SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Philippine Normal University
Taft Avenue, Manila
College of Languages, Linguistics, and Literature
DEPAERTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, BILINGUAL EDUCATION and LITERATURE
LING505 (Semantics)
Summer 2013
M-F (2:00-5:00 PM)
Dr. Florencia Marquez
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TECHNIQUES IN ANALYZING MEANING
I. Componential Analysis
- Also called semantic decomposition or lexical decomposition, this approach to
meaning tries to represent a word’s intension in terms of smaller components
called semantic features or properties— pieces of information about a word
on which speakers of the language agree (Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams, 2003).
This approach is especially effective when it comes to representing
similarities and difference among words with related meanings. An obvious
advantage of this is that it allows us to group entities into natural classes. This
approach gives us the most impressive results when applied to sets of words
referring to classes of entities with shared properties (O’Grady & Dobrovolsky,
1993).
e.g. man woman boy girl
[man] + + - -
[male] + - + -
[motion]
[contact]
[creation]
[sense]
Exercise A.1 For each group of words given below, state the semantic property or properties
distinguishing between the classes of (a) words and (b) words. If asked, also
indicate a semantic property the (a) words and the (b) words share.
A. (a) book, temple, mountain, road, tractor
(b) idea, love, charity, sincerity, bravery, fear
The (a) words are ______________________________________________________
The (b) words are ______________________________________________________
B. (a) Pine, elm, ash, weeping willow, sycamore
(b) rose, dandelion, aster, tulip, daisy
The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________
The (a) words are ______________________________________________________
The (b) words are ______________________________________________________
C. (a) ask, tell, say, talk, converse
(b) shout, whisper, mutter, drawl, holler
The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________
The (a) words are ______________________________________________________
The (b) words are ______________________________________________________
D. (a) absent-present, alive-dead, asleep-awake, married-single
(b) big-small, cold-hot, sad-happy, slow-fast
The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________
The (a) words are ______________________________________________________
The (b) words are ______________________________________________________
E. (a) walk, run, skip, jump, hop, swim
(b) fly, skate, ski, ride, cycle, canoe, hang-glide
The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________
The (a) words are ______________________________________________________
The (b) words are ______________________________________________________
II. Predication Analysis
- Involves breaking down predications into their immediate constituents.
Componential and predication analysis both enable us to represent the greater
part of sentences (Leech, 1982).
- The predicator of a simple declarative sentence is the word or sometimes a
group of words) which does not to any of the referring expressions and which,
of the remainder makes the most specific contribution to the meaning of the
sentence. Intuitively speaking the predicator describes the state or process in
which the referring expressions are involved.
EXERCISE B.1 Strip away the referring expressions and the verb be to identify
the predicators in the following sentences:
1. They are thirsty.
_______________________
2. Tristan is in San Diego.
_______________________
3. The man is a fraud.
_______________________
4. The women who live at RM2046 are whimsical.
_______________________
5. The Royal Scottish Museum is behind the college.
_______________________
- The predicator in sentences can be various parts of speech: adjectives, verbs,
prepositions, and nouns. Despite the obvious syntactic differences between
these different types of words, semantically they all share the property of being
able to function as predicators of sentences. However, words of other parts of
speech, such as conjunctions and articles cannot serve as predicators.
EXRECISE B.2 In the following sentences, indicate the predicators and
arguments.
1. Dennis is a menace.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
2. Anne showed Linda her necklace.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
3. Ronnie is afraid of dogs.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
4. The chapel is on the hill.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
5. Chicago is between Los Angeles and New York.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
6. John loves Mary.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
7. Mary gave John a new tie.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
8. John is a linguist.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
9. Ed is a fool.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
10. John is the Dean of the College.
predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
- A predicate is any word (or sequence of words) which (in a given single
sense) can function as the predicator of a sentence such as hunfry, in, crook,
asleep, hit, show, bottle; and, or, but, not are not predicates.
-
EXERCISE B.3 Are the following predicates?
1. dusty Yes / No
2. swallow Yes / No
3. gentleman Yes / No
4. you Yes / No
5. about Yes / No
- Notice that ‘predicate’ and ‘predicator’ are terms of quite different sorts. The
term ‘predicate’ identifies elements in the language system, independently of
particular example sentences; the ‘predicator’ identifies the semantic role
played by a particular words (or group of words) in a particular sentence.
EXERCISE B.4 In which of the following sentences does the predicate male
function as predicator? Circle your answer.
(a) The male gorilla at the zoo had a nasty accident
yesterday.
(b) The gorilla at the zoo is a male.
(c) The gorilla at the zoo is male.
In which of the following sentences does the predicate human
function as predicator?
(a) All humans are mortal
(b) Socrates was human
(c) These bones are human
- The degree of predicate is a number indicating the number of arguments it is
normally understood to have n simple sentences.
e.g. Asleep is a predicate degree of one (often called a one-place
predicate)
Love (verb) is a predicate of degree two (a two-place predicate)
EXERCISE B.5
1. Are the following sentences acceptable?
a. Tony sneezed Yes / No
b. Tony sneezed a handful of pepper Yes / No
c. Tony sneezed his sister a handful of pepper Yes / No
2. So is sneeze a one-place predicate ? Yes / No
3. Are the following sentences acceptable in normal usage?
a. Martha hit Yes / No
b. Martha hit the sideboard Yes / No
c. Martha hit George the sideboard Yes / No
4. So is hit a one-place predicate? Yes / No
5. Is die a one-place predicate? Yes / No
6. Is come a one-place predicate? Yes / No
7. Is murder (verb) a one-place predicate Yes / No
- A verb that is understood most naturally with just two arguments, one as it
subject, and one as its object, is a two-place predicate.
e.g In Martha hit the parrot, hit is a two-place predicate: it has an
argument. Martha, as subject and an argument , the parrot, as
direct object,
EXERCISE B.6 1. Are the following sentences acceptable?
a. Keith made Yes / No
b. Keith made this toy guillotine Yes / No
c. Keith made this toy guillotine his mother-in-law Yes / No
