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« Panorama de l’enseignement supérieur malaisien :
données chiffrées, transformations récentes
et nouvelles tendances »
Prof. Jean-Pierre Poulain
sociologist
Dean of ISTHIA Université of Toulouse
Chair od Food Studies: Food, Cultures and Health
CERTOP UMR-CNRS 5044
2
Plan
 Malaysian higher education
system
 Internationalisation
 Malaysian students going out of Malaysia
 Foreign students coming in Malaysia
 Branch campus of foreign universities in Malaysia
 Others forms of cooperation
 Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre: from knowhow
transfer to cooperation higher education and research
3
Higher Education a National Priority
4
5
4 dates to understand Malaysian context
 13 May 1969: Racial Riots
 1971: New Economic Policy (NEP) “Affirmative Action”
 1996: Private Higher Education Act permitted domestic private for-
profit degree-granting universities,
 2002: Switch to Meritocracy. But Bumiputera enrolment continues
hovering above 60 per cent.
6
New Economic Policy & Affirmative action
« NEP provides affirmative action to
the majority because in general, the
Malays have lower income than the
Chinese who have traditionally been
involved in businesses and
industries ».
« During more than 100 years of
British colonization, the Malays were
discriminated against employment
because the British preferred to
bring in influx of migrant workers
from China and India ».
7
8
Not to apply the French categories « Private »
and « Public » to the Malaysian Situation
 In Public Sector the « Religious Fact » is present in:
 Enrolment,
 Every day life and
 Science itself.
 Evaluation Bodies
 (SETARA) for both public and private sectors
 (MyQUEST) quality in private universities
 (MyRA) for research both public and private sectors
 Prof Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said former DG becoming the
president of Taylor’s University (Private)
9
Cross-border Research Collaboration
a national initiative to develop partnerships
between public and private sectors
10
Prof Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said former DG leading the working group
11
Taylor’s University = 17,700
Fees: 11,000
Coast of living: 6,600
Higher education system
12
Private sector:
• 53 % of institutions and
• 41 % of enrolment
Publics universities
13
14
15
Table: 4 Students Enrolled Higher Education Institutions’ in
Different Course Levels
No Course Level Category
1 PhD.
Public Institutions 29,280
Private Institutions 4,362
Public Polytechnics NA
Public Community
Colleges
NA
2 Master Degree
Public Institutions 63,463
Private Institutions 20,456
Public Polytechnics NA
Public Community
Colleges NA
3 Bachelor Degree
Public Institutions 331,410
Private Institutions 198,653
Public Polytechnics 93
Public Community
Colleges NA
4 Diploma
Public Institutions 104,928
Private Institutions 200,503
Public Polytechnics 88, 588
Public Community
Colleges 29
Source: National Education Statistic: Higher Education Sector 2013
Plan
 Malaysian higher education
system
 Internationalisation
 Malaysian students going out of Malaysia
 Foreign students coming in Malaysia
 Branch campus of foreign universities in Malaysia
 Others forms of cooperation
 Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre: from knowhow
transfer to cooperation higher education and research
16
Internationalisation of malaysian
higher education
17
2
Foreigner students
studying in Malaysia
1
Malaysian students
studying oversee
3
Foreign universities
opening a branch campus
Or developing co-department
Or double award
Malaysian students
studying oversee
18
78 000 students
Foreigner Students
in Malaysia
 Total international student
enrolment:
 81, 282 (2013)
 86,923 (2010)
 Public: 24,218 (27.86%)
 Private: 62,705 (77.14 %)
19
Foreign Universities in Malaysia:
Branch campus, Co-departments, and double awards
 16 259 students in 2013
in Branch campus
 Mainly at Bachelor level
 588 PhD
20
21Cross-Border Education Research Team (update year, month date). C-BERT Branch Campus Listing. [Data originally collected by Kevin Kinser and Jason E.
Lane]. Available: http://globalhighered.org/branchcampuses.php Albany, NY: Author.
Malaysian French University Center
 2006, setting up of the Malaysia
France University Center (MFUC)
 Now it facilitate the relations
between:
 25 Malaysian Universities (13 public
and 12 private) and
 36 French Institutions (22 public and
14 private).
22
Plan
 Malaysian higher education
system
 Internationalisation
 Malaysian students going out of Malaysia
 Foreign students coming in Malaysia
 Branch campus of foreign universities in Malaysia
 Others forms of cooperation
 Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre: from knowhow
transfer to cooperation higher education and research
23
The cooperation between
Taylor’s University and Toulouse University
Renewal 2015-2020
How did it survive for 28 years?
 Public / Private
 Full university / University college
 Research / teaching university
 European / Asian perspective
 Cultural differences
 Language barriers
 Economic models (market driven
versus public policies driven)
Failure should be the agenda
Taylor’s Toulouse University Center
 TCHT 2400 students
 3 BTS
 5 Bachelors
 2 Masters
 600 students in Toulouse for
residential seminar
 Chair of « Food Studies »
 22 Scientifics events
 Project of LIA-CNRS
5 phases of developmental cooperation
1999 2007 2009 2012
- Program
transfer (L3)
- Training for
trainer
- Teaching
- Audit
- Jury
- Graduation
ceremony
- Program (L3
& Master)
- Teachers
training
- Staff mobility
- Student
mobility
- Research
program
- Chair of Food
studies, Food,
Cultures & Health
-Research grants
-Lecturer mobility
program
-PhD
-Publications
- Program (L3 &
Master)
- Setting up
Research policy
- Creation of
TTUC a co-
administration
department
UTMUTM TCH
T
TCH
T
UTMUTM UTMUTM UTMUTMTCH
T
TCH
T
TUCTUC TUTU
1986
UTMUTM TUTU
- Program
transfer (BT &
BTS)
- Training for
trainer
- Teaching
- Audit
- Jury
- Graduation
ceremony
1986-1998
Setting up an
Hotel-School
1999
University level
2005
• 1st Master in hospitality in Malaysia
• Setting up co-administered
department the Taylor’s Toulouse
University Centre
• Creation of a Joined Research
Team ERITA-Asia
• CERTOP-CNRS, 2007
ERITA-Asia Research Seminar
2012
• Focusing on Research
• Chair of « Food Studies:
Food, Cultures and Health »
• Malaysian Food Barometer
Lieux
86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14
SFERE
IIHTT
Malaysian students in Toulouse
Chair of Food Studies:
Food, Cultures and Health
Created in 2012, by the two
Universities with the mission to
foster research in partnership
with the Center for Research
and Innovation on Tourism and
Food Studies (CRIT), the
Cluster for Research Initiative in
Food, Nutrition and Public
Health (CRI- FNPH) and “Santé
alimentation” axis of CERTOP
UMR-CNRS 5044.
The chair develop research programs:
 Malaysian Food Barometer (MFB), a follow up survey that study
evolution of Malaysian eating habits and its socio-cultural
determinants.
 Hong-Kong Food Barometer (HKFB). Using the model of the
MFB, this survey studies the transformation of the Hong-Kong
people’s Eating habits. Partnership with the Chinese University of
Hong Kong.
 Studies related to Taste and Obesity, Sensorial and Sociological
Analysis, Ethnicity and Food Pattern with Nutritional Education.
 Conceptualization of new generation of experimental platform to
study eating behaviors…
The chair organize international seminars
 “Gastronomy as UNESCO World Intangible Heritage”, Kuala
Lumpur (Nov 2012)
 “Towards an International Network for Studying Food Habits”,
Kuala Lumpur, (Mai 2014)
 “Food security, the Asian perspective” (in partnership with Hong
Kong Poly Technic University, department of applied social
science), Hong Kong, July 2015.
 “Gastronomy, Arts and Medias”, Toulouse, October 2015
 “Experimental restaurant of the future”, Kuala Lumpur, Dec. 2015
 “Facing obesity in a multicultural modernizing society”, 2016
38
PhD Summer
School
 5 European Universities
and 3 Asian Universities
Danish University of Copenhagen (Prof. L. Holm),
Swedish University of Uppsala (Prof. J. Gronow),
Norwegian University of SIFO (Prof. U. Kjaernes),
Manchester University (Prof. A. Warde),
University of Toulouse (Prof. JP Poulain)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Prof. A.B Shamsul) and
National University of Singapore (Prof. V. V. Sinha)
 Guest of honour: Prof. Dr. Gilles Boëtsch,
president of the scientific board of CNRS
40
Research in food studies:
Towards an International Network for Studying Food
Habits Transformations
41
2014
Master of Food
Studies
Prof. Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said
Doctorate Honoris Causa from Toulouse University
Admistration baord of 2012
From left to right first rauw: Prof. Dr. Daniel Filatre, President of University of Toulouse 2, President of TTUC, Prof.
Dato Dr. Hassan Said, President of Taylor’s University, Co-president of TTUC, Prof. Dr. Rector of Academie of
Toulouse,
Second Rauw: Prof. Dr. Jean Pierre Poulain, University of Toulouse, co-director of TTUC Prof. Dr Pradeep Nair,
Prof. Dr. Vicky Nair, Prof. Dr. Jens Thoemes, Director of CNRS, Prof. Dr, Pierre Yves Boiseau, vice president of
Toulouse University, Dr. Cyrille Laporte, deputy dean ISTHIA Toulouse University, Neethiananta Ariragavan, Dean
of TCHT, Codirector of TTUC, Timo Giotto, Taylors University
In 2006 the 20th anniversary
Pour en savoir plus
 Aaron, K.F., & Syuen, N. (2010). British colonisation: Education system. Retrieved 25 March 2013 from http//: www.epubbud.com
 Arokiasamy, L, Ismail, M., Ahmad, A., & Othman, J. (2009). Background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and challenges faced
by academics. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(8). 60-67.
 Bernheim, C.T., & Chaui, M.S. (2003). Challenges of the university in the knowledge society, five years after the world conference on higher
education. UNESCO Forum of Regional Scientific Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean, Paris.
 Chapman, K. (2013). Five varsities make it into top 100. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from www.thestar.com.my.
 Djojonegoro, I.W. (2005). Meeting the changing demand of world of work: challenges for human resource management. Regional seminar report
on human resource management for global competitiveness, Bangkok, Thailand.
 Ehrenberg, R. (2006). The perfect storm and the privatization of public higher education. Change, 38(1), 46-53.
 Lee, M.N.N. (1994). Private higher education in Malaysia: social implications. Educational Journal, 21(2) & 22(1), 157-167.
 Lee, M.N.N. (1999). Education in Malaysia: Towards Vision 2020. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 10(1), 86-89.
 Ministry of Higher Education (2007). The National Higher Education Strategic Plan: Beyond 2020. Department of Higher Education, Ministry of
Higher Education, Malaysia.
 Ministry of Higher Education (2010). Malaysia Higher Education Statistics 2010: Leading Knowledge Excellence. Department of Higher Education,
Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.
 Nair P., (2010). Higher education in Malaysia: trends and policies, Les conférences de l’ISTHIA ISTHIA’s conferences,
http://www.isthia.fr/les-conferences-de-l-isthia-290-cdoc4.html.
 Mun, C. H. (2005). Updates: Higher education in Singapore. Regional seminar on higher education in Southeast Asian Countries: A current
update, Bangkok, Thailand.
 Poulain J. P., Laporte C., Tibère L., Ragavan N. A. (2014). International Higher Education Cooperation in Hospitality, Tourism and Food Studies: An
Experience Conducted by the Taylor’s Toulouse University Center in Malaysia, Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality, Vol. 3,
N° 2, 2014, 195-213.
 Shin, J.C., & Harman, G. (2009). New challenges for higher education: global and Asia-Pacific perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(1),
1-13.
 Studymalaysia. (2012, October 02). Enhancing the quality of Malaysia higher education. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from www.studymalaysia.com.
 Susan, R. (2008, March 16). Malaysia education: Strategic branding leads to growth in international student number 2006-8. Global Higher Ed.
Retrieved June 9, 2013 from, www.globalhighered.wordpress.com.
