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Interna'onal	
  Seminar:	
  “Food	
  Heritage”	
  
Udayana	
  University,	
  Bali,	
  Indonesia.	
  	
  
10	
  august	
  2015	
  
1	
  
From gastronomic
heritage to
food studies	
  
	
  
	
  
Prof.	
  Jean	
  Pierre	
  Poulain	
  
sociologue	
  et	
  anthropologue	
  
Chair	
  of	
  «	
  Food	
  Studies:	
  Food,	
  Cultures	
  and	
  Health	
  »	
  	
  
Taylor’s	
  Toulouse	
  University	
  Center	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Plan
n Cultures,	
  Food	
  cultures	
  &	
  
Heritage	
  and	
  Gastronomy	
  	
  
n Tourism	
  and	
  the	
  
gastronomic	
  heritages	
  	
  
n What	
  can	
  we	
  to	
  do	
  ?	
  	
  
Bali
Cultural studies
Cuisine(s) and identities
Iceberg conception of
culture, E.T. Hall
Cuisine(s),	
  Gastronomie,	
  
Gastronomie(s)	
  	
  
	
  
•  Culinary(s)	
  Art(s),	
  
EstheNsaNon	
  versus	
  
arNficaNon	
  	
  
•  Social	
  hierarchy	
  (Elias,	
  
Bourdieu,	
  Goody)	
  
•  «	
  EliNst	
  Gastronomy	
  
versus	
  Populist	
  »	
  (Carlo	
  
Petrini)	
  
	
  
	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Food is a social event
What constitutes food and, therefore,
what can be eaten; how it is to be
prepared, presented, and consumed;
with whom you eat and so forth express
complex relationships to class, ethnicity
and gender.
Food studies uncover the complexity
behind an everyday life material that
affects and effects multiple social
networks, wherein food is both the
material and symbol by which class,
race/ethnicity, sex/gender are socially
constructed.
What is food
studies?
Food	
  studies	
  represents	
  a	
  new	
  
interdisciplinary	
  perspecNve	
  in	
  
social	
  sciences	
  and	
  humaniNes,	
  
forming	
  linkages	
  and	
  
interconnecNons	
  among	
  food-­‐
related	
  issues.	
  Using	
  a	
  systems	
  
perspecNve	
  that	
  benefits	
  from	
  rich	
  
methodological	
  and	
  analyNcal	
  
insights	
  offered	
  by	
  various	
  
disciplines,	
  researchers	
  in	
  this	
  field	
  
study	
  the	
  ‘historically	
  specific	
  web	
  
of	
  social	
  relaNons,	
  processes,	
  
structures,	
  and	
  insNtuNonal	
  
arrangements	
  that	
  cover	
  human	
  
interacNons	
  with	
  nature	
  and	
  with	
  
other	
  humans	
  involving	
  producNon,	
  
distribuNon,	
  preparaNon,	
  and	
  
consumpNon	
  of	
  food’	
  (Power	
  and	
  Koç	
  2008:	
  
2).	
  
Food Social Space: The	
  social	
  	
  
dimensions	
  of	
  food	
  (Condominas, 1980; Poulain, 1997 et 2002)
Cultures
Room of Freedom
Social
Dimensions
of Food
Physiological and
biological constraints
Ecological
constraints
Impact of the
culture on the
genetic structure of
population
Impact of the
culture on the
biotope
•  Edible/ Inedible
•  Food System
•  Culinary
•  Consumption Patterns
•  Food Temporality
•  Social Differentiation
The inventory
of food models
Studying food cultures is usefull for:
•  Tourism	
  and	
  hospitality,	
  
•  Agro	
  economy,	
  
•  NutriNon	
  and	
  Health,	
  
•  Food	
  policy	
  :	
  Food	
  security,	
  Food	
  safety,	
  food	
  
crises,	
  	
  	
  
•  Cultural	
  policies.	
  	
  	
  	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Plan
n Cultures,	
  Food	
  cultures	
  &	
  
Heritage	
  and	
  Gastronomy	
  	
  
n Tourism	
  and	
  the	
  
gastronomic	
  heritages	
  	
  
n What	
  can	
  we	
  to	
  do	
  ?	
  
Pragmatic paradigm of tourism (Poulain, 2008)
Social	
  	
  
roles	
  	
  
Food	
  	
  
habits	
  	
  
Living	
  
condiNons	
  	
  
Social	
  	
  
roles	
  	
  
Food	
  cultures	
  
Living	
  
condiNons	
  	
  
Travel
Place of
residence
Place of
stay
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Tourism is the meeting between
two food cultures
•  Eating is a daily obligation and at same time a
way of entry in the culture of the visited country,
•  Meal changes the tourist from spectator into an
actor, it is a “formidable machine to travel” (E.
Morin)
•  Tourist meal is a
meeting of two food models.
By doing this, it learns as
much from one as from
the other.
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
The point of view of the tourist:
•  A significant part of the activity of a tourist
How to go from a constrained time (biological activity +++) to a cultural
time (cultural activity+++)?
•  15% of the budget of a tourist + an important part of the budget
of the souvenirs
•  A space at the medical risk:
–  the “turista” is… a major tourist activity
–  Avian flu
•  A space of symbolic risk
•  A space of discovered and pleasure
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Forms of the food heritage
•  Living heritage:
What we do in different
parts of society or the
different types of
restaurants
–  The recording of
traditional dishes and
practices identified like
such (books of receipts…)
–  Products, dishes,
technical practices, food
ways inventoried by the
ethnographic investigation
•  Sleeping heritage:
What we have done in
the past, but we do not
anymore
–  Written or oral history
–  Forgotten products or
practices
•  Constructed heritage:
What is in the spirit of…
Source: Hall, C.M and Sharples, L. (2003)
Gastronomic
Tourism
	
  
Gourmet
Tourism
High
Interest
Moderate
Interest
Low
Interest
Low
Interest/
No Interest
Rural/Urban
Tourism
Culinary
Tourism
Cuisine
Tourism
Primary Secondary Subsidiary to other
Interest
Importance of a special interest in food as a travel motivation
No.ofTourists
Rural
Tourism
Cuisines of
the world
Restaurants
of the world
Different types food interest and creation
of economical value	
  
No.deTouristespotentiels
Gastronomy
Expenditure % du budget
High cuisine
-
+
- +
Food habits as an entry in
the cultures
http://www.remotelands.com/destination/
13102501_itinerary_vietnam_A-
Vietnamese-Culinary-Journey Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
From an organized market to
high cultural value products
•  To develop cultural value of the
products to get absolute advantages
•  A “high identity” product like
Champagne can be imitated, but not
equalized! The more it is copied the
more the value of the original is higher
•  High cultural value products is a way to
delocalize the benefits of tourism to
diffuse it among farmers, caterer, food
artisan and on the area concerned
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
The times
of trip
Spaces of valorization
Before
n  Tourist guides
n  Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin
n  Television programs
n  Experiments through parents or friends
n  Experiments with the Diaspora
During
n  Restaurants, hosts tables
n  Markets and store of food
n  Guides
n  Invitations at home
n  Food souvenirs
After
n  Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin
n  Store and super market «ethnic products »
n  Internet sales (ex colis pays…)
n  Cooking at home dishes discovered in the visited country
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Plan
n Cultures,	
  Food	
  cultures	
  &	
  
Heritage	
  and	
  Gastronomy	
  	
  
n Tourism	
  and	
  the	
  
gastronomic	
  heritages	
  	
  
n What	
  can	
  we	
  to	
  do?	
  
The levels of action
n  Inventory	
  	
  
q  NaNonal	
  level	
  
q  Regional	
  	
  
q  Ethnic	
  groups	
  
q  …	
  
	
  
n  DisseminaNon	
  and	
  networking	
  	
  
q  Social	
  scienNsts	
  
q  Historians	
  	
  
q  Farmers	
  
q  Chefs	
  	
  
q  Food	
  industries	
  
q  Tourism	
  actors	
  
q  PoliNcians	
  	
  
q  Media	
  
q  …	
  
n  PromoNng	
  	
  
q  Before	
  	
  
q  During	
  	
  
q  Aaer	
  	
  
Some actions: research, training and
professionalisation
Data	
  collec'on	
  	
  
n  Ethnological	
  	
  
n  Historical	
  	
  	
  
n  Technological	
  
n  Biological	
  
n  ExpectaNons	
  and	
  
food	
  models	
  of	
  
visitors	
  	
  	
  
Educa'on	
  	
  
n  ConNnuing	
  
educaNon	
  	
  
n  Technical	
  
educaNon	
  
tourism	
  and	
  
culinary	
  art	
  	
  
Dissemina'on	
  	
  	
  
n  ScienNfic	
  	
  
n  Professional	
  	
  
n  Public	
  
n  In	
  and	
  out	
  the	
  
country	
  
n  Media	
  
	
  
Touris'fica'on	
  	
  
n  Networking	
  	
  
n  ConceptualisaNon	
  
of	
  gastronomic	
  
tourism	
  products	
  
n  FesNval	
  	
  
	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
JP	
  Poulain	
  CETIA-­‐ERITA	
  UTM	
  
•  Léo Moulin, L’Europe à table, 1974
•  1984, début des inventaires régionaux :
Ethno-cuisine, Itinéraires gourmands,
CNAC
•  Sites remarquables du goût
•  2006 « Les cultures culinaires de
l’Europe »
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Geographical	
  
indica'ons	
  	
  
Exemples tourists
food cultures
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Reasons to study
food cultures
Knowledge	
  on	
  food	
  cultures	
  	
  
To	
  improve	
  	
  
welcoming	
  	
  
of	
  tourist	
  	
  
To	
  facilitates	
  	
  
access	
  to	
  	
  
Baliniese	
  	
  
culture	
  
To	
  push	
  	
  
exporta'on	
  	
  
of	
  vietnamese	
  
food	
  stuffs	
  	
  
	
  
Localy Abroad
By	
  understanding	
  	
  
of	
  the	
  	
  
By	
  informaNon	
   Through	
  trade	
  
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
Food particularities will
change social status… To
become a means to get into
contact with the culture of
others and, therefore, to
become one of the sharpest
interests of the desire to
travel » Léo Moulin, L’Europe à Table,
1975
Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  	
  
More
Ø  Guy	
  Fontaine	
  et	
  Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  2002,	
  Dir.,	
  Le	
  tourisme	
  dans	
  les	
  
départements	
  d’Outre	
  Mer,	
  Lanore.	
  	
  	
  	
  
Ø  Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  2002,	
  Sociologies	
  de	
  l’alimenta?on,	
  PUF.	
  
Ø  Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain	
  et	
  Edmond	
  Neirinck,	
  Histoire	
  de	
  la	
  cuisine	
  et	
  des	
  
cuisiniers,	
  Lanore,	
  2000.	
  
Ø  Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  «	
  French	
  gastronomie,	
  french	
  gastronomies	
  »,	
  in	
  
Goldstein	
  D.	
  et	
  Merkele	
  K.,	
  2005,	
  Culinary	
  cultures	
  of	
  Europe	
  Iden?ty,	
  
Diversity	
  and	
  dialogue,	
  ÉdiNons	
  du	
  Conseil	
  de	
  l’Europe,	
  p.	
  157-­‐170.	
  	
  
Ø  Laurence	
  Tibère	
  et	
  Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  «	
  Découverte	
  des	
  saveurs	
  
créoles	
  :	
  l’expérience	
  Villages	
  créoles	
  à	
  La	
  Réunion	
  »,	
  Pour,	
  	
  sept.	
  
2006.	
  
Ø  Laurence	
  Tibère,	
  2005-­‐2,	
  «	
  Nourritures	
  créoles.	
  Cuisines	
  symboliques	
  
et	
  idenNtés	
  à	
  La	
  Réunion	
  »,	
  in	
  Cuisines	
  en	
  partage,	
  Diaspora	
  n°6.	
  	
  
Ø  Philip	
  McLaughlin,	
  Jean-­‐Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  Laurence	
  Tibère,	
  2003,	
  
«	
  Tourisme	
  et	
  altérité	
  alimentaire	
  »,	
  Espaces.	
  N°202	
  
Ø  Jean	
  Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  2008,	
  "Gastronomic	
  Heritages	
  and	
  Their	
  Tourist	
  
ValorisaNons,	
  West	
  meets	
  east:	
  a	
  recipe	
  of	
  success	
  in	
  this	
  era	
  of	
  
globalisaNon,	
  Tourisme,	
  October	
  2008	
  	
  	
  pp.	
  1-­‐18.	
  
hpps://www.researchgate.net/publicaNon/234166233_Poulain_J.-­‐
P._Gastronomic_Heritages_and_Their_Tourist_ValorisaNons	
  	
  	
  	
  
Ø  Jean	
  Pierre	
  Poulain,	
  2012,	
  "The	
  sociology	
  of	
  gastronomic	
  
decolonisaNon	
  »,	
  in	
  Shanta	
  Nair-­‐Venugopal,	
  The	
  Gaze	
  of	
  the	
  West:	
  
Framings	
  of	
  the	
  East,	
  Publisher:	
  Palgrave	
  Macmillan,	
  
hpps://www.researchgate.net/publicaNon/
234059764_The_sociology_of_gastronomic_decolonisaNon	
  

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From Gastronomic heritage to food studies

  • 1. Interna'onal  Seminar:  “Food  Heritage”   Udayana  University,  Bali,  Indonesia.     10  august  2015   1   From gastronomic heritage to food studies       Prof.  Jean  Pierre  Poulain   sociologue  et  anthropologue   Chair  of  «  Food  Studies:  Food,  Cultures  and  Health  »     Taylor’s  Toulouse  University  Center            
  • 2. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Plan n Cultures,  Food  cultures  &   Heritage  and  Gastronomy     n Tourism  and  the   gastronomic  heritages     n What  can  we  to  do  ?    
  • 6.
  • 7. Cuisine(s),  Gastronomie,   Gastronomie(s)       •  Culinary(s)  Art(s),   EstheNsaNon  versus   arNficaNon     •  Social  hierarchy  (Elias,   Bourdieu,  Goody)   •  «  EliNst  Gastronomy   versus  Populist  »  (Carlo   Petrini)      
  • 8. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Food is a social event What constitutes food and, therefore, what can be eaten; how it is to be prepared, presented, and consumed; with whom you eat and so forth express complex relationships to class, ethnicity and gender. Food studies uncover the complexity behind an everyday life material that affects and effects multiple social networks, wherein food is both the material and symbol by which class, race/ethnicity, sex/gender are socially constructed.
  • 9. What is food studies? Food  studies  represents  a  new   interdisciplinary  perspecNve  in   social  sciences  and  humaniNes,   forming  linkages  and   interconnecNons  among  food-­‐ related  issues.  Using  a  systems   perspecNve  that  benefits  from  rich   methodological  and  analyNcal   insights  offered  by  various   disciplines,  researchers  in  this  field   study  the  ‘historically  specific  web   of  social  relaNons,  processes,   structures,  and  insNtuNonal   arrangements  that  cover  human   interacNons  with  nature  and  with   other  humans  involving  producNon,   distribuNon,  preparaNon,  and   consumpNon  of  food’  (Power  and  Koç  2008:   2).  
  • 10. Food Social Space: The  social     dimensions  of  food  (Condominas, 1980; Poulain, 1997 et 2002) Cultures Room of Freedom Social Dimensions of Food Physiological and biological constraints Ecological constraints Impact of the culture on the genetic structure of population Impact of the culture on the biotope •  Edible/ Inedible •  Food System •  Culinary •  Consumption Patterns •  Food Temporality •  Social Differentiation
  • 12. Studying food cultures is usefull for: •  Tourism  and  hospitality,   •  Agro  economy,   •  NutriNon  and  Health,   •  Food  policy  :  Food  security,  Food  safety,  food   crises,       •  Cultural  policies.        
  • 13. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Plan n Cultures,  Food  cultures  &   Heritage  and  Gastronomy     n Tourism  and  the   gastronomic  heritages     n What  can  we  to  do  ?  
  • 14. Pragmatic paradigm of tourism (Poulain, 2008) Social     roles     Food     habits     Living   condiNons     Social     roles     Food  cultures   Living   condiNons     Travel Place of residence Place of stay
  • 15. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Tourism is the meeting between two food cultures •  Eating is a daily obligation and at same time a way of entry in the culture of the visited country, •  Meal changes the tourist from spectator into an actor, it is a “formidable machine to travel” (E. Morin) •  Tourist meal is a meeting of two food models. By doing this, it learns as much from one as from the other.
  • 16. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     The point of view of the tourist: •  A significant part of the activity of a tourist How to go from a constrained time (biological activity +++) to a cultural time (cultural activity+++)? •  15% of the budget of a tourist + an important part of the budget of the souvenirs •  A space at the medical risk: –  the “turista” is… a major tourist activity –  Avian flu •  A space of symbolic risk •  A space of discovered and pleasure
  • 17. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Forms of the food heritage •  Living heritage: What we do in different parts of society or the different types of restaurants –  The recording of traditional dishes and practices identified like such (books of receipts…) –  Products, dishes, technical practices, food ways inventoried by the ethnographic investigation •  Sleeping heritage: What we have done in the past, but we do not anymore –  Written or oral history –  Forgotten products or practices •  Constructed heritage: What is in the spirit of…
  • 18. Source: Hall, C.M and Sharples, L. (2003) Gastronomic Tourism   Gourmet Tourism High Interest Moderate Interest Low Interest Low Interest/ No Interest Rural/Urban Tourism Culinary Tourism Cuisine Tourism Primary Secondary Subsidiary to other Interest Importance of a special interest in food as a travel motivation No.ofTourists
  • 19. Rural Tourism Cuisines of the world Restaurants of the world Different types food interest and creation of economical value   No.deTouristespotentiels Gastronomy Expenditure % du budget High cuisine - + - + Food habits as an entry in the cultures
  • 21. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     From an organized market to high cultural value products •  To develop cultural value of the products to get absolute advantages •  A “high identity” product like Champagne can be imitated, but not equalized! The more it is copied the more the value of the original is higher •  High cultural value products is a way to delocalize the benefits of tourism to diffuse it among farmers, caterer, food artisan and on the area concerned
  • 22. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     The times of trip Spaces of valorization Before n  Tourist guides n  Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin n  Television programs n  Experiments through parents or friends n  Experiments with the Diaspora During n  Restaurants, hosts tables n  Markets and store of food n  Guides n  Invitations at home n  Food souvenirs After n  Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin n  Store and super market «ethnic products » n  Internet sales (ex colis pays…) n  Cooking at home dishes discovered in the visited country
  • 23. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Plan n Cultures,  Food  cultures  &   Heritage  and  Gastronomy     n Tourism  and  the   gastronomic  heritages     n What  can  we  to  do?  
  • 24. The levels of action n  Inventory     q  NaNonal  level   q  Regional     q  Ethnic  groups   q  …     n  DisseminaNon  and  networking     q  Social  scienNsts   q  Historians     q  Farmers   q  Chefs     q  Food  industries   q  Tourism  actors   q  PoliNcians     q  Media   q  …   n  PromoNng     q  Before     q  During     q  Aaer    
  • 25. Some actions: research, training and professionalisation Data  collec'on     n  Ethnological     n  Historical       n  Technological   n  Biological   n  ExpectaNons  and   food  models  of   visitors       Educa'on     n  ConNnuing   educaNon     n  Technical   educaNon   tourism  and   culinary  art     Dissemina'on       n  ScienNfic     n  Professional     n  Public   n  In  and  out  the   country   n  Media     Touris'fica'on     n  Networking     n  ConceptualisaNon   of  gastronomic   tourism  products   n  FesNval       Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain    
  • 26. JP  Poulain  CETIA-­‐ERITA  UTM   •  Léo Moulin, L’Europe à table, 1974 •  1984, début des inventaires régionaux : Ethno-cuisine, Itinéraires gourmands, CNAC •  Sites remarquables du goût •  2006 « Les cultures culinaires de l’Europe »
  • 27. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Geographical   indica'ons    
  • 29. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Reasons to study food cultures Knowledge  on  food  cultures     To  improve     welcoming     of  tourist     To  facilitates     access  to     Baliniese     culture   To  push     exporta'on     of  vietnamese   food  stuffs       Localy Abroad By  understanding     of  the     By  informaNon   Through  trade  
  • 30. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     Food particularities will change social status… To become a means to get into contact with the culture of others and, therefore, to become one of the sharpest interests of the desire to travel » Léo Moulin, L’Europe à Table, 1975
  • 31. Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain     More Ø  Guy  Fontaine  et  Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain,  2002,  Dir.,  Le  tourisme  dans  les   départements  d’Outre  Mer,  Lanore.         Ø  Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain,  2002,  Sociologies  de  l’alimenta?on,  PUF.   Ø  Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain  et  Edmond  Neirinck,  Histoire  de  la  cuisine  et  des   cuisiniers,  Lanore,  2000.   Ø  Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain,  «  French  gastronomie,  french  gastronomies  »,  in   Goldstein  D.  et  Merkele  K.,  2005,  Culinary  cultures  of  Europe  Iden?ty,   Diversity  and  dialogue,  ÉdiNons  du  Conseil  de  l’Europe,  p.  157-­‐170.     Ø  Laurence  Tibère  et  Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain,  «  Découverte  des  saveurs   créoles  :  l’expérience  Villages  créoles  à  La  Réunion  »,  Pour,    sept.   2006.   Ø  Laurence  Tibère,  2005-­‐2,  «  Nourritures  créoles.  Cuisines  symboliques   et  idenNtés  à  La  Réunion  »,  in  Cuisines  en  partage,  Diaspora  n°6.     Ø  Philip  McLaughlin,  Jean-­‐Pierre  Poulain,  Laurence  Tibère,  2003,   «  Tourisme  et  altérité  alimentaire  »,  Espaces.  N°202   Ø  Jean  Pierre  Poulain,  2008,  "Gastronomic  Heritages  and  Their  Tourist   ValorisaNons,  West  meets  east:  a  recipe  of  success  in  this  era  of   globalisaNon,  Tourisme,  October  2008      pp.  1-­‐18.   hpps://www.researchgate.net/publicaNon/234166233_Poulain_J.-­‐ P._Gastronomic_Heritages_and_Their_Tourist_ValorisaNons         Ø  Jean  Pierre  Poulain,  2012,  "The  sociology  of  gastronomic   decolonisaNon  »,  in  Shanta  Nair-­‐Venugopal,  The  Gaze  of  the  West:   Framings  of  the  East,  Publisher:  Palgrave  Macmillan,   hpps://www.researchgate.net/publicaNon/ 234059764_The_sociology_of_gastronomic_decolonisaNon