2. Is make a two-place predicate Yes / No
3. Is murder a two-place predicate Yes / No
4. Is see a two-place predicate Yes / No
- There are a few three-place predicates; the verb give is the best example.
EXERCISE B.7 For each of the following sentences, say whether it seems
somewhat elliptical (i.e. seems to omit something that one would
normally expect to be mentioned). Some of these sentences are
more acceptable that others.
1. Henry gave Yes / No
2. Henry gave Selma Yes / No
3. Henry gave a nice present Yes / No
4. Henry gave Selma a nice present Yes / No
5. How many referring expressions are there in no.4 Yes / No
- We have concentrated so far on predicates that happen to be verbs. However,
there are sentences in which the predicate could be a preposition, adjective,
and noun.
EXERCISE B.8
Prepositions
1. How many referring expression are there in Your marble is under my chair?_____
2. Is Your marble is under acceptable in normal usage? Yes / No
3. Is Your marble is under my chair the carpet acceptable? Yes / No
4. So, what degree is the predicate under? __________
5. Of what degree is the predicate near? __________
6. Is Dundee is between Aberdeen acceptable? __________
7. Is Dundee is between Aberdeen and Edinburg acceptable? __________
8. Of what degree is the predicate between? __________
Adjectives
1. Is John is afraid of Fido acceptable? Yes / No
2. Does John is afraid seem elliptical? Yes / No
3. Could afraid be called a two-place predicate? Yes / No
4. Is Your house is different from mine acceptable? Yes / No
5. Does Your house is different seem elliptical? Yes / No
6. Of what degree is the predicate different? __________
7. Of what degree is the predicate identical? __________
8. Of what degree is the predicate similar? __________
Nouns
1. How many referring expression are there in John is a corporal? __________
2. Is John is a corporal the army acceptable? Yes / No
3. Of what degree is corporal? __________
4. Of what degree is crook? __________
5. Of what degree is the word hero? __________
6. How many referring expressions are there in
This object is a pitchfork? __________
7. Of what degree is pitchfork? __________
Symmetry, Reflexivity, and Transitivity
There are six sense properties that a predicate may have. These six properties
fall neatly into three groups of two, groups which might come under the headings of
‘symmetry,’ ‘reflexivity,’ and ‘transitivity.’ The two properties in each group are related to
each other in exactly parallel ways. All of these properties are properties of two-place
predicates.
A. SYMMETRY VS. ASYMMETRY
Given a two place predicate P, if, for any pair of referring expressions X and Y, the
sentence XPY ENTAILS the sentence YPX, then P is SYMMETRIC
EXERCISE B.9
1. Do the following pairs of sentence s entail each other?
Tanzania is different from Kenya. Yes / No
Kenya is different from Tanzania Yes / No
2. Is different a symmetric predicate? Yes / No
3. Does Mary is married to Hans entail Hans is married to Mary?
Yes / No
4. Is married to a predicate symmetric predicate? Yes / No
5. Does Mary is devoted to Hans entail Hans is devoted to Mary?
Yes / No
6. Is devoted to a symmetric predicate? Yes / No
Given a two-place predicate P, if the sentence XPY is a contradictory of Bill is
taller than John. Therefore, taller than is an asymmetric predicate.
EXERCISE B.10
1. Is John is under the table a contradictory of The table is under John?
Yes / No
2. Is under asymmetric? Yes / No
3. Is father of as in Alphonso was the father of Benito asymmetric? Yes / No
4. Is admire as in Jimmy Carter admires Norman Mailer asymmetric?Yes / No
B. REFLEXIVITY VS. IRREFLEXIVITY
Given a two-place predicate P, if for any single referring expression X (or any
pair of referring expressions X and Y which have the same referent, e.g. John and
himself), the sentence XPX (or the sentence XPY) is ANALYTIC , then P is a
REFLEXIVE predicate.
EXERCISE B.11
1. Do I and myself have the same referent in I am as old as myself.? Yes / No
2. Is I am as old as myself analytic? Yes / No
3. So is the predicate be as old as reflexive? Yes / No
4. Are the capitalized predicates in the following sentences reflexive?
a. John’s doorkey is IDENTICAL TO itself? Yes / No
b. John LOVES himself. Yes / No
Given a two-place predicate P, if for any single referring expression X (or for any
pair of referring expressions X and Y which have the same referent e.g. Jack and
himself) the sentence XPX (or the sentence XPY) is a CONTRADICTION, then P is
a IRREFLEXIVE predicate.
EXERCISE B.12
1. Do Mary and herself have the same referent in
Mary is different from herself a contradiction Yes / No
2. Is Mary is different from herself a contradiction?
Yes / No
3. So is the predicate is different from irreflexive?
Yes / No
4. Are the capitalized predicates in the following
sentences
irreflexive? Yes / No
a. Mary LOVES herself Yes / No
b. Fred is SHORTER THAN himself Yes / No
C. TRANSITIVITY VS. INTRANSITIVITY
- Given a two-place predicate P, if for any trio of referring expressions X, Y, and
Z the compound sentence XPY and XPZ entails the sentence XPZ, then P is
TRANSITIVE.
EXERCISE B.13
1. Is above in the following sentence a two-place predicate?
Johns flat is above mine and mine is above Mary’s Yes / No
2. What does the above sentence entail concerning the relation between
John’s flat and Mary’s?
John’s flat is
______________________________________________________________________
3. Are the capitalized predicates in the following sets of sentences
transitive?
a. Socrates was WISER THAN Plato and Plato was WISER THAN
Aristotle
Socrates was WISER THAN Aristotle Yes / NO
b. Mary’s cat is the FATHER OF Gill’s cat and
Gill’s cat is the FATHER OF Gerlad’s cat
Mary’s cat is the FATHER OF Gerald’s cat Yes / No
Given a two-place predicate P, if for any trio of referring respression X, Y,
and Z, the compound sentence XPY and YPZ is CONTRADICTORY of XPZ, then P
is INTRANSITIVE.
EXERCISE B.14 Are the following predicates intransitive?
a. enemy of Yes / No
b. dislike Yes / No
c. grandchild of Yes / No
d. two inches taller than Yes / No
e. jealous of Yes / No
III. Illocutionary Approach to Meaning
- An illocutionary act is what the speaker does in uttering a sentence.
Illocutionary acts include such acts as stating, requesting, promising,
apologizing, and appointing.
Classification of Illocuationary Acts
1. Representative – an utterance used to describe state of affairs.
2. Directive – an utterance used to try to get the hearer to do something.
3. Question – an utterance used to get the hearer provide information.
4. Commissive - an utterance used to commit the speaker to do something
5. Expressive – an utterance used to express the emotional state of the
speaker.
6. Declaration – an utterance used to change the status of some entity.
Exercise C.1
Exercise Classify each of the following utterances as directive, commissive,
representative, expressive, question, or declaration.
1. A child says to her playmate, Happy birthday.
2. A doctor says to a patient, I advise you to stop smoking.
3. One secretary says to another, My daughter’s getting married in August.
4. A priest says over to an infant. I baptize you in the name of…
5. A mother says to her daughter, Who washed the dishes?
6. A passerby says to a motorist with a flat tire, Let me help you with that.
7. One friend says to another, I swear won’t see Martha again.
8. A parent says to her child, I forbid you to leave your room.
9. A man says to a friend, What time is it?
10. A buyer says to a seller, I agree to your terms.
Explicit versus Non-expplicit Illocutionary Acts
Austin most important insight was the realization that English has a set of verbs that
actually names the illocutionary force of that verb. In the following sentences, the verbs are
known as performative verbs.
e.g. I confess that I stole the family jewels.
I warn you to stop teasing our sister.
I promise I’ll come to your birthday party.
I apologize for calling you a liar.
However, in order for the verb to have its performative sense, it must:
i. be positive
ii. be in present tense
iii. have a first person agent
iv. refer to the specific event
The term explicit performative describes an utterance that contains performative verb
used in its performative sense. Any utterance not containing a performative verb used it its
performative sense are called nonexplicit performative.
Explicit Performative Non-explicit
Performative
Representative I deny that I killed Cock Robin I did not kill Cock Robin
Directive I forbid you to leave your room Don’t leave your room.
Question I ask you where you were last night Where were you last
night?
Commissive I vow that I’ll be faithful to you. I’ll be faithful to you.
Expressive I thank you for your help. I appreciate your help.
Declaration I resign . I don’t work here
anymore.
EXERCISE Explain why each of the performative verbs in the following utterances is not
being used in its performative sense.
1. I warned you not to open that door.
2. Promise her anything, but give her Arpege.
3. I won’t insist that you leave.
4. Mr. Jones inisists that you work late tonight.
5. Aplogize to your Aunt Martha immediately.
Direct versus Indirect Illocutionary Act
Particular sentences types are associated with a particular illocutionary acts. For
example, imperative sentences (Bring me my coat) are uniquely deigned for issuing
directives. Thus, a directive delivered by means of an imperative sentence is said to
constitute a direct illocutionary act. However, if another sentence type, for example an
interrogative, is used to isse a directive (Would you bring me my coat?), then such an
autterance is said to constitute an indirect illocutionary act.
Direct Illocutionary Acts
Utterance Illocutionary Act Syntactic Form
Keep quiet. Directive Imperative
Do you know Mary? Question Interrogative
I’ll help you with the dishes. Commissive Declarative
You’re fired. Declaration Declarative
Indirect Illocutionary Acts
You might give me a hand with this Directive Declarative
And you are… Question Declarative
Could you keep quiet? Directive Interrogative
Do you have the time? Wh- question Yes-No
Interrogative
Exercise For each of the following utterances state (i) the syntactic form, (ii) illocutionary
act it performs, and (iii) whether the illocutionary act is performed directly or
indirectly.
1. A clerk says to a customer, And your account number is…
2. A sign at the entrance to a cafeteria: It is impolite to pass others if there is a
space ahead.
3. An impatient husband grouses to his wife, Shouldn’t we be leaving soon?
4. The envelope supplied for paying your credit card bill carries the following
notice: Did you remember to sign your check?
5. A student, wheedling a teacher for an A, says If I don’t get an A in this course,
I’ll lose my scholarship.
References
Fromkin, V., R. Rodman, and N. Hyams. (2003). Introduction to language. MA: Heinle
Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the
communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University.
Hurford, James R., B. Heasley, M. B. Smith. (2007). Semantics: a coursebook. NY: Cambridge
University Press.
Leech, Geoffrey. (1981). Semantics: The study of meaning. UK: Penguin Books Ltd.
O'Grady, William, M. Dobrovolsky, & F. Katamba (2001) Contemporary Linguistics : An
Introduction. St. Martin's Press.
http://www.colorado.edu/ling/courses/LAM3430/Chapter9notes.pdf
Prepared by
Bernard M. Paderes
MA Linguistics
bernardpaderes@gmail.com
Exercise A Intonational Meaning
DIRECTION: Write the letter of the utterance that answers the question about each set of
utterances.
a. really
b. really
_____1. Which one expresses surprise?
_____ 2. Which one sow that the speaker does not put too much importance on what was
said?
c. I heard him say, “Fire!”
d. I heard him say, “Fire!”
e. I heard him say, “Fire!”
_____ 3. In which sentence is fire given as a command by the captain of a firing squad.
_____ 4. In which sentence is fire mentioned as a response to the question, “What did he
say?”
_____ 5. In which sentence is fire uttered when someone calls your name and you
respond to find out what he wants?
f. What?
g. What?
_____ 6. What question is uttered when someone calls your name and you respond to
find out what he wants?
_____ 7. Which utterance shows disbelief?
h. Is that so?
i. Is that so?
_____ 8. Which utterance shows disbelief?
_____ 9. Which utterance seeks information?
SOURCE:
Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the
communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University.
EXERCISE B: MORPHOLOGICAL MEANING
DIRECTION: Here is a list of words with affixes that give meaning to the root word, Group
together all the words whose affixes signal the same added meaning. Then write
on top of each group the additional meaning signalled by those affixes. How
many groups did you come up with?
act- actor
beg- beggar
brook – brooklet
creep – crept
decide – decided
duck – ducks
direct – indirect
duke –duches
electric – electrician
figure – figurine
fox – foxes
genus – genocide
goose –geese
hero – heroine
homo- homicide
infant – infanticide
insect - insecticide
island –islet
janitor – janitress
keep – kept
legitimate – illegitimate
modest – immodest
mouse – mice
opera – operetta
ox – oxen
pest – pesticide
play – playlet
prince – princess
refuge – refugee
regular – irregular
sing – song
stand – stood
statue – statuette
steward – stewardess
stop – non-stop
study – studies
tie – untie
violin – violinist
wolf – wolverine
write - writer
SOURCE:
Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the
communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University.
EXERCISE C: LEXICAL MEANING
DIRECTION: Here are other expressions whose words have difference lexical meanings
depending on the context in which they are used. Write the letter of the meaning
given in Column B that suit the underlined word in the expressions given in
Column A in each set.
SET I
_____ 1. a head of cabbage
_____ 2. a clear head
_____ 3. the head of our team
_____ 4. come to a head
_____ 5. a head wound
_____ 6. a head for business
_____ 7. head for shore
_____ 8. head the list
a. leader
b. intellectual inclination and ability
c. mind
d. part of the body that contains the
brain
e. be the first or be at the top
f. a unit of measure of a leafy vegetable
rolled up in the shape of a ball
g. point of convergence
h. move towards a place
SET II
_____ 9. a mark of good taste
_____ 10. a high mark on a test
_____ 11. miss the mark
_____ 12. On your mark. Get Set. Go!
_____ 13. leave marks on the floor
_____ 14. Mark my word
_____ 15. Leave your mark on society.
a. target
b. sign
c. starting point
d. prints
e. pay attention to a warning
f. legacy
g. core
EXERCISE D: CONNONATATIVE MEANING
DIRECTION: Put a plaus sign (+) before the expression if it gives a positive connotation of blue
and put a minus sign (-) if the connotative meaning is negative.
_____ 1. bluebird of happiness
_____ 2. blue skies
_____ 3. true blue
_____ 4. blue-blooded royalty
_____ 5. blue Monday
_____ 6. black and blue marks
_____ 7. feel blue
_____ 8. sing the blues
SOURCE:
Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the
communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University.

More Related Content

What's hot

Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)
Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)
Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)
bujalsksrd
 
English 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structur
English 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structurEnglish 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structur
English 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structur
Alice Failano
 
Aya sentence relation and truth
Aya sentence relation and truthAya sentence relation and truth
Aya sentence relation and truth
MYlove99
 
Class 1 Pronouns Iza May 16 2009
Class 1  Pronouns   Iza May 16 2009Class 1  Pronouns   Iza May 16 2009
Class 1 Pronouns Iza May 16 2009
justbrasil
 
English 5 dlp 30 using two-word verbs
English 5 dlp 30   using two-word verbsEnglish 5 dlp 30   using two-word verbs
English 5 dlp 30 using two-word verbs
EDITHA HONRADEZ
 

What's hot (19)

Demonstration teaching in english v and vi
Demonstration teaching in english v and viDemonstration teaching in english v and vi
Demonstration teaching in english v and vi
 
Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)
Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)
Sk rpt bahasa inggeris tahun 2 (edited)
 
Week 2 grammar notes-1-15
Week 2  grammar notes-1-15Week 2  grammar notes-1-15
Week 2 grammar notes-1-15
 
B8 M2 Grammar
B8 M2 GrammarB8 M2 Grammar
B8 M2 Grammar
 
Word Analogy Lesson English First Quarter 2020
Word Analogy Lesson English First Quarter 2020Word Analogy Lesson English First Quarter 2020
Word Analogy Lesson English First Quarter 2020
 
Structure of English
Structure of EnglishStructure of English
Structure of English
 
The sentence-part-1
The sentence-part-1The sentence-part-1
The sentence-part-1
 
English Grammar pdf
English Grammar pdfEnglish Grammar pdf
English Grammar pdf
 
September 23
September 23September 23
September 23
 
English 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structur
English 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structurEnglish 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structur
English 6-dlp-4-decoding-meaning-of-unfamiliar-words-using-structur
 
Melcs in English
Melcs in EnglishMelcs in English
Melcs in English
 
Parts Of Speech
Parts Of SpeechParts Of Speech
Parts Of Speech
 
Predicates in Semantic
Predicates in SemanticPredicates in Semantic
Predicates in Semantic
 
Aya sentence relation and truth
Aya sentence relation and truthAya sentence relation and truth
Aya sentence relation and truth
 
Presentación2 (2) luis
Presentación2 (2) luisPresentación2 (2) luis
Presentación2 (2) luis
 
Class 1 Pronouns Iza May 16 2009
Class 1  Pronouns   Iza May 16 2009Class 1  Pronouns   Iza May 16 2009
Class 1 Pronouns Iza May 16 2009
 
TKT WORKBOOK, https://tkt.gnomio.com
TKT WORKBOOK, https://tkt.gnomio.comTKT WORKBOOK, https://tkt.gnomio.com
TKT WORKBOOK, https://tkt.gnomio.com
 
English 5 dlp 30 using two-word verbs
English 5 dlp 30   using two-word verbsEnglish 5 dlp 30   using two-word verbs
English 5 dlp 30 using two-word verbs
 
Semantics: Predicate, Predicators and Degree of Predicate
Semantics: Predicate, Predicators and Degree of Predicate Semantics: Predicate, Predicators and Degree of Predicate
Semantics: Predicate, Predicators and Degree of Predicate
 

Similar to Ling 506 techniques in analyzing meaning (presentation)

English QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptx
English QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptxEnglish QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptx
English QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptx
HarleyLaus1
 
Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdf
Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdfAgreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdf
Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdf
sdfghj21
 
Unit 3 determiners
Unit 3  determinersUnit 3  determiners
Unit 3 determiners
nadsab
 
eliptical construction.ppt
eliptical construction.ppteliptical construction.ppt
eliptical construction.ppt
AjiNug3
 

Similar to Ling 506 techniques in analyzing meaning (presentation) (20)

Meaning
MeaningMeaning
Meaning
 
K TO 12 GRADE 5 LEARNER’S MATERIAL IN ENGLISH (Q1-Q4)
K TO 12 GRADE 5 LEARNER’S MATERIAL IN ENGLISH (Q1-Q4)K TO 12 GRADE 5 LEARNER’S MATERIAL IN ENGLISH (Q1-Q4)
K TO 12 GRADE 5 LEARNER’S MATERIAL IN ENGLISH (Q1-Q4)
 
Para_Writng 1_ Parts_of_Speech.ppt.pdf
Para_Writng 1_ Parts_of_Speech.ppt.pdfPara_Writng 1_ Parts_of_Speech.ppt.pdf
Para_Writng 1_ Parts_of_Speech.ppt.pdf
 
English-6-Q4-W7-D1-5.pptx
English-6-Q4-W7-D1-5.pptxEnglish-6-Q4-W7-D1-5.pptx
English-6-Q4-W7-D1-5.pptx
 
Phrasal verbs c1 def
Phrasal verbs c1 defPhrasal verbs c1 def
Phrasal verbs c1 def
 
English QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptx
English QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptxEnglish QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptx
English QUARTER TWO WEEK-4 DAY 4 PPT.pptx
 
Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives
Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectivesPossessive pronouns and possessive adjectives
Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives
 
Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdf
Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdfAgreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdf
Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns An.pdf
 
06 syntax
06 syntax06 syntax
06 syntax
 
Part of speech
Part of speechPart of speech
Part of speech
 
Study guide
Study guideStudy guide
Study guide
 
GR8 UNIT 2 ENGLISH.ppsx
GR8 UNIT 2 ENGLISH.ppsxGR8 UNIT 2 ENGLISH.ppsx
GR8 UNIT 2 ENGLISH.ppsx
 
PART OF SPEECH
PART OF SPEECHPART OF SPEECH
PART OF SPEECH
 
Subject-Verb Agreement
Subject-Verb AgreementSubject-Verb Agreement
Subject-Verb Agreement
 
English 5-q2-week-7-denotation-and-connotation-health-by-sir-rei-marasigan-1
English 5-q2-week-7-denotation-and-connotation-health-by-sir-rei-marasigan-1English 5-q2-week-7-denotation-and-connotation-health-by-sir-rei-marasigan-1
English 5-q2-week-7-denotation-and-connotation-health-by-sir-rei-marasigan-1
 
ADVERB-Structure-of-English1.pptx
ADVERB-Structure-of-English1.pptxADVERB-Structure-of-English1.pptx
ADVERB-Structure-of-English1.pptx
 
2nd qtr 13 using two word verb in sentences
2nd qtr 13 using two word verb in sentences2nd qtr 13 using two word verb in sentences
2nd qtr 13 using two word verb in sentences
 
Context Clues.pptx
Context Clues.pptxContext Clues.pptx
Context Clues.pptx
 
Unit 3 determiners
Unit 3  determinersUnit 3  determiners
Unit 3 determiners
 
eliptical construction.ppt
eliptical construction.ppteliptical construction.ppt
eliptical construction.ppt
 

More from Bernard Paderes

Mle 501 language, culture, and thought
Mle 501   language, culture, and thoughtMle 501   language, culture, and thought
Mle 501 language, culture, and thought
Bernard Paderes
 
MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...
MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...
MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...
Bernard Paderes
 
Ling 505 tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)
Ling 505  tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)Ling 505  tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)
Ling 505 tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)
Bernard Paderes
 
Ling 502 non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
Ling 502   non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)Ling 502   non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
Ling 502 non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
Bernard Paderes
 
Ling 502 a phonetic description of korean language (report)
Ling 502   a phonetic description of korean language (report)Ling 502   a phonetic description of korean language (report)
Ling 502 a phonetic description of korean language (report)
Bernard Paderes
 
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education
Educ 501   teaching and other related concepts in educationEduc 501   teaching and other related concepts in education
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education
Bernard Paderes
 
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)
Educ 501   teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)Educ 501   teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)
Bernard Paderes
 
Educ 501 my philosophy of education (essay)
Educ 501   my philosophy of education (essay)Educ 501   my philosophy of education (essay)
Educ 501 my philosophy of education (essay)
Bernard Paderes
 
Educ 501 final examination
Educ 501   final examinationEduc 501   final examination
Educ 501 final examination
Bernard Paderes
 

More from Bernard Paderes (16)

TESOL 109 - The Skills-based Syllabus Design
TESOL 109 - The Skills-based Syllabus DesignTESOL 109 - The Skills-based Syllabus Design
TESOL 109 - The Skills-based Syllabus Design
 
Mle 501 language, culture, and thought
Mle 501   language, culture, and thoughtMle 501   language, culture, and thought
Mle 501 language, culture, and thought
 
MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...
MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...
MLE 501 - Language Acquisition, Education, and the Discovery of the Human Per...
 
Litt 516 - Translating Children's Literature as a Class Activity: Implicati...
Litt 516  -  Translating Children's Literature as a Class Activity: Implicati...Litt 516  -  Translating Children's Literature as a Class Activity: Implicati...
Litt 516 - Translating Children's Literature as a Class Activity: Implicati...
 
Litt 507 - Joy Luck Club as a Contemporary American Fiction
Litt 507 - Joy Luck Club as a Contemporary American FictionLitt 507 - Joy Luck Club as a Contemporary American Fiction
Litt 507 - Joy Luck Club as a Contemporary American Fiction
 
Litt 507 - Psychological Analysis of Ibsen's The Lady from the Sea (paper)
Litt 507 -  Psychological Analysis of Ibsen's The Lady from the Sea (paper)Litt 507 -  Psychological Analysis of Ibsen's The Lady from the Sea (paper)
Litt 507 - Psychological Analysis of Ibsen's The Lady from the Sea (paper)
 
Ling 507 Word Formation Strategies (presentation)
Ling 507   Word Formation Strategies (presentation)Ling 507   Word Formation Strategies (presentation)
Ling 507 Word Formation Strategies (presentation)
 
Ling 507 Affixes and Syntactic Categories of Borrowed Words in English-Taga...
Ling 507   Affixes and Syntactic Categories of Borrowed Words in English-Taga...Ling 507   Affixes and Syntactic Categories of Borrowed Words in English-Taga...
Ling 507 Affixes and Syntactic Categories of Borrowed Words in English-Taga...
 
Ling 505 tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)
Ling 505  tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)Ling 505  tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)
Ling 505 tayao's lectal description of phil eng (presentation)
 
Ling 502 non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
Ling 502   non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)Ling 502   non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
Ling 502 non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
 
Ling 502 a phonetic description of korean language (report)
Ling 502   a phonetic description of korean language (report)Ling 502   a phonetic description of korean language (report)
Ling 502 a phonetic description of korean language (report)
 
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education
Educ 501   teaching and other related concepts in educationEduc 501   teaching and other related concepts in education
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in education
 
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)
Educ 501   teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)Educ 501   teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)
Educ 501 teaching and other related concepts in educ (presentation)
 
Educ 501 my philosophy of education (essay)
Educ 501   my philosophy of education (essay)Educ 501   my philosophy of education (essay)
Educ 501 my philosophy of education (essay)
 
Educ 501 final examination
Educ 501   final examinationEduc 501   final examination
Educ 501 final examination
 
TESOL 102 - Tag Questions in English (Presentation)
TESOL 102 - Tag Questions in English (Presentation)TESOL 102 - Tag Questions in English (Presentation)
TESOL 102 - Tag Questions in English (Presentation)
 

Recently uploaded

Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
panagenda
 
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for SuccessStructuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
UXDXConf
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
 
Portal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russe
Portal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russePortal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russe
Portal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russe
 
Continuing Bonds Through AI: A Hermeneutic Reflection on Thanabots
Continuing Bonds Through AI: A Hermeneutic Reflection on ThanabotsContinuing Bonds Through AI: A Hermeneutic Reflection on Thanabots
Continuing Bonds Through AI: A Hermeneutic Reflection on Thanabots
 
Designing for Hardware Accessibility at Comcast
Designing for Hardware Accessibility at ComcastDesigning for Hardware Accessibility at Comcast
Designing for Hardware Accessibility at Comcast
 
Overview of Hyperledger Foundation
Overview of Hyperledger FoundationOverview of Hyperledger Foundation
Overview of Hyperledger Foundation
 
Your enemies use GenAI too - staying ahead of fraud with Neo4j
Your enemies use GenAI too - staying ahead of fraud with Neo4jYour enemies use GenAI too - staying ahead of fraud with Neo4j
Your enemies use GenAI too - staying ahead of fraud with Neo4j
 
Where to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
Where to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdfWhere to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
Where to Learn More About FDO _ Richard at FIDO Alliance.pdf
 
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for SuccessStructuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
Structuring Teams and Portfolios for Success
 
Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...
Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...
Choosing the Right FDO Deployment Model for Your Application _ Geoffrey at In...
 
Simplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdf
Simplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdfSimplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdf
Simplified FDO Manufacturing Flow with TPMs _ Liam at Infineon.pdf
 
Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...
Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...
Behind the Scenes From the Manager's Chair: Decoding the Secrets of Successfu...
 
WebRTC and SIP not just audio and video @ OpenSIPS 2024
WebRTC and SIP not just audio and video @ OpenSIPS 2024WebRTC and SIP not just audio and video @ OpenSIPS 2024
WebRTC and SIP not just audio and video @ OpenSIPS 2024
 
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
TopCryptoSupers 12thReport OrionX May2024
 
Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...
Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...
Secure Zero Touch enabled Edge compute with Dell NativeEdge via FDO _ Brad at...
 
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Notes Document Properties Reimagined
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Notes Document Properties ReimaginedEasier, Faster, and More Powerful – Notes Document Properties Reimagined
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Notes Document Properties Reimagined
 
ERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct
ERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage IntacctERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct
ERP Contender Series: Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct
 
PLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. Startups
PLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. StartupsPLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. Startups
PLAI - Acceleration Program for Generative A.I. Startups
 
How Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdf
How Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdfHow Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdf
How Red Hat Uses FDO in Device Lifecycle _ Costin and Vitaliy at Red Hat.pdf
 
Oauth 2.0 Introduction and Flows with MuleSoft
Oauth 2.0 Introduction and Flows with MuleSoftOauth 2.0 Introduction and Flows with MuleSoft
Oauth 2.0 Introduction and Flows with MuleSoft
 
The Metaverse: Are We There Yet?
The  Metaverse:    Are   We  There  Yet?The  Metaverse:    Are   We  There  Yet?
The Metaverse: Are We There Yet?
 

Ling 506 techniques in analyzing meaning (presentation)

  • 1. Philippine Normal University Taft Avenue, Manila College of Languages, Linguistics, and Literature DEPAERTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, BILINGUAL EDUCATION and LITERATURE LING505 (Semantics) Summer 2013 M-F (2:00-5:00 PM) Dr. Florencia Marquez _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ TECHNIQUES IN ANALYZING MEANING I. Componential Analysis - Also called semantic decomposition or lexical decomposition, this approach to meaning tries to represent a word’s intension in terms of smaller components called semantic features or properties— pieces of information about a word on which speakers of the language agree (Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams, 2003). This approach is especially effective when it comes to representing similarities and difference among words with related meanings. An obvious advantage of this is that it allows us to group entities into natural classes. This approach gives us the most impressive results when applied to sets of words referring to classes of entities with shared properties (O’Grady & Dobrovolsky, 1993). e.g. man woman boy girl [man] + + - - [male] + - + - [motion] [contact] [creation] [sense]
  • 2. Exercise A.1 For each group of words given below, state the semantic property or properties distinguishing between the classes of (a) words and (b) words. If asked, also indicate a semantic property the (a) words and the (b) words share. A. (a) book, temple, mountain, road, tractor (b) idea, love, charity, sincerity, bravery, fear The (a) words are ______________________________________________________ The (b) words are ______________________________________________________ B. (a) Pine, elm, ash, weeping willow, sycamore (b) rose, dandelion, aster, tulip, daisy The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________ The (a) words are ______________________________________________________ The (b) words are ______________________________________________________ C. (a) ask, tell, say, talk, converse (b) shout, whisper, mutter, drawl, holler The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________ The (a) words are ______________________________________________________ The (b) words are ______________________________________________________ D. (a) absent-present, alive-dead, asleep-awake, married-single (b) big-small, cold-hot, sad-happy, slow-fast The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________ The (a) words are ______________________________________________________ The (b) words are ______________________________________________________ E. (a) walk, run, skip, jump, hop, swim (b) fly, skate, ski, ride, cycle, canoe, hang-glide The (a) and (b) words are __________________________________________________ The (a) words are ______________________________________________________ The (b) words are ______________________________________________________
  • 3. II. Predication Analysis - Involves breaking down predications into their immediate constituents. Componential and predication analysis both enable us to represent the greater part of sentences (Leech, 1982). - The predicator of a simple declarative sentence is the word or sometimes a group of words) which does not to any of the referring expressions and which, of the remainder makes the most specific contribution to the meaning of the sentence. Intuitively speaking the predicator describes the state or process in which the referring expressions are involved. EXERCISE B.1 Strip away the referring expressions and the verb be to identify the predicators in the following sentences: 1. They are thirsty. _______________________ 2. Tristan is in San Diego. _______________________ 3. The man is a fraud. _______________________ 4. The women who live at RM2046 are whimsical. _______________________ 5. The Royal Scottish Museum is behind the college. _______________________ - The predicator in sentences can be various parts of speech: adjectives, verbs, prepositions, and nouns. Despite the obvious syntactic differences between these different types of words, semantically they all share the property of being able to function as predicators of sentences. However, words of other parts of speech, such as conjunctions and articles cannot serve as predicators. EXRECISE B.2 In the following sentences, indicate the predicators and arguments. 1. Dennis is a menace. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 2. Anne showed Linda her necklace. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________
  • 4. 3. Ronnie is afraid of dogs. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 4. The chapel is on the hill. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 5. Chicago is between Los Angeles and New York. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 6. John loves Mary. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 7. Mary gave John a new tie. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 8. John is a linguist. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 9. Ed is a fool. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ 10. John is the Dean of the College. predicator: _______________________ argument (s): _______________________ - A predicate is any word (or sequence of words) which (in a given single sense) can function as the predicator of a sentence such as hunfry, in, crook, asleep, hit, show, bottle; and, or, but, not are not predicates. - EXERCISE B.3 Are the following predicates? 1. dusty Yes / No 2. swallow Yes / No 3. gentleman Yes / No 4. you Yes / No 5. about Yes / No - Notice that ‘predicate’ and ‘predicator’ are terms of quite different sorts. The term ‘predicate’ identifies elements in the language system, independently of particular example sentences; the ‘predicator’ identifies the semantic role played by a particular words (or group of words) in a particular sentence.
  • 5. EXERCISE B.4 In which of the following sentences does the predicate male function as predicator? Circle your answer. (a) The male gorilla at the zoo had a nasty accident yesterday. (b) The gorilla at the zoo is a male. (c) The gorilla at the zoo is male. In which of the following sentences does the predicate human function as predicator? (a) All humans are mortal (b) Socrates was human (c) These bones are human - The degree of predicate is a number indicating the number of arguments it is normally understood to have n simple sentences. e.g. Asleep is a predicate degree of one (often called a one-place predicate) Love (verb) is a predicate of degree two (a two-place predicate) EXERCISE B.5 1. Are the following sentences acceptable? a. Tony sneezed Yes / No b. Tony sneezed a handful of pepper Yes / No c. Tony sneezed his sister a handful of pepper Yes / No 2. So is sneeze a one-place predicate ? Yes / No 3. Are the following sentences acceptable in normal usage? a. Martha hit Yes / No b. Martha hit the sideboard Yes / No c. Martha hit George the sideboard Yes / No 4. So is hit a one-place predicate? Yes / No 5. Is die a one-place predicate? Yes / No 6. Is come a one-place predicate? Yes / No 7. Is murder (verb) a one-place predicate Yes / No
  • 6. - A verb that is understood most naturally with just two arguments, one as it subject, and one as its object, is a two-place predicate. e.g In Martha hit the parrot, hit is a two-place predicate: it has an argument. Martha, as subject and an argument , the parrot, as direct object, EXERCISE B.6 1. Are the following sentences acceptable? a. Keith made Yes / No b. Keith made this toy guillotine Yes / No c. Keith made this toy guillotine his mother-in-law Yes / No 2. Is make a two-place predicate Yes / No 3. Is murder a two-place predicate Yes / No 4. Is see a two-place predicate Yes / No - There are a few three-place predicates; the verb give is the best example. EXERCISE B.7 For each of the following sentences, say whether it seems somewhat elliptical (i.e. seems to omit something that one would normally expect to be mentioned). Some of these sentences are more acceptable that others. 1. Henry gave Yes / No 2. Henry gave Selma Yes / No 3. Henry gave a nice present Yes / No 4. Henry gave Selma a nice present Yes / No 5. How many referring expressions are there in no.4 Yes / No - We have concentrated so far on predicates that happen to be verbs. However, there are sentences in which the predicate could be a preposition, adjective, and noun.
  • 7. EXERCISE B.8 Prepositions 1. How many referring expression are there in Your marble is under my chair?_____ 2. Is Your marble is under acceptable in normal usage? Yes / No 3. Is Your marble is under my chair the carpet acceptable? Yes / No 4. So, what degree is the predicate under? __________ 5. Of what degree is the predicate near? __________ 6. Is Dundee is between Aberdeen acceptable? __________ 7. Is Dundee is between Aberdeen and Edinburg acceptable? __________ 8. Of what degree is the predicate between? __________ Adjectives 1. Is John is afraid of Fido acceptable? Yes / No 2. Does John is afraid seem elliptical? Yes / No 3. Could afraid be called a two-place predicate? Yes / No 4. Is Your house is different from mine acceptable? Yes / No 5. Does Your house is different seem elliptical? Yes / No 6. Of what degree is the predicate different? __________ 7. Of what degree is the predicate identical? __________ 8. Of what degree is the predicate similar? __________ Nouns 1. How many referring expression are there in John is a corporal? __________ 2. Is John is a corporal the army acceptable? Yes / No 3. Of what degree is corporal? __________ 4. Of what degree is crook? __________ 5. Of what degree is the word hero? __________ 6. How many referring expressions are there in This object is a pitchfork? __________ 7. Of what degree is pitchfork? __________
  • 8. Symmetry, Reflexivity, and Transitivity There are six sense properties that a predicate may have. These six properties fall neatly into three groups of two, groups which might come under the headings of ‘symmetry,’ ‘reflexivity,’ and ‘transitivity.’ The two properties in each group are related to each other in exactly parallel ways. All of these properties are properties of two-place predicates. A. SYMMETRY VS. ASYMMETRY Given a two place predicate P, if, for any pair of referring expressions X and Y, the sentence XPY ENTAILS the sentence YPX, then P is SYMMETRIC EXERCISE B.9 1. Do the following pairs of sentence s entail each other? Tanzania is different from Kenya. Yes / No Kenya is different from Tanzania Yes / No 2. Is different a symmetric predicate? Yes / No 3. Does Mary is married to Hans entail Hans is married to Mary? Yes / No 4. Is married to a predicate symmetric predicate? Yes / No 5. Does Mary is devoted to Hans entail Hans is devoted to Mary? Yes / No 6. Is devoted to a symmetric predicate? Yes / No Given a two-place predicate P, if the sentence XPY is a contradictory of Bill is taller than John. Therefore, taller than is an asymmetric predicate. EXERCISE B.10 1. Is John is under the table a contradictory of The table is under John? Yes / No 2. Is under asymmetric? Yes / No 3. Is father of as in Alphonso was the father of Benito asymmetric? Yes / No 4. Is admire as in Jimmy Carter admires Norman Mailer asymmetric?Yes / No
  • 9. B. REFLEXIVITY VS. IRREFLEXIVITY Given a two-place predicate P, if for any single referring expression X (or any pair of referring expressions X and Y which have the same referent, e.g. John and himself), the sentence XPX (or the sentence XPY) is ANALYTIC , then P is a REFLEXIVE predicate. EXERCISE B.11 1. Do I and myself have the same referent in I am as old as myself.? Yes / No 2. Is I am as old as myself analytic? Yes / No 3. So is the predicate be as old as reflexive? Yes / No 4. Are the capitalized predicates in the following sentences reflexive? a. John’s doorkey is IDENTICAL TO itself? Yes / No b. John LOVES himself. Yes / No Given a two-place predicate P, if for any single referring expression X (or for any pair of referring expressions X and Y which have the same referent e.g. Jack and himself) the sentence XPX (or the sentence XPY) is a CONTRADICTION, then P is a IRREFLEXIVE predicate. EXERCISE B.12 1. Do Mary and herself have the same referent in Mary is different from herself a contradiction Yes / No 2. Is Mary is different from herself a contradiction? Yes / No 3. So is the predicate is different from irreflexive? Yes / No 4. Are the capitalized predicates in the following sentences irreflexive? Yes / No a. Mary LOVES herself Yes / No b. Fred is SHORTER THAN himself Yes / No
  • 10. C. TRANSITIVITY VS. INTRANSITIVITY - Given a two-place predicate P, if for any trio of referring expressions X, Y, and Z the compound sentence XPY and XPZ entails the sentence XPZ, then P is TRANSITIVE. EXERCISE B.13 1. Is above in the following sentence a two-place predicate? Johns flat is above mine and mine is above Mary’s Yes / No 2. What does the above sentence entail concerning the relation between John’s flat and Mary’s? John’s flat is ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Are the capitalized predicates in the following sets of sentences transitive? a. Socrates was WISER THAN Plato and Plato was WISER THAN Aristotle Socrates was WISER THAN Aristotle Yes / NO b. Mary’s cat is the FATHER OF Gill’s cat and Gill’s cat is the FATHER OF Gerlad’s cat Mary’s cat is the FATHER OF Gerald’s cat Yes / No Given a two-place predicate P, if for any trio of referring respression X, Y, and Z, the compound sentence XPY and YPZ is CONTRADICTORY of XPZ, then P is INTRANSITIVE. EXERCISE B.14 Are the following predicates intransitive? a. enemy of Yes / No b. dislike Yes / No c. grandchild of Yes / No d. two inches taller than Yes / No e. jealous of Yes / No
  • 11. III. Illocutionary Approach to Meaning - An illocutionary act is what the speaker does in uttering a sentence. Illocutionary acts include such acts as stating, requesting, promising, apologizing, and appointing. Classification of Illocuationary Acts 1. Representative – an utterance used to describe state of affairs. 2. Directive – an utterance used to try to get the hearer to do something. 3. Question – an utterance used to get the hearer provide information. 4. Commissive - an utterance used to commit the speaker to do something 5. Expressive – an utterance used to express the emotional state of the speaker. 6. Declaration – an utterance used to change the status of some entity. Exercise C.1 Exercise Classify each of the following utterances as directive, commissive, representative, expressive, question, or declaration. 1. A child says to her playmate, Happy birthday. 2. A doctor says to a patient, I advise you to stop smoking. 3. One secretary says to another, My daughter’s getting married in August. 4. A priest says over to an infant. I baptize you in the name of… 5. A mother says to her daughter, Who washed the dishes? 6. A passerby says to a motorist with a flat tire, Let me help you with that. 7. One friend says to another, I swear won’t see Martha again. 8. A parent says to her child, I forbid you to leave your room. 9. A man says to a friend, What time is it? 10. A buyer says to a seller, I agree to your terms.
  • 12. Explicit versus Non-expplicit Illocutionary Acts Austin most important insight was the realization that English has a set of verbs that actually names the illocutionary force of that verb. In the following sentences, the verbs are known as performative verbs. e.g. I confess that I stole the family jewels. I warn you to stop teasing our sister. I promise I’ll come to your birthday party. I apologize for calling you a liar. However, in order for the verb to have its performative sense, it must: i. be positive ii. be in present tense iii. have a first person agent iv. refer to the specific event The term explicit performative describes an utterance that contains performative verb used in its performative sense. Any utterance not containing a performative verb used it its performative sense are called nonexplicit performative. Explicit Performative Non-explicit Performative Representative I deny that I killed Cock Robin I did not kill Cock Robin Directive I forbid you to leave your room Don’t leave your room. Question I ask you where you were last night Where were you last night? Commissive I vow that I’ll be faithful to you. I’ll be faithful to you. Expressive I thank you for your help. I appreciate your help. Declaration I resign . I don’t work here anymore.
  • 13. EXERCISE Explain why each of the performative verbs in the following utterances is not being used in its performative sense. 1. I warned you not to open that door. 2. Promise her anything, but give her Arpege. 3. I won’t insist that you leave. 4. Mr. Jones inisists that you work late tonight. 5. Aplogize to your Aunt Martha immediately. Direct versus Indirect Illocutionary Act Particular sentences types are associated with a particular illocutionary acts. For example, imperative sentences (Bring me my coat) are uniquely deigned for issuing directives. Thus, a directive delivered by means of an imperative sentence is said to constitute a direct illocutionary act. However, if another sentence type, for example an interrogative, is used to isse a directive (Would you bring me my coat?), then such an autterance is said to constitute an indirect illocutionary act. Direct Illocutionary Acts Utterance Illocutionary Act Syntactic Form Keep quiet. Directive Imperative Do you know Mary? Question Interrogative I’ll help you with the dishes. Commissive Declarative You’re fired. Declaration Declarative Indirect Illocutionary Acts You might give me a hand with this Directive Declarative And you are… Question Declarative Could you keep quiet? Directive Interrogative Do you have the time? Wh- question Yes-No Interrogative
  • 14. Exercise For each of the following utterances state (i) the syntactic form, (ii) illocutionary act it performs, and (iii) whether the illocutionary act is performed directly or indirectly. 1. A clerk says to a customer, And your account number is… 2. A sign at the entrance to a cafeteria: It is impolite to pass others if there is a space ahead. 3. An impatient husband grouses to his wife, Shouldn’t we be leaving soon? 4. The envelope supplied for paying your credit card bill carries the following notice: Did you remember to sign your check? 5. A student, wheedling a teacher for an A, says If I don’t get an A in this course, I’ll lose my scholarship. References Fromkin, V., R. Rodman, and N. Hyams. (2003). Introduction to language. MA: Heinle Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University. Hurford, James R., B. Heasley, M. B. Smith. (2007). Semantics: a coursebook. NY: Cambridge University Press. Leech, Geoffrey. (1981). Semantics: The study of meaning. UK: Penguin Books Ltd. O'Grady, William, M. Dobrovolsky, & F. Katamba (2001) Contemporary Linguistics : An Introduction. St. Martin's Press. http://www.colorado.edu/ling/courses/LAM3430/Chapter9notes.pdf Prepared by Bernard M. Paderes MA Linguistics bernardpaderes@gmail.com
  • 15. Exercise A Intonational Meaning DIRECTION: Write the letter of the utterance that answers the question about each set of utterances. a. really b. really _____1. Which one expresses surprise? _____ 2. Which one sow that the speaker does not put too much importance on what was said? c. I heard him say, “Fire!” d. I heard him say, “Fire!” e. I heard him say, “Fire!” _____ 3. In which sentence is fire given as a command by the captain of a firing squad. _____ 4. In which sentence is fire mentioned as a response to the question, “What did he say?” _____ 5. In which sentence is fire uttered when someone calls your name and you respond to find out what he wants?
  • 16. f. What? g. What? _____ 6. What question is uttered when someone calls your name and you respond to find out what he wants? _____ 7. Which utterance shows disbelief? h. Is that so? i. Is that so? _____ 8. Which utterance shows disbelief? _____ 9. Which utterance seeks information? SOURCE: Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University. EXERCISE B: MORPHOLOGICAL MEANING DIRECTION: Here is a list of words with affixes that give meaning to the root word, Group together all the words whose affixes signal the same added meaning. Then write on top of each group the additional meaning signalled by those affixes. How many groups did you come up with? act- actor beg- beggar brook – brooklet creep – crept decide – decided duck – ducks direct – indirect duke –duches electric – electrician figure – figurine fox – foxes genus – genocide goose –geese hero – heroine homo- homicide infant – infanticide insect - insecticide island –islet janitor – janitress keep – kept legitimate – illegitimate modest – immodest mouse – mice opera – operetta ox – oxen pest – pesticide play – playlet prince – princess refuge – refugee regular – irregular sing – song stand – stood statue – statuette steward – stewardess stop – non-stop study – studies tie – untie violin – violinist wolf – wolverine write - writer
  • 17. SOURCE: Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University. EXERCISE C: LEXICAL MEANING DIRECTION: Here are other expressions whose words have difference lexical meanings depending on the context in which they are used. Write the letter of the meaning given in Column B that suit the underlined word in the expressions given in Column A in each set. SET I _____ 1. a head of cabbage _____ 2. a clear head _____ 3. the head of our team _____ 4. come to a head _____ 5. a head wound _____ 6. a head for business _____ 7. head for shore _____ 8. head the list a. leader b. intellectual inclination and ability c. mind d. part of the body that contains the brain e. be the first or be at the top f. a unit of measure of a leafy vegetable rolled up in the shape of a ball g. point of convergence h. move towards a place SET II _____ 9. a mark of good taste _____ 10. a high mark on a test _____ 11. miss the mark _____ 12. On your mark. Get Set. Go! _____ 13. leave marks on the floor _____ 14. Mark my word _____ 15. Leave your mark on society.
  • 18. a. target b. sign c. starting point d. prints e. pay attention to a warning f. legacy g. core
  • 19. EXERCISE D: CONNONATATIVE MEANING DIRECTION: Put a plaus sign (+) before the expression if it gives a positive connotation of blue and put a minus sign (-) if the connotative meaning is negative. _____ 1. bluebird of happiness _____ 2. blue skies _____ 3. true blue _____ 4. blue-blooded royalty _____ 5. blue Monday _____ 6. black and blue marks _____ 7. feel blue _____ 8. sing the blues SOURCE: Gonzales, Mildred J., T.P. Ignacio, and M.L.G. Tayao. (1997). Applied linguistic for the communication arts. QC: University of the Philippines Open University.