to play a role in the attraction, recognition and choice of mates in different lobster species
  • 6. Courtship • Lobsters can only mate after the female molts. • mating, egg extrusion and hatching take place during inter moult period when the shell is hard • Successful mating a female to male ratio 2: 1 was found to be sufficient. • Mating takes place during night and the spermatophore is deposited externally on to the sternal plates. • The time lag between spermatophore deposition and egg extrusion varies from 1 to 17 days • If no mating -ovary gets resorbed and the haemolymph colour changes from light blue to deep red.
  • 7. Hatching • Eggs on the abdominal pleopods change colour from deep orange to deep brown before hatching • Hatching takes place in batches only during early morning hours and is usually completed in 1-3 days • Hatchery phase is of shorter duration in sand lobsters than spiny lobsters • 25-30 days in sand lobsters • 300 days in spiny lobsters • The mean diameter of the egg is about 0.45 mm
  • 8. Milestones in larval rearing • Complete larval development of a spiny lobster was achieved in1988when Kittaka achieved success in rearing the phyllosomalarvae of the rock lobster Jasuslalandii.The larval period of different species ranged from 132-319 days • The researchers at NIOT succeeded in rearing the larvae of Panulirus homarus up to the 7"stage for the first time in India (1993) • Complete larval development of Thenus sp, was first achieved in Australia by Mikam land Greenwood (1997).
  • 9. Phyllosoma • The eggs hatch into transparent, flat and leafy shaped larvae called as Phyllosomalarvae. • Has antennules, antennae, paired eyes and very long jointed setose appendages for swimming. No pleopods has been developed • There are 8-11Phyllosomastages(sometimes a pre-Phyllosoma, and pro Phyllosoma) • They are carried away by the currents even to oceanic regions and moults several times before metamorphosing to the postlarva(puerulus). • Swims vertically and drifted with whim of currents. • Phyllosomalarvae of P. homarushave been reared to stage 6 in 60 days. • Recently larvae were reared to stage 8 in 42 days on a mixed diet of Artemiaand plankton
  • 10. Puerulus • It is transparent, free swimming, non feeding post larval stagethat moves inshore where it settles to the bottom • Puerulus becomes juvenile lobster which leads a nectonic swimming life with well developed appendages • The size of this larvae is very large, having head, thorax, abdominal regions, and is transparent as glass • A large carapace covers the first two thoracic segments and head.
  • 11. FOOD & FEEDING OF LOBSTER • Larvae-omnivorous &opportunistic • Eat zooplankton (water fleas, copepods, crab larvae, eggs) • & Phytoplankton (Diatom, dinoflagellates, filamentous algae) • Post larvae – • larvae of crab & gastropods, copepods, fish eggs (floating) • small shell fish, marine worms, small sea urchins & a little phytoplankton (settling) • Juvenile & adult –Benthic Predators, nocturnal foragers • Crab, shell fish, echinoderms, marine worms, dead organisms • Rarely eat algae & aquatic plants
  • 12. Site selection (1) Locality: The site should be preferably free from cyclone and heavy rain. (2) Water source and quality: areas of extreme salinity fluctuations should be avoided for the fattening activity, the mean temperature is always within the optimum range of 26-33°C. (3) Availability of lobster juveniles; (4) Availability of live food organisms (5) Infrastructure and communication facilities (6) Power supply (7) Labour force: (8) Technical services and support (9) Social, environmental and ecological impacts (10) Market
  • 13. Cost and Constraints BASIC CONSIDERATIONS I. Stocking area 2.Stocking size and age 3. Stocking species 4.Stocking density 5. Fecundity & Survival 6.Harvesting size 7. Total breeding period 8. Water resources and treatment Capital Cost 1.Quarantine / holding tanks 3x3x2m 2.Brooders tanks 3.Breeding tank 4.Hatching tanks 5.Larval rearing tank 6.Bore well /water supply 7.Motor/ Aerator/ Electrical work 8.Bucket, Hand net, roofing Operational cost 1.Brooders 2.Feeds 3.Electricity charges 4.Communication charges 5.Wages 6.Maintenance and Management cost 7.Marketing and transportation 8.Miscellaneous Total incurred cost=capital cost + operational cost Constraints • Inability to produce seeds in captivity due to Its long and complex larval life • Proper diet for different larval stages is considered to be a major constraint in the larval culture • In rearing phyllosoma larvae Is maintenance of exceptionally high water quality throughout the rearing stage. • Collection of large number of puerulus from nature Is capital intensive and impractical Recommendations: • Protection of egg bearing lobsters and avoiding them in fishing. • Strict enforcement of Minimum Legal Size (MLS) for fishing by the state governments • Ban on operation of destructive fishing gear(Trammel nets) and fishing by divers. Traps with escape gaps to be promoted • Establishment of marine reserves or lobster Sanctuaries to maintain and protect breeding stock • Establishment of Artificial habitats to provide additional substrate for young lobsters (increase food production and protection from predators)
  • 14. Pit Culture Method cost economics • The accounts provided below are taken from the recordings made by Rambhai in his • diary, since the books of accounts of the cooperative could not be accessed during the • visit. The income and expenditure shown for the first cycle is indicative of the economics • of lobster fattening. The economics is highly favourable because the lobsters are fed with • trash fish, which was otherwise wasted. The only out of pocket recurring expense is the • cost of the net for catching juvenile lobsters, which has a life of less than one year. • First cycle: 15/6/07 to 10/12/07 • Duration of cycle: about six months. The cycle was delayed due to lack of experience • and time taken to collect seed (juveniles). • Total area of 28 virdas and 3 tanks: 3144 sq feet. • Income: Rs. 80,317/- • (This is an aggregation of sales that took place on different days in different quantities. • The prices ranged from Rs. 550 to 750/kg.. Assuming an average price of Rs. 650/kg. the • total production was 123.5 kg.) • Expenditure Amount( Rs.) • Capital Expenditure: 1) Earthwork to make virdas (life 10 yrs.) 27,320/- 2) Cover net (life 3 years) 35,000/- 3) Diesel machine, PVC pipe etc. 23837/- 4) Hand-pump (drinking water facility on-site) 2160/- 5) Cement and stone material 12410/- 6) Weighing machine 500/- 7) Insulator box (received from FFDA) 3000/- _______ • Total capital expenditure 104,227/-
  • 15. Cont... Recurring Expenditure: 1) Labour for preparing pits, cleaning, changing water, etc. 1440/- 2) Cost of feeding (includes imputed cost of feed @ Rs. 1/kg) 900/ 3) Watch and ward 900/- 4) Cost of nets for catching juveniles (half allocated) 3000/- • Total recurring cost 6240/- • Contribution towards Capital Expenditure • and cooperative overheads: 74,077/- • Second Cycle: The complete information was not available. However total income was • similar at Rs. 80,076/- and the expenditure was likely to be similar.
  • 16. Cage Design & Stocking • Cage Design • The cage has a main frame made of 2 1/2 inch diameter GI Pipe with steel woven mesh (2 x 2 x 1.2m) and accommodated four inner cages (0.75 x 0.75 x 1.1m) with two layers of nylon mesh with sizes 15mm x 15mm(inner) and 5mm x 5mm (outer). A lifting arrangement with pulleys was provided for handing these inner cages at site. The metallic body was painted with nontoxic, food grade eco - friendly, polymer based paint with antifouling property. The second stage of cage development the inner cage volume was increased to 1 m3. • Stocking • Juveniles collected as by-catch can be stocked at a density of 25-30/m2. Initial body weight and carapace length ofthe individual lobsters should be recorded to assess the growth performance and feed requirement.
  • 17. Stocking of Lobsters Juveniles for fattening in cages by Dr. Vinay Kumar, Scientist& Staff team of CMFRI, RC, Veraval
  • 18. Nursery rearing • Floating nursery cages dimension3mx3mx2m. • StockingDensity-50-100pueruli/m2(submerged cages). • Finely chopped trash fish, crustaceans and molluscs are used as food. • Thenurseryphaselastsfor3- 6months,duringwhichthelobstersgrowto10-30g. • Mortalityduringthenurseryphasemaybeashighas40 %butunderoptimalconditionsisusuallylessthan10per cent.
  • 19. Juvenile rearing • In nature –juveniles are benthic • In hatchery they are removed & • placed in individual on-growing • containers • This is done to avoid cannibalism • Containers placed in raceways with re-circulating water • Uneaten food removed in each day • Juveniles kept in hatchery for 3 months
  • 20. Moulting • Within the first five to seven years of its life a lobster may shed its shell up to 25 times • Flex their bodies back and forth and eventually back out of their old shell • Lobsters that have just molted are called “jellies” • No definite period the new shell to harden • As lobster gets bigger, the number of molting events decreases • Adult lobsters only molt about once a year
  • 21. Cage culture production cycle of Lobster
  • 22. Collection & Transport of Lobster juveniles • Studies conducted off Kovalamnear Chennai show that puerulii of three species P. homarus, P. polyphagus and P. ornatussettle in rocky areas. • Thereis no information on settlement density of pueruliianywhere along the Indian coast (Radhakrishnan, 2012). • Juveniles can be collected from surf ridden and coral areas by handpicking or from by-catches of fishing gears (bottom-setgill nets, trammel nets, traps, trawl nets etc) Transport of juveniles: • i. Floating ice blockspacked in polythene bags should be used for chilling the holding tank in case of high temperature • ii. Lobsters should be tied with rubber band from the spine at the carapace to abdomen to reduce the movement. • bamboo baskets having a layer of straw/ soaked in seawater are used to transport lobsters • iv. Over this layer of straw, ice blocks packed in polythene bags should be placed and a second layer of seawater soaked-straw should cover this • V. Such immobilized live lobsters should be placed over the second layer of straw. • Moist beach sand, bamboo and palmyrahleaf baskets, gunny bag materials, hay, saw dust, wood shavings etc in thermocolboxes, polypropylene bottle, polythene bagsare used for live transport of lobsters. • The "berried" females are captured from the wild, using pots. • Transport in containers filled with seaweeds to prevent the eggs drying out shows good result
  • 23. Quarantine • The healthy animals should be given malachite green bath treatment (at 0 .25 ppm concentration) for 1 hour on alternate days for three times totally. • 1)Active swimming behaviour; • 2) Functioning of appendages; • 3) Fungal Protozoan infections; • 4)Tail or pleopoderosion or black spot occurrence; • 5)Mortality rate, and • 6) Environmental stress and survival rate.
  • 24. Acclimatization and stocking • Animals have to be acclimatized for 2 weeks before stocking in fattening tanks. Size group (g) Stocking density (nos/m²) 50-75 25-30 75-100 20-25 100-125 8-10 125-150 6-8
  • 25. Feeding • The lobsters can be fed with the feeds available near the site like clams, trash fishes and mussels. • Lobsters were fed with trash fish, small crabs, marine worms and clams @ 10% bodyweight and also on compounded feeds. • The spiny lobster is a selective feeder, preferring shell fish to scale fish . • Natural food items such as mussels, clams, squids, trash fish etc. could be used as fattening diets . • Artificial diets could be used as supplementary diet for fattening. • Lobsters feed before nightfall • Highest intake is at the beginning and end of the moult • Maximum feed intake was observed @ 13.1% of bodyweight (Average 5-10%)
  • 26. Water quality parameters Salinity 30-35 ppt Temperature 26-33ºC PH 7.5-8.5 DO >4.5mg/l NH3-N <1 ppm Free Ammonia -NH4+ < 0.25ppm Nitrate-NO2-N <0.25 ppm
  • 27. Sampling and monitoring • Sampling can be done in once in 30 days. • animals of small size group (60 -7 0g) moult twice within two months • large size group (150 -160 g) moult only once within the same period • Growth can be assessed on their weight increment. • Recordthe weight of freshly moulted animals only after their exoskeleton hardens (2-4 days after moulting). • This will minimize the handling stress to the animals.
  • 28. Harvesting • Ten days before the date of harvesting the lobsters should be given a quarantine treatment using O.5ppm malachite green for a period of one hour in order to remove the algal deposits if any in the carapace of lobsters. • lobsters can be harvested using a hand netwithout damaging the antennae or other part of the body.
  • 29. Land based FRP tanks • In Vizhinjam, Southwest coast of India, growth of • Juveniles and sub adults of P. homaruswas studied in FRP tanks and Cages • Specific growth rates 0.45% and 0.50%of the body weight were obtained per day in FRP tanks and sea cages respectively. • Better survival was obtained in the cage(75%) than in tanks (71%).
  • 30. Fattening in outdoor cages • (a) site selection • (b) cage deployment and stocking • (c)feeding • (d) sampling • (e) cage maintenance
  • 31. • The above results show that the capital costs can be recovered during the first year itself. • Cage Culture Method: • First Cycle: From 23/5/07 to 12/12/07 • Income (from 65 cages): Rs. 54,118/- • Expenditure: • Capital Expenditure: • 1) Bamboo material (life 10 yrs) 37,000/- • 2) Cover net (life 3 yrs) 29,000/- • 3) Weighing machine 500/- • 4) Labour to make cages 4000/- • 5) Labour to tie double cover nets 2700/- • Total Capital cost 73,200/-
  • 32. Total Capital cost 73,200/- Recurring costs: 1) Watch and ward 900/- 2) Placing and anchoring the cage 400/- 3) Marketing cost 180/- 4) Repair of cages 700/- 5) Cost of feeding 400/- 6) Nylon nets to catch lobster (half cost allocated) 17,000/- • Total recurring cost 19580/- • Contribution towards capital cost and overheads 34,538/- • Second Cycle: The total income was 54000/- from 66 cages and the expenditure pattern was similar.
  • 33. SWOT Analysis • Strengths • - The main strength exists in terms of the institutional capital that has been built • up over time in the form of 21 fisheries SHGs, which are working on • cooperative principles. These SHGs will need further capacity building inputs • from the staff of PLC. • - Lobster and crab fattening have already been demonstrated in two villages and • this has evoked a lot of interest among the target community who see it as a • possible way out from stress migration. • - A repository of experiential knowledge has been built up on the subject and a • team of workers have been trained who can help replicate the model in other • villages. • - Although the method has been developed locally, the fisher-folk are open to • the use of scientific principles and methods. They routinely measure the • temperature, pH and salinity using modern instruments provided to them, • under the guidance of PLC’s resource person. • - PLC as a facilitating institution can provide the necessary guidance, support • and linkages for the activity to grow and flourish • Weaknesses • - Many members of the SHGs are engaged in non-fishing livelihoods and may • not have the same commitment as the ones who are actually doing the fishing • work. • - The books of accounts of the mandals are presently written in a manner that • makes it difficult to extract information about the lobster trials. Hence the • mandals’ accountants may need some guidance to write the accounts in a • manner that reflect the performance of the trials separately and/ or to bring out • periodic statements on the income and expenditure of the trials. • - Both PLC and the SHGs are presently dependent on Rambhai as the key • resource person. Since Rambhai is a senior citizen and has recently had an • angiography done, there is an urgent need to build up a youthful team which • can pick up the necessary knowledge and skills under his guidance. • - PLC is expected to be a knowledge center apart from a platform for sharing • issues, ideas and innovations. It should be strong in documentation, procuring • information from other institutions and providing the necessary linkages. This • does not seem to be happening to the extent that it should. As such the • documentation team and knowledge center needs to be strengthened.
  • 34. Cont... • Opportunities • - Lobster is a high value produce, which fetches a good price in the local • market itself. • - There is scope to move up the value chain over time and keep on improving • the price realization through collective marketing. Veraval located about 100 • kms away is a major center for exporting fish. It has at least two large • processing houses, which deal with lobsters. • - Even when consumed locally it is good as it has high nutritive value • - The local shore-line has some good spots where juveniles are found in • adequate quantities • - Plenty of suitable sites are available on the local shoreline for both the • methods of lobster fattening. The use of alternative methods and materials e.g • cement pits can further extend the scope of this activity in other sites as well. • - There is scope and interest among the target communities to develop this • activity as this can save them from distress migration. Opportunities for • diversifying into other forms of mariculture also exist and remain to be • tapped. • - Similar experiments are being conducted in Tuticorin with support from the • Department of Biotechnology. In other countries such as Vietnam lobster • fattening is a big industry. There is much to learn from these and other such • experiences. • - The overall trend in coastal areas shows that agricultural productivity is • affected due to salinity ingress and fisheries is declining. In arid coastal areas • such as Bhavnagar-Amreli this is leading to severe migration and alternative • livelihood options need to be generated to restore the lives of these families to normalcy. • Threats • - Lobster fattening is a risky business because of a number of environmental • factors that may not always be easy to control. These factors can lead to both • loss of stock as well as equipment. The risk factors are somewhat different for • the two methods of culture as shown in tables 2 and 3 below. • - The fishermen themselves are at risk while working in the creeks as baby • sharks and poisonous marine creatures can attack them. Many people prefer • not to take up this occupation because of such risks. • - In some villages social equations are not favourable leading to jealousy. • Lobster fattening is particularly vulnerable to sabotage and ways of protecting • the stock must be found out. • - Less than half the members in the SHGs are actually involved in fishing • activity. The existing institutions need to be strengthened and membership • rules as wells as rules for sharing responsibility and benefits need to be • worked out.
  • 35. Risk Assessment of Pit& Cage culture Method
  • 36. Lobster fattening abroad • Lobster fattening abroad • On-growing of wild-caught seed lobsters is widely practiced in Vietnam, the Philippines, • and Indonesia. Farming is typically on a subsistence scale (limited by the availability of • seed) although the magnitude of production in Vietnam is collectively very large • (estimates vary from 1,000 to 1500 tonnes annually). In Australia and New Zealand, • lobster seed cannot be taken for aquaculture except under strict and limited pilot license • conditions. However, there is some in-sea and on-land holding of legal-size lobsters for weight gain and/or more favourable (niche) marketing. At present, the Rock Lobster • aquaculture industry in South Australia involves taking a small proportion of legal sized • Rock Lobster (from the fishery) and holding them in sea-based pontoons in Port Lincoln and Kangaroo Island until the off-season
  • 37. Cont.. • Vietnam is probably the only nation doing spiny lobster farming on a large scale. Here • juveniles are harvested from the wild and stocked in cages and fattened upto market size • of one kilograms within 12 to 18 months. (www.shrimpnews.com/FreeNewsBack • Issues/FreeNewsMar2007016.html) In Vietnam, cage culture of lobsters started in the • year of 1992 in the Khanh Hoa province, and significant expansion took place in the • Southern Central Vietnam from Da Nang city to Binh Thuan province in the year of 2000 • Ornate or spiny rock lobster (Panulirus ornatus) is the most important cultured species • among others (P. hormarus, P. timpsoni, and P. longipes). There are approximately • 35,000 cages of which approximately 20,000 cages are located in the coastal waters • mainly of the Khanh Hoa sea. These marine cages are responsible for approximately • 1,500 metric tonnes of products and valued more than US$40 million in 2003. The • average profit margin is 50%. Therefore, lobster cage culture is a profitable industry • with the profit more than US$ 20 million annually. This industry involved more than • 4,000 farmers/households and created 100 employment in grow-out farms a year
  • 38. Floating cage: • Floating cage: • The bag of the floating cage is supported • normally by a wooden frame with buoys. • Lobster cages in the Nha Trang bay (Khanh Hoa) belong to this kind. This kind of cage is • commonly located in waters with the depth of 10- 20 m, e.g. in the Nha Trang bay.
  • 39. Wooden fixed cage • The framework is made of salt-resistant wood. Wooden stakes with 10-15cm diameter and 4-5m length are embedded every 2 meters so as to create a rectangular or square shape. The bottom area of a farm is normally 20-40 square meter, but may be as much as 200-400 square meters. • cage size is also varied. Each cage normally has a cover. The cage may be on or offbottom. • Fixed off-bottom cage is about 0.5 m far from the seabed. Fixed on- bottom cage is lined with a layer of sand. This kind of cage is suitable for sheltered bays and behind islands where there is shelter from big waves and typhoons.
  • 40. • Submerged Cage: • The framework is made of iron with a diameter of 15-16mm. The bottom shape is rectangular or square with an area normally between 1-16 square meter. The height is 1.0-1.5m. The cage has a cover and a feeding pipe. This kind of cage is common for nursing lobster seed in Nha Phu lagoon, and for grow-out farming in the Cam Ranh bay in Khanh Hoa, and in Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen provinces.
  • 41. Potential Aquatic species for sea farming in Indi Sl. No. Name of Species Scientific name • 1 Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer • 2 Grouper Epinephelus spp • 3 Milkfish Chanos chanos • 4 Mullet Mugil cephalus • 5 Silver Pomfret Pampus argenteus • 6 Cobia Rachycentron spp. • 7 Tunas Thunnus sp, Euthunnus sp. • 8 Mud Crab Scylla serrata • 9 Rock lobster Panulirus spp • 10 Edible oyster Crassostrea spp. • 11 Pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, P.margaritifera • 12 Mussels Perna viridis, P. indica • 13 Clams Anadara granosa, Paphia malabarica • 14 Sea cucumber Holothuria scabra • 15 Sea weeds Gracilaria, Gelidiella, Kappaphycus
  • 42. • Thanks TO YOUR TIME AND ATTENTION • Acknowledgement to CMFRI scientists and technical & supporting, team & Crab Farmers of Gujarat