 Task Force on Higher Education and Society (2000). Higher education in developing countries: peril and promise. Washington, DC: World Bank.
 Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2009). Cross-border higher education: Trends and perspectives. Directorate for Education, Centre for Education Research
and Innovation (CERI), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), France
47

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L'enseignement supérieur en Malaisien : Données chiffrées, transformation recettes et nouvelles tendances

  • 1. « Panorama de l’enseignement supérieur malaisien : données chiffrées, transformations récentes et nouvelles tendances » Prof. Jean-Pierre Poulain sociologist Dean of ISTHIA Université of Toulouse Chair od Food Studies: Food, Cultures and Health CERTOP UMR-CNRS 5044
  • 2. 2
  • 3. Plan  Malaysian higher education system  Internationalisation  Malaysian students going out of Malaysia  Foreign students coming in Malaysia  Branch campus of foreign universities in Malaysia  Others forms of cooperation  Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre: from knowhow transfer to cooperation higher education and research 3
  • 4. Higher Education a National Priority 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 4 dates to understand Malaysian context  13 May 1969: Racial Riots  1971: New Economic Policy (NEP) “Affirmative Action”  1996: Private Higher Education Act permitted domestic private for- profit degree-granting universities,  2002: Switch to Meritocracy. But Bumiputera enrolment continues hovering above 60 per cent. 6
  • 7. New Economic Policy & Affirmative action « NEP provides affirmative action to the majority because in general, the Malays have lower income than the Chinese who have traditionally been involved in businesses and industries ». « During more than 100 years of British colonization, the Malays were discriminated against employment because the British preferred to bring in influx of migrant workers from China and India ». 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Not to apply the French categories « Private » and « Public » to the Malaysian Situation  In Public Sector the « Religious Fact » is present in:  Enrolment,  Every day life and  Science itself.  Evaluation Bodies  (SETARA) for both public and private sectors  (MyQUEST) quality in private universities  (MyRA) for research both public and private sectors  Prof Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said former DG becoming the president of Taylor’s University (Private) 9
  • 10. Cross-border Research Collaboration a national initiative to develop partnerships between public and private sectors 10 Prof Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said former DG leading the working group
  • 11. 11 Taylor’s University = 17,700 Fees: 11,000 Coast of living: 6,600
  • 12. Higher education system 12 Private sector: • 53 % of institutions and • 41 % of enrolment
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15 Table: 4 Students Enrolled Higher Education Institutions’ in Different Course Levels No Course Level Category 1 PhD. Public Institutions 29,280 Private Institutions 4,362 Public Polytechnics NA Public Community Colleges NA 2 Master Degree Public Institutions 63,463 Private Institutions 20,456 Public Polytechnics NA Public Community Colleges NA 3 Bachelor Degree Public Institutions 331,410 Private Institutions 198,653 Public Polytechnics 93 Public Community Colleges NA 4 Diploma Public Institutions 104,928 Private Institutions 200,503 Public Polytechnics 88, 588 Public Community Colleges 29 Source: National Education Statistic: Higher Education Sector 2013
  • 16. Plan  Malaysian higher education system  Internationalisation  Malaysian students going out of Malaysia  Foreign students coming in Malaysia  Branch campus of foreign universities in Malaysia  Others forms of cooperation  Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre: from knowhow transfer to cooperation higher education and research 16
  • 17. Internationalisation of malaysian higher education 17 2 Foreigner students studying in Malaysia 1 Malaysian students studying oversee 3 Foreign universities opening a branch campus Or developing co-department Or double award
  • 19. Foreigner Students in Malaysia  Total international student enrolment:  81, 282 (2013)  86,923 (2010)  Public: 24,218 (27.86%)  Private: 62,705 (77.14 %) 19
  • 20. Foreign Universities in Malaysia: Branch campus, Co-departments, and double awards  16 259 students in 2013 in Branch campus  Mainly at Bachelor level  588 PhD 20
  • 21. 21Cross-Border Education Research Team (update year, month date). C-BERT Branch Campus Listing. [Data originally collected by Kevin Kinser and Jason E. Lane]. Available: http://globalhighered.org/branchcampuses.php Albany, NY: Author.
  • 22. Malaysian French University Center  2006, setting up of the Malaysia France University Center (MFUC)  Now it facilitate the relations between:  25 Malaysian Universities (13 public and 12 private) and  36 French Institutions (22 public and 14 private). 22
  • 23. Plan  Malaysian higher education system  Internationalisation  Malaysian students going out of Malaysia  Foreign students coming in Malaysia  Branch campus of foreign universities in Malaysia  Others forms of cooperation  Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre: from knowhow transfer to cooperation higher education and research 23
  • 24. The cooperation between Taylor’s University and Toulouse University
  • 26. How did it survive for 28 years?  Public / Private  Full university / University college  Research / teaching university  European / Asian perspective  Cultural differences  Language barriers  Economic models (market driven versus public policies driven) Failure should be the agenda
  • 27. Taylor’s Toulouse University Center  TCHT 2400 students  3 BTS  5 Bachelors  2 Masters  600 students in Toulouse for residential seminar  Chair of « Food Studies »  22 Scientifics events  Project of LIA-CNRS
  • 28. 5 phases of developmental cooperation 1999 2007 2009 2012 - Program transfer (L3) - Training for trainer - Teaching - Audit - Jury - Graduation ceremony - Program (L3 & Master) - Teachers training - Staff mobility - Student mobility - Research program - Chair of Food studies, Food, Cultures & Health -Research grants -Lecturer mobility program -PhD -Publications - Program (L3 & Master) - Setting up Research policy - Creation of TTUC a co- administration department UTMUTM TCH T TCH T UTMUTM UTMUTM UTMUTMTCH T TCH T TUCTUC TUTU 1986 UTMUTM TUTU - Program transfer (BT & BTS) - Training for trainer - Teaching - Audit - Jury - Graduation ceremony
  • 31. 2005 • 1st Master in hospitality in Malaysia • Setting up co-administered department the Taylor’s Toulouse University Centre • Creation of a Joined Research Team ERITA-Asia • CERTOP-CNRS, 2007
  • 33. 2012 • Focusing on Research • Chair of « Food Studies: Food, Cultures and Health » • Malaysian Food Barometer
  • 34. Lieux 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 SFERE IIHTT
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. Chair of Food Studies: Food, Cultures and Health Created in 2012, by the two Universities with the mission to foster research in partnership with the Center for Research and Innovation on Tourism and Food Studies (CRIT), the Cluster for Research Initiative in Food, Nutrition and Public Health (CRI- FNPH) and “Santé alimentation” axis of CERTOP UMR-CNRS 5044. The chair develop research programs:  Malaysian Food Barometer (MFB), a follow up survey that study evolution of Malaysian eating habits and its socio-cultural determinants.  Hong-Kong Food Barometer (HKFB). Using the model of the MFB, this survey studies the transformation of the Hong-Kong people’s Eating habits. Partnership with the Chinese University of Hong Kong.  Studies related to Taste and Obesity, Sensorial and Sociological Analysis, Ethnicity and Food Pattern with Nutritional Education.  Conceptualization of new generation of experimental platform to study eating behaviors… The chair organize international seminars  “Gastronomy as UNESCO World Intangible Heritage”, Kuala Lumpur (Nov 2012)  “Towards an International Network for Studying Food Habits”, Kuala Lumpur, (Mai 2014)  “Food security, the Asian perspective” (in partnership with Hong Kong Poly Technic University, department of applied social science), Hong Kong, July 2015.  “Gastronomy, Arts and Medias”, Toulouse, October 2015  “Experimental restaurant of the future”, Kuala Lumpur, Dec. 2015  “Facing obesity in a multicultural modernizing society”, 2016 38
  • 39. PhD Summer School  5 European Universities and 3 Asian Universities Danish University of Copenhagen (Prof. L. Holm), Swedish University of Uppsala (Prof. J. Gronow), Norwegian University of SIFO (Prof. U. Kjaernes), Manchester University (Prof. A. Warde), University of Toulouse (Prof. JP Poulain) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Prof. A.B Shamsul) and National University of Singapore (Prof. V. V. Sinha)  Guest of honour: Prof. Dr. Gilles Boëtsch, president of the scientific board of CNRS
  • 40. 40
  • 41. Research in food studies: Towards an International Network for Studying Food Habits Transformations 41
  • 43. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said Doctorate Honoris Causa from Toulouse University
  • 44. Admistration baord of 2012 From left to right first rauw: Prof. Dr. Daniel Filatre, President of University of Toulouse 2, President of TTUC, Prof. Dato Dr. Hassan Said, President of Taylor’s University, Co-president of TTUC, Prof. Dr. Rector of Academie of Toulouse, Second Rauw: Prof. Dr. Jean Pierre Poulain, University of Toulouse, co-director of TTUC Prof. Dr Pradeep Nair, Prof. Dr. Vicky Nair, Prof. Dr. Jens Thoemes, Director of CNRS, Prof. Dr, Pierre Yves Boiseau, vice president of Toulouse University, Dr. Cyrille Laporte, deputy dean ISTHIA Toulouse University, Neethiananta Ariragavan, Dean of TCHT, Codirector of TTUC, Timo Giotto, Taylors University
  • 45. In 2006 the 20th anniversary
  • 46. Pour en savoir plus  Aaron, K.F., & Syuen, N. (2010). British colonisation: Education system. Retrieved 25 March 2013 from http//: www.epubbud.com  Arokiasamy, L, Ismail, M., Ahmad, A., & Othman, J. (2009). Background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and challenges faced by academics. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(8). 60-67.  Bernheim, C.T., & Chaui, M.S. (2003). Challenges of the university in the knowledge society, five years after the world conference on higher education. UNESCO Forum of Regional Scientific Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean, Paris.  Chapman, K. (2013). Five varsities make it into top 100. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from www.thestar.com.my.  Djojonegoro, I.W. (2005). Meeting the changing demand of world of work: challenges for human resource management. Regional seminar report on human resource management for global competitiveness, Bangkok, Thailand.  Ehrenberg, R. (2006). The perfect storm and the privatization of public higher education. Change, 38(1), 46-53.  Lee, M.N.N. (1994). Private higher education in Malaysia: social implications. Educational Journal, 21(2) & 22(1), 157-167.  Lee, M.N.N. (1999). Education in Malaysia: Towards Vision 2020. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 10(1), 86-89.  Ministry of Higher Education (2007). The National Higher Education Strategic Plan: Beyond 2020. Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.  Ministry of Higher Education (2010). Malaysia Higher Education Statistics 2010: Leading Knowledge Excellence. Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.  Nair P., (2010). Higher education in Malaysia: trends and policies, Les conférences de l’ISTHIA ISTHIA’s conferences, http://www.isthia.fr/les-conferences-de-l-isthia-290-cdoc4.html.  Mun, C. H. (2005). Updates: Higher education in Singapore. Regional seminar on higher education in Southeast Asian Countries: A current update, Bangkok, Thailand.  Poulain J. P., Laporte C., Tibère L., Ragavan N. A. (2014). International Higher Education Cooperation in Hospitality, Tourism and Food Studies: An Experience Conducted by the Taylor’s Toulouse University Center in Malaysia, Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality, Vol. 3, N° 2, 2014, 195-213.  Shin, J.C., & Harman, G. (2009). New challenges for higher education: global and Asia-Pacific perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(1), 1-13.  Studymalaysia. (2012, October 02). Enhancing the quality of Malaysia higher education. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from www.studymalaysia.com.  Susan, R. (2008, March 16). Malaysia education: Strategic branding leads to growth in international student number 2006-8. Global Higher Ed. Retrieved June 9, 2013 from, www.globalhighered.wordpress.com.  Task Force on Higher Education and Society (2000). Higher education in developing countries: peril and promise. Washington, DC: World Bank.  Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2009). Cross-border higher education: Trends and perspectives. Directorate for Education, Centre for Education Research and Innovation (CERI), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), France
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