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Beyond
Gastronomy & Tourism
Food, Cultures, Identities
and Health
Prof. Jean Pierre Poulain
Chair of « Food Studies »
Université de Toulouse, France
Taylor’s University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Co-director of LIA-CNRS « Food, Cultures and Health »
Plan
• Food, Gastronomy and Tourism
a successful encounter.
• Food, Cultures & Identities
• Food, Cultures and Health (of
the human beings and of the
planet)
A dedicated journal
Topics Google Scholar Citations First titles
Food
tourism 505000 8440 643
Hall, C. M., Sharples, L., Mitchell, R.,
Macionis, N., & Cambourne, B. (Eds.).
(2004). Food tourism around the world.
Routledge
Gastronomy
tourism 94500 1910 719
Hjalager, A. M., & Richards, G. (Eds.).
(2003). Tourism and gastronomy.
Routledge.
Gastronomic
tourism 105000 3650 719
Hall, C. M., & Mitchell, R. (2007).
Gastronomic tourism: Comparing food and
wine tourism experiences. In Niche
tourism(pp. 87-102). Routledge.
Culinary
tourism 262000 7000 909
Long, L. M. (2013). Culinary tourism.
In Encyclopedia of food and agricultural
ethics (pp. 1-8). Springer Netherlands.
Gourmet
tourism 12900 390
Total 979400 21390
Food & Tourism as
an established topics
Litterture review…
on english sources
Food particularities will change social status…
To become a means to get into contact with the culture
of others and, therefore, to become
one of the sharpest interests of the desire to travel »
Léo Moulin, L’Europe à Table, 1975
Tourism
Studies
Food
Studies
Articulation
of both fields
• Gastronomic tourism
• Oenological tourism
• Food souvenir market
• Restaurant design and
engineering
• Innovation and tradition
Impact of tourism
On Food market
• The role of legitimacy of tourist
on food heritage
• Valorization of food heritage by
tourism
• Geographical indications
•
Impact of food on
tourism activity
• Food as a part of the
identity of a region
• inter-cultural issues of food
and tourism
• Food as an entry in the
visited cultures
And also
• Food crisis management
• Food safety
Jean-Pierre Poulain
Food and tourism
4 centers of gravity to thinks
the relation between Food
and tourism:
– Tourism phenomenon,
– Agro-food chain,
– Economy of the territories,
– Interactions between
populations.
Tourism
Territoires
Populations
Food
production
Tourism & Folklore
Local cultures
Academic world
Cultural studies &
Food studies
Nouvelle Cuisine
Patrimonialization &
Gastronomisation
1800
1960
1975
2003 Articulation
Food studies
The first alliance of tourism with gastronomy
• 1900, Michelin guide
• 1920, «Inventory of French gastronomic
treasure» by Austin de Croze and Curnonsky
• 1950, Le salons des arts ménagers
14
Les cultural studies : Richard Hoggart
• The use of literacy: Aspects of Working-
Class Life Opposes the culture of elites
and cultures of the working class
• Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies
(CCCS), in 1964 at the University of
Birmingham. A comprehensive
ethnography of popular class culture …
• Get out of the invisibility and legitimize the
culture of the poors
Food in the academic world
• Food gradually takes a place in the field of
scholarly culture
• Ethnologie
– Claude Levi-Strass,
– Mary Douglas,
– Georges Condominas,
– Jacques Goody
– ….
• Sociologie
– Léo Moulin,
– Claude Fischler,
– Stephen Mennel,
– Jean Pierre Corbeau,
– Jean Pierre Poulain
– …
16
Food cultures
"The diet is a vital element of the social space by
the central position it occupies in the production
system from which it controls the technology and
economy of a group »
(Condominas, 1980, 32).
Jean-Pierre Poulain
1974, nouvelle cuisine and
the compelling of creativity
• Before nouvelle cuisine
The ambition of a chef was to be
a good interpreter of the
master’s works of the 19th
century ; the golden age of
gastronomy
• Nouvelle cuisine promote the idea of a dual
gastronomic heritage:
• the haute cuisine and table manners of the elite and
• the local, regional food cultures founded on popular tradition.
• After nouvelle cuisine
Chefs have to be creative
But how to go about it ?
JP Poulain CETIA-ERITA UTM
The articulation of the
three movements
• Léo Moulin, L’Europe à table, 1974
• 1984, début des inventaires régionaux :
Ethno-cuisine, Itinéraires gourmands, CNAC
• Sites remarquables du goût
• 2006, « Les cultures culinaires de l’Europe »
JP Poulain CETIA-ERITA UTM
From nouvelle cuisine to local gastronomies
We then shift from French inspired international cuisine
to truly local gastronomies
The gastronomisation
• "... a phenomenon that consists in
designating local culinary cultures as
gastronomies, is much more than a
patrimonialization. It is a reversal of
hierarchical perspective of two food
universes in opposition.
• Thus thanks to the connection between
local cuisines and learned cuisines could
emerge everywhere in the world of "local
gastronomy".
• The emergence of leading chefs all over
the world is a positive consequence of
"nouvelle cuisine".
The legitamtion of UNESCO
16 novembre 1972
World Heritage Convention, 1972
Culturel Naturel Mixte Total %
Afrique 47 35 4 86 8,9 %
États arabes 67 4 2 73 7,6 %
Asie et Pacifique 148 55 10 213
22,1
%
Europe et
Amérique du
Nord
393 59 10 462
48
%
Amérique latine
et Caraïbes
90 35 3 128
13,3
%
Total 745 188 29 962 100%
From « tangible » to « intangible heritage »
• In 1993, debate on authenticity of Ise sanctuary (伊勢神宮,
Japan)
• In 2003, a new convention to protect world’s “intangible
heritage”.
伊勢神宮
“Intangible cultural heritage”: Definition
“ICH” means the practices, representations, expressions,
knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects,
artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that
communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals
recognize as part of their cultural heritage.
“ICH”, transmitted from generation to generation, is
constantly recreated by communities and groups in
response to their environment, their interaction with
nature and their history, and provides them with a sense
of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for
cultural diversity and human creativity….
Alba (Italy)
Belém (Brazil)
Bergen (Norway)
Buenaventura
(Columbia)
Burgos (Spain)
Chengdu (China)
Cochabamba (Bolivia)
Dénia (Spain)
Ensenada (US)
Florianopolis (Brazil)
Gaziantep (Turkey)
Hatay (Turkey)
Jeonju (Korea)
Macau (Macau, China)
Östersund (Sweden)
Panama City
(Republic of Panama)
Paraty (Brazil)
Parma (Italy)
Phuket (Thailand)
Popayan (Colombia)
Rasht (Iran)
San Antonio (US)
Shunde (China)
Tsuruoka (Japan)
Tucson (US)
Zahlé (Lebanon)
Plan
• Food, Gastronomy and Tourism
a successful encounter.
• Food, Cultures & Identities
• Food, Cultures and Health (of the human
beings and of the planet)
Cultural studies
Cuisine(s) and identities
Descendant
Norbert Elias
Aristocratie
Bourgeoisie
Peuple
Cultures et civilisation
Le système de la mode
Moteur du
processus de
civilisation
The distinction of Pierre Bourdieu
Espace des cultures populaires
“Autonomy of popular tastes”
Distinction process
Les classes montantes copient les classes superieures
qui pour se distinguer déplacent leur goûts
Conséquences :
1. Idéalisation du populaire
2. La gastronomie est réduite aux avatars du processus de
distinction
Modèle descendant
Des élites vers le peuple
Modèle remontant
Du peuple vers les élites
La Culture des élites versus les cultures populaires
Aristocratie
Bourgeoisie
Peuple
Several diffusion modeles in cohabitation
Several kind of food popular cultures :
• Regionales
• De milieux sociaux
• Paysans
• Ouvriers
• Artisans
Modèle influences
extérieures
Expansions colonisation &
flux migratoires
Categories sociales
The magret de canard
Lo Hei prosperity Yu Sheng
Impensé de PCI : la localisation dé-
connexion espace de production espace
de consommation
• Codfish
• Transnational products: pizza
• The samossas
• The chilli…
Dog meat meal a gastronomic
heritage?
Jean-Pierre Poulain
Eat dog festival, Yulin,
China
The foie gras: a
“cultural expection”
• Rapport homme
animaux
• Gaspillage alimentaire
• Torture
Les formes de légitimation
• Par les pairs : Bocuse d’or, MOF, culinary
academy of France, …. Chefs of very high level
evaluate other chefs and attest excellence
http://www.bocusedor.com/2009/equipes/?pays=FR
• Par les experts : le critique gastronomique.
• Par les média, Jamie Oliver
• Par les jurys degustateurs
• Par les consommateurs
41
Borders and controversies in heritage
• Durabilité et gaspillage
• Les limites de la durabilité et la notion échelle
de validité
• Universalisme et culturalisme du patrimoine
• Fermeture ou dialogue entre les cultures
Jean-Pierre Poulain
Plan
• Food, Gastronomy and
Tourism a successful
encounter.
• Food, cultures & identities
• Food, cultures, identities and
health
Jean-Pierre Poulain
Tourism is the meeting between
two food cultures
• Eating is a daily obligation and at same time a
way of entry in the culture of the visited country,
• Meal changes the tourist from spectator into an
actor, it is a “formidable machine to travel” (E. Morin)
• Tourist meal is a
meeting of two food models.
By doing this, it learns as
much from one as from
the other.
Jean-Pierre Poulain
The point of view of the tourist:
• A significant part of the activity of a tourist
How to go from a constrained time (biological activity +++) to a cultural
time (cultural activity+++)?
• 15% of the budget of a tourist + an important part of the budget
of the souvenirs
• A space at the medical risk:
– the “turista” is… a major tourist activity
– Avian flu
• A space of symbolic risk
• A space of discovered and pleasure
Jean-Pierre Poulain
Different kinds of food heritage
• Living heritage:
What we do in different
parts of society or the
different types of
restaurants
– The recording of traditional
dishes and practices
identified like such (books
of receipts…)
– Products, dishes, technical
practices, food ways
inventoried by the
ethnographic investigation
• Sleeping heritage:
What we have done in
the past, but we do not
anymore
– Written or oral history
– Forgotten products or
practices
• Constructed heritage:
What is in the spirit of…
http://www.remotelands.com/destination/
13102501_itinerary_vietnam_A-
Vietnamese-Culinary-Journey Jean-Pierre Poulain
Jean-Pierre Poulain
The times
of trip
Spaces of valorization
Before
 Tourist guides
 Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin
 Television programs
 Experiments through parents or friends
 Experiments with the Diaspora
During
 Restaurants, hosts tables
 Markets and store of food
 Guides
 Invitations at home
 Food souvenirs
After
 Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin
 Store and super market «ethnic products »
 Internet sales (ex colis pays…)
 Cooking at home dishes discovered in the visited country
The levels of action
 Inventory
 National level
 Regional
 Ethnic groups
 …
 Dissemination and networking
 Social scientists
 Historians
 Farmers
 Chefs
 Food industries
 Tourism actors
 Politicians
 Media
 …
 Promoting
 Before
 During
 After
Some actions: research, training and
professionalisation
Data collection
 Ethnological
 Historical
 Technological
 Biological
 Expectations and
food models of
visitors
 …
Education
 Continuing
education
 Technical
education tourism
and culinary art
 …
Dissemination
 Scientific
 Professional
 Public
 In and out the
country
 Media
 …
Touristification
 Networking
 Conceptualisation
of gastronomic
tourism products
 Festival
 …
Jean-Pierre Poulain
JP Poulain CETIA-ERITA UTM
• Léo Moulin, L’Europe à table, 1974
• 1984, début des inventaires régionaux :
Ethno-cuisine, Itinéraires gourmands,
CNAC
• Sites remarquables du goût
• 2006 « Les cultures culinaires de
l’Europe »
Plan
• Food, Gastronomy and Tourism
a successful encounter.
• Food, Cultures & Identities
• Food, Cultures and Health (of
the human beeings and of the
planet)
The enviromental turn:
- Feeding the planete and
- Preserve the enviroment
Malthus’ theory
54
55
Feeding humanity:
a recurrent question
• Anton Zischka, Bread for 2 billions humans, 1942.
• Josué de Castro, Geography of hunger
• FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
• Joseph Klatzman, Feeding humankind, 1991
• 2008, Hunger riots
• 2011, Starvation in the horn of Africa
56
57
58
Supposed causes of food insecurity
return
• Bad harvest in 2007 (in US,
aurstralia and Russia)
• Raising production of
Bio-fuel
• Financial speculation
60
Development and transformation of
food consumptions
61
On Malthus’ trace
• Food production depends on:
– Exploitable agricultural areas
– Water supply
– Sunlight
– Agrarian techniques
– Inputs (fertilizers.)
– Agricultural machinery
– Energy supply
– ...
• Food requirement depends on :
– The number of individuals to feed
– What people consume = FOOD MODELS
62
63
Poulain JP, 2018,
64
Cadragesocio-
anthropologique
Cadrage économico-
écologique
Perspective
Économico-écologique
Perspective
socio-anthropologique
Concepts clefs Primat à l’environnement.
Empreinte écologique,
(km/aliment), CO2
Primat aux humains
Commerce équitable, AMAP, Slow
food, community supported agriculture
Critères d‘orientation
et d’évaluation
Universalisme des enjeux
écologiques globaux
Equité intergénérationnelle
Quelle planète laissera-t-on à
nos enfants ?
Particularisme des situations sociales
et culturelles
Equité intra-générationnelle
Solidarité avec les victimes et
scandale de la faim
Modalités d’évaluation
des systèmes
Modélisation mathématique Etude de cas, retour d’experience
Relation au marché Le marché est donné, il
convient d’en comprendre le
fonctionnement
Le marché est une construction
sociale et politique,
il faut agir pour l’orienter vers ce qui
est favorable
Place des
consommateurs
Consommateurs opèrent des
choix
Consommateurs sont des acteurs des
systèmes
Science princeps Econométrie, écologie,
agronomie
Anthropologie, sociologie, sciences
du développement
Development and transformation of
food consumptions
66
Food Convergence theory
67
Bricas, 2011
Cultural inertia of food patterns
The concept of inertia reflects a phenomenon of reaction to changing
factors. It takes the form of a resistance that opposes the change, slows.
The inertia of dietary patterns is the consequence of the fact that food
practices are not individual decisions. They are supervised by social norms
and systems they are supporting social functions (in Durkheimian sense).
68Bricas, 2011
Purchasing
Power
Or level of
developpement
Ratio of Animal
Calories on
Total Calories
Proteins
Fats
Proteins
Fats
• Pre-Set by the ‘Food Model’:
• Taboo
• Food & Culinary Systems
• Food Decision-Making
• Socio-Economic Determinants
• Cognitives determinants
Main Focus of Classical
Nutritional Transition
Scientific Problematic
Scientific Problematic
71
72
The double burden theory...
73
Health transition: mortality rates (US, 1910-1970)
IUMSP-GCT
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980
Deathrateper100,000population
Infectious diseases
Heart disease
Cancer
Stroke
Violent/accident
Infancy disease
Tuberculosis
(up to >1000 earlier)
75
Eating out: Meals
Meals only
 Breakfast
 And or Lunch
 And/or Diner
12,5
% on
Meals
% on
Individuals
64.1 % of the Malaysian individuals eat at
least on meal per day outside of the home
12.5 % of individuals eating only at home
have at least one meal that comes from
outside
Eating out
Eating at home with meals coming from outside
Eating at home
7.72
46.12
53.88
10,25
77
Argentine Colombie
japon
Rwanda
Portugal
Asian Food Barometer
Barometer completed
Barometers in discussion
PhD in progress
PhD completed
Barometer in progress
Barometer: future plan
Taylor’s University
University Toulouse Jean Jaurès
CNRS Associated International
Laboratory :
“Food, Cultures & Health”
• Food consumption
– Vegetable
– Meat and fish
– Diary
• Nutrients
– Carbohydrate
– Fat
– Protein
– Micro-nutrients
• Variety
 Eating out
 Food intakes
– Food days
– Meals and snacking ,
structures and
compositions
 Representations on food
 Perception of risk
80
Nutritional
surveys
Socio-anthropological
surveys
Interdisciplinary
Dialogue
Public Health
Sensorial
analysis
Socio-cultural
determinants
Food lifestyles
Eating
decision
Food
Barometer
Studying food cultures, usefull for:
• Tourism and hospitality,
• Agro economy,
• Nutrition and Health,
• Food policy : Food security, Food safety, Food
crises management,
• Cultural policies.
From “gathering economy” to
« agri » and then « cultural » economy
• A double Methaphore of:
– « Agriculture »
– « Cultural economy »
Gathering
economy
Agricultural
economy
Cultural
economy
Organic food
Cultural transition
Ecological transition
Alimentation
Jean-Pierre Poulain
More
 Poulain Jean Pierre, 2012, dictionnaire des cultures alimentaires,
PUF.
 Guy Fontaine et Jean-Pierre Poulain, 2002, Dir., Le tourisme dans les
départements d’Outre Mer, Lanore.
 Jean-Pierre Poulain, 2002, Sociologies de l’alimentation, PUF.
 Jean-Pierre Poulain et Edmond Neirinck, Histoire de la cuisine et des
cuisiniers, Lanore, 2000.
 Jean-Pierre Poulain, « French gastronomie, french gastronomies », in
Goldstein D. et Merkele K., 2005, Culinary cultures of Europe Identity,
Diversity and dialogue, Éditions du Conseil de l’Europe, p. 157-170.
 Laurence Tibère et Jean-Pierre Poulain, « Découverte des saveurs
créoles : l’expérience Villages créoles à La Réunion », Pour, sept.
2006.
 Laurence Tibère, 2005-2, « Nourritures créoles. Cuisines symboliques
et identités à La Réunion », in Cuisines en partage, Diaspora n°6.
 Philip McLaughlin, Jean-Pierre Poulain, Laurence Tibère, 2003,
« Tourisme et altérité alimentaire », Espaces. N°202
 Jean Pierre Poulain, 2008, "Gastronomic Heritages and Their Tourist
Valorisations, West meets east: a recipe of success in this era of
globalisation, Tourisme, October 2008 pp. 1-18.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234166233_Poulain_J.-
P._Gastronomic_Heritages_and_Their_Tourist_Valorisations
 Jean Pierre Poulain, 2012, "The sociology of gastronomic
decolonisation », in Shanta Nair-Venugopal, The Gaze of the West:
Framings of the East, Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan,
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234059764_The_sociolog
y_of_gastronomic_decolonisation

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BEYOND GASTRONOMY & TOURISM

  • 1. Beyond Gastronomy & Tourism Food, Cultures, Identities and Health Prof. Jean Pierre Poulain Chair of « Food Studies » Université de Toulouse, France Taylor’s University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Co-director of LIA-CNRS « Food, Cultures and Health »
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Plan • Food, Gastronomy and Tourism a successful encounter. • Food, Cultures & Identities • Food, Cultures and Health (of the human beings and of the planet)
  • 7. Topics Google Scholar Citations First titles Food tourism 505000 8440 643 Hall, C. M., Sharples, L., Mitchell, R., Macionis, N., & Cambourne, B. (Eds.). (2004). Food tourism around the world. Routledge Gastronomy tourism 94500 1910 719 Hjalager, A. M., & Richards, G. (Eds.). (2003). Tourism and gastronomy. Routledge. Gastronomic tourism 105000 3650 719 Hall, C. M., & Mitchell, R. (2007). Gastronomic tourism: Comparing food and wine tourism experiences. In Niche tourism(pp. 87-102). Routledge. Culinary tourism 262000 7000 909 Long, L. M. (2013). Culinary tourism. In Encyclopedia of food and agricultural ethics (pp. 1-8). Springer Netherlands. Gourmet tourism 12900 390 Total 979400 21390 Food & Tourism as an established topics
  • 9.
  • 10. Food particularities will change social status… To become a means to get into contact with the culture of others and, therefore, to become one of the sharpest interests of the desire to travel » Léo Moulin, L’Europe à Table, 1975
  • 11. Tourism Studies Food Studies Articulation of both fields • Gastronomic tourism • Oenological tourism • Food souvenir market • Restaurant design and engineering • Innovation and tradition Impact of tourism On Food market • The role of legitimacy of tourist on food heritage • Valorization of food heritage by tourism • Geographical indications • Impact of food on tourism activity • Food as a part of the identity of a region • inter-cultural issues of food and tourism • Food as an entry in the visited cultures And also • Food crisis management • Food safety Jean-Pierre Poulain
  • 12. Food and tourism 4 centers of gravity to thinks the relation between Food and tourism: – Tourism phenomenon, – Agro-food chain, – Economy of the territories, – Interactions between populations. Tourism Territoires Populations Food production
  • 13. Tourism & Folklore Local cultures Academic world Cultural studies & Food studies Nouvelle Cuisine Patrimonialization & Gastronomisation 1800 1960 1975 2003 Articulation Food studies
  • 14. The first alliance of tourism with gastronomy • 1900, Michelin guide • 1920, «Inventory of French gastronomic treasure» by Austin de Croze and Curnonsky • 1950, Le salons des arts ménagers 14
  • 15. Les cultural studies : Richard Hoggart • The use of literacy: Aspects of Working- Class Life Opposes the culture of elites and cultures of the working class • Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS), in 1964 at the University of Birmingham. A comprehensive ethnography of popular class culture … • Get out of the invisibility and legitimize the culture of the poors
  • 16. Food in the academic world • Food gradually takes a place in the field of scholarly culture • Ethnologie – Claude Levi-Strass, – Mary Douglas, – Georges Condominas, – Jacques Goody – …. • Sociologie – Léo Moulin, – Claude Fischler, – Stephen Mennel, – Jean Pierre Corbeau, – Jean Pierre Poulain – … 16
  • 17. Food cultures "The diet is a vital element of the social space by the central position it occupies in the production system from which it controls the technology and economy of a group » (Condominas, 1980, 32).
  • 18. Jean-Pierre Poulain 1974, nouvelle cuisine and the compelling of creativity • Before nouvelle cuisine The ambition of a chef was to be a good interpreter of the master’s works of the 19th century ; the golden age of gastronomy • Nouvelle cuisine promote the idea of a dual gastronomic heritage: • the haute cuisine and table manners of the elite and • the local, regional food cultures founded on popular tradition. • After nouvelle cuisine Chefs have to be creative But how to go about it ?
  • 19. JP Poulain CETIA-ERITA UTM The articulation of the three movements • Léo Moulin, L’Europe à table, 1974 • 1984, début des inventaires régionaux : Ethno-cuisine, Itinéraires gourmands, CNAC • Sites remarquables du goût • 2006, « Les cultures culinaires de l’Europe »
  • 20. JP Poulain CETIA-ERITA UTM From nouvelle cuisine to local gastronomies We then shift from French inspired international cuisine to truly local gastronomies
  • 21. The gastronomisation • "... a phenomenon that consists in designating local culinary cultures as gastronomies, is much more than a patrimonialization. It is a reversal of hierarchical perspective of two food universes in opposition. • Thus thanks to the connection between local cuisines and learned cuisines could emerge everywhere in the world of "local gastronomy". • The emergence of leading chefs all over the world is a positive consequence of "nouvelle cuisine".
  • 22. The legitamtion of UNESCO 16 novembre 1972
  • 23. World Heritage Convention, 1972 Culturel Naturel Mixte Total % Afrique 47 35 4 86 8,9 % États arabes 67 4 2 73 7,6 % Asie et Pacifique 148 55 10 213 22,1 % Europe et Amérique du Nord 393 59 10 462 48 % Amérique latine et Caraïbes 90 35 3 128 13,3 % Total 745 188 29 962 100%
  • 24.
  • 25. From « tangible » to « intangible heritage » • In 1993, debate on authenticity of Ise sanctuary (伊勢神宮, Japan) • In 2003, a new convention to protect world’s “intangible heritage”. 伊勢神宮
  • 26. “Intangible cultural heritage”: Definition “ICH” means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. “ICH”, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity….
  • 27. Alba (Italy) Belém (Brazil) Bergen (Norway) Buenaventura (Columbia) Burgos (Spain) Chengdu (China) Cochabamba (Bolivia) Dénia (Spain) Ensenada (US) Florianopolis (Brazil) Gaziantep (Turkey) Hatay (Turkey) Jeonju (Korea) Macau (Macau, China) Östersund (Sweden) Panama City (Republic of Panama) Paraty (Brazil) Parma (Italy) Phuket (Thailand) Popayan (Colombia) Rasht (Iran) San Antonio (US) Shunde (China) Tsuruoka (Japan) Tucson (US) Zahlé (Lebanon)
  • 28. Plan • Food, Gastronomy and Tourism a successful encounter. • Food, Cultures & Identities • Food, Cultures and Health (of the human beings and of the planet)
  • 30. Descendant Norbert Elias Aristocratie Bourgeoisie Peuple Cultures et civilisation Le système de la mode Moteur du processus de civilisation
  • 31. The distinction of Pierre Bourdieu Espace des cultures populaires “Autonomy of popular tastes” Distinction process Les classes montantes copient les classes superieures qui pour se distinguer déplacent leur goûts Conséquences : 1. Idéalisation du populaire 2. La gastronomie est réduite aux avatars du processus de distinction
  • 32. Modèle descendant Des élites vers le peuple Modèle remontant Du peuple vers les élites La Culture des élites versus les cultures populaires Aristocratie Bourgeoisie Peuple Several diffusion modeles in cohabitation Several kind of food popular cultures : • Regionales • De milieux sociaux • Paysans • Ouvriers • Artisans Modèle influences extérieures Expansions colonisation & flux migratoires Categories sociales
  • 33. The magret de canard
  • 34. Lo Hei prosperity Yu Sheng
  • 35. Impensé de PCI : la localisation dé- connexion espace de production espace de consommation • Codfish • Transnational products: pizza • The samossas • The chilli…
  • 36.
  • 37. Dog meat meal a gastronomic heritage? Jean-Pierre Poulain
  • 38. Eat dog festival, Yulin, China
  • 39. The foie gras: a “cultural expection” • Rapport homme animaux • Gaspillage alimentaire • Torture
  • 40.
  • 41. Les formes de légitimation • Par les pairs : Bocuse d’or, MOF, culinary academy of France, …. Chefs of very high level evaluate other chefs and attest excellence http://www.bocusedor.com/2009/equipes/?pays=FR • Par les experts : le critique gastronomique. • Par les média, Jamie Oliver • Par les jurys degustateurs • Par les consommateurs 41
  • 42. Borders and controversies in heritage • Durabilité et gaspillage • Les limites de la durabilité et la notion échelle de validité • Universalisme et culturalisme du patrimoine • Fermeture ou dialogue entre les cultures
  • 43. Jean-Pierre Poulain Plan • Food, Gastronomy and Tourism a successful encounter. • Food, cultures & identities • Food, cultures, identities and health
  • 44. Jean-Pierre Poulain Tourism is the meeting between two food cultures • Eating is a daily obligation and at same time a way of entry in the culture of the visited country, • Meal changes the tourist from spectator into an actor, it is a “formidable machine to travel” (E. Morin) • Tourist meal is a meeting of two food models. By doing this, it learns as much from one as from the other.
  • 45. Jean-Pierre Poulain The point of view of the tourist: • A significant part of the activity of a tourist How to go from a constrained time (biological activity +++) to a cultural time (cultural activity+++)? • 15% of the budget of a tourist + an important part of the budget of the souvenirs • A space at the medical risk: – the “turista” is… a major tourist activity – Avian flu • A space of symbolic risk • A space of discovered and pleasure
  • 46. Jean-Pierre Poulain Different kinds of food heritage • Living heritage: What we do in different parts of society or the different types of restaurants – The recording of traditional dishes and practices identified like such (books of receipts…) – Products, dishes, technical practices, food ways inventoried by the ethnographic investigation • Sleeping heritage: What we have done in the past, but we do not anymore – Written or oral history – Forgotten products or practices • Constructed heritage: What is in the spirit of…
  • 48. Jean-Pierre Poulain The times of trip Spaces of valorization Before  Tourist guides  Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin  Television programs  Experiments through parents or friends  Experiments with the Diaspora During  Restaurants, hosts tables  Markets and store of food  Guides  Invitations at home  Food souvenirs After  Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin  Store and super market «ethnic products »  Internet sales (ex colis pays…)  Cooking at home dishes discovered in the visited country
  • 49. The levels of action  Inventory  National level  Regional  Ethnic groups  …  Dissemination and networking  Social scientists  Historians  Farmers  Chefs  Food industries  Tourism actors  Politicians  Media  …  Promoting  Before  During  After
  • 50. Some actions: research, training and professionalisation Data collection  Ethnological  Historical  Technological  Biological  Expectations and food models of visitors  … Education  Continuing education  Technical education tourism and culinary art  … Dissemination  Scientific  Professional  Public  In and out the country  Media  … Touristification  Networking  Conceptualisation of gastronomic tourism products  Festival  … Jean-Pierre Poulain
  • 51. JP Poulain CETIA-ERITA UTM • Léo Moulin, L’Europe à table, 1974 • 1984, début des inventaires régionaux : Ethno-cuisine, Itinéraires gourmands, CNAC • Sites remarquables du goût • 2006 « Les cultures culinaires de l’Europe »
  • 52. Plan • Food, Gastronomy and Tourism a successful encounter. • Food, Cultures & Identities • Food, Cultures and Health (of the human beeings and of the planet)
  • 53. The enviromental turn: - Feeding the planete and - Preserve the enviroment
  • 55. 55
  • 56. Feeding humanity: a recurrent question • Anton Zischka, Bread for 2 billions humans, 1942. • Josué de Castro, Geography of hunger • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) • Joseph Klatzman, Feeding humankind, 1991 • 2008, Hunger riots • 2011, Starvation in the horn of Africa 56
  • 57. 57
  • 58. 58
  • 59.
  • 60. Supposed causes of food insecurity return • Bad harvest in 2007 (in US, aurstralia and Russia) • Raising production of Bio-fuel • Financial speculation 60
  • 61. Development and transformation of food consumptions 61
  • 62. On Malthus’ trace • Food production depends on: – Exploitable agricultural areas – Water supply – Sunlight – Agrarian techniques – Inputs (fertilizers.) – Agricultural machinery – Energy supply – ... • Food requirement depends on : – The number of individuals to feed – What people consume = FOOD MODELS 62
  • 65. Perspective Économico-écologique Perspective socio-anthropologique Concepts clefs Primat à l’environnement. Empreinte écologique, (km/aliment), CO2 Primat aux humains Commerce équitable, AMAP, Slow food, community supported agriculture Critères d‘orientation et d’évaluation Universalisme des enjeux écologiques globaux Equité intergénérationnelle Quelle planète laissera-t-on à nos enfants ? Particularisme des situations sociales et culturelles Equité intra-générationnelle Solidarité avec les victimes et scandale de la faim Modalités d’évaluation des systèmes Modélisation mathématique Etude de cas, retour d’experience Relation au marché Le marché est donné, il convient d’en comprendre le fonctionnement Le marché est une construction sociale et politique, il faut agir pour l’orienter vers ce qui est favorable Place des consommateurs Consommateurs opèrent des choix Consommateurs sont des acteurs des systèmes Science princeps Econométrie, écologie, agronomie Anthropologie, sociologie, sciences du développement
  • 66. Development and transformation of food consumptions 66
  • 68. Cultural inertia of food patterns The concept of inertia reflects a phenomenon of reaction to changing factors. It takes the form of a resistance that opposes the change, slows. The inertia of dietary patterns is the consequence of the fact that food practices are not individual decisions. They are supervised by social norms and systems they are supporting social functions (in Durkheimian sense). 68Bricas, 2011
  • 69.
  • 70. Purchasing Power Or level of developpement Ratio of Animal Calories on Total Calories Proteins Fats Proteins Fats • Pre-Set by the ‘Food Model’: • Taboo • Food & Culinary Systems • Food Decision-Making • Socio-Economic Determinants • Cognitives determinants Main Focus of Classical Nutritional Transition Scientific Problematic
  • 72. 72
  • 73. The double burden theory... 73
  • 74. Health transition: mortality rates (US, 1910-1970) IUMSP-GCT 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Deathrateper100,000population Infectious diseases Heart disease Cancer Stroke Violent/accident Infancy disease Tuberculosis (up to >1000 earlier)
  • 75. 75
  • 76. Eating out: Meals Meals only  Breakfast  And or Lunch  And/or Diner 12,5 % on Meals % on Individuals 64.1 % of the Malaysian individuals eat at least on meal per day outside of the home 12.5 % of individuals eating only at home have at least one meal that comes from outside Eating out Eating at home with meals coming from outside Eating at home 7.72 46.12 53.88 10,25
  • 78.
  • 79. Asian Food Barometer Barometer completed Barometers in discussion PhD in progress PhD completed Barometer in progress Barometer: future plan Taylor’s University University Toulouse Jean Jaurès CNRS Associated International Laboratory : “Food, Cultures & Health”
  • 80. • Food consumption – Vegetable – Meat and fish – Diary • Nutrients – Carbohydrate – Fat – Protein – Micro-nutrients • Variety  Eating out  Food intakes – Food days – Meals and snacking , structures and compositions  Representations on food  Perception of risk 80 Nutritional surveys Socio-anthropological surveys Interdisciplinary Dialogue Public Health Sensorial analysis Socio-cultural determinants Food lifestyles Eating decision Food Barometer
  • 81. Studying food cultures, usefull for: • Tourism and hospitality, • Agro economy, • Nutrition and Health, • Food policy : Food security, Food safety, Food crises management, • Cultural policies.
  • 82.
  • 83. From “gathering economy” to « agri » and then « cultural » economy • A double Methaphore of: – « Agriculture » – « Cultural economy » Gathering economy Agricultural economy Cultural economy Organic food Cultural transition Ecological transition Alimentation
  • 84. Jean-Pierre Poulain More  Poulain Jean Pierre, 2012, dictionnaire des cultures alimentaires, PUF.  Guy Fontaine et Jean-Pierre Poulain, 2002, Dir., Le tourisme dans les départements d’Outre Mer, Lanore.  Jean-Pierre Poulain, 2002, Sociologies de l’alimentation, PUF.  Jean-Pierre Poulain et Edmond Neirinck, Histoire de la cuisine et des cuisiniers, Lanore, 2000.  Jean-Pierre Poulain, « French gastronomie, french gastronomies », in Goldstein D. et Merkele K., 2005, Culinary cultures of Europe Identity, Diversity and dialogue, Éditions du Conseil de l’Europe, p. 157-170.  Laurence Tibère et Jean-Pierre Poulain, « Découverte des saveurs créoles : l’expérience Villages créoles à La Réunion », Pour, sept. 2006.  Laurence Tibère, 2005-2, « Nourritures créoles. Cuisines symboliques et identités à La Réunion », in Cuisines en partage, Diaspora n°6.  Philip McLaughlin, Jean-Pierre Poulain, Laurence Tibère, 2003, « Tourisme et altérité alimentaire », Espaces. N°202  Jean Pierre Poulain, 2008, "Gastronomic Heritages and Their Tourist Valorisations, West meets east: a recipe of success in this era of globalisation, Tourisme, October 2008 pp. 1-18. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234166233_Poulain_J.- P._Gastronomic_Heritages_and_Their_Tourist_Valorisations  Jean Pierre Poulain, 2012, "The sociology of gastronomic decolonisation », in Shanta Nair-Venugopal, The Gaze of the West: Framings of the East, Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234059764_The_sociolog y_of_gastronomic_decolonisation