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Impact of Public Funding on the
Development of Nanotechnology
A Comparison of Quebec,
Canada and the US
            Leila Tahmooresnejad – Polytechnique Montréal
               Catherine Beaudry – Polytechnique Montréal
              Andrea Schiffauerova – Concordia University


            1st International Conference of Ne3LS Network
                                            November 2012
Outline of the presentation
   Motivation
   Theoretical Framework
   Data and Methodology
       Network
       Hypotheses

       Econometric models

   Regression results
   Conclusion
                    Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                2
                              Andrea Schiffauerova
Motivation
   Public funding for research facilitates the
    production of knowledge and is a key element for
    innovation in high technologies

         Facilitate the diffusion of knowledge
         Develop new technologies


   Universities and their affiliated centers play a
    vital role in National innovation systems (Hall et al.,
    2003; Link & Scott, 2004; Zucker, Darby & Armstrong, 2002)


                         Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                     3
                                   Andrea Schiffauerova
Nanotechnology (I/II)
   Emergence of nanotechnology over recent years
    was the starting point for many changes in a vast
    number of industries.
       High competitive advantage for companies (Canton, 1999)
       Creation of new companies (Porter et al., 2007)
       Nano-enabled products with optimal features (Armstrong,
          2008; Vokhidov and Dobrovol’skii, 2010)
         Potential markets (Knol, 2004; Roco, 2007; Malanowski and
          Zweck, 2007)
         Nano-related jobs (Freeman and Shukla, 2008)
                          Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                       4
                                    Andrea Schiffauerova
Nanotechnology (II/II)
   Nanotechnology requires considerable
    investment

   Most of countries are following the US in
    initiating nanotechnology programs and
    increasing the allocated funds (Sargent, 2008)

   Canada lags behind in the race of
    nanotechnology
                   Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                               5
                             Andrea Schiffauerova
Theoretical Framework (I/II)
 Positive correlation between federal research
  funding and scientific outputs (Adams and Griliches,
  1998; Payne and Siow, 2003; Blume-Kogut et al. 2009).

 More government research funding results
  more papers (Payne and Siow , 2003)
 More government research funding results
  more patents with a lower rate (Payne and Siow,
    2003)


                   Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                               6
                             Andrea Schiffauerova
Theoretical Framework (II/II)
 High quality research should obtain more
  citations (Raan et al., 2003)
 Citations are 'proxy' (Cronin, 2005)
 Papers and Patents of researchers, who
  received funding, may receive more citations
       e.g.  Patents of researchers, who received NSF
          funding, received more citations compared with
          those of other researchers in Nanoscale Science
          and Engineering (Huang et al., 2005).
                       Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                   7
                                 Andrea Schiffauerova
Objectives
   Measure the impact of grants and contracts on
    the outputs of academic researchers
       Papers ( quantity and quality)
       Patents ( quantity and quality)
 Measure the impact of scientific and
  technological networks ( co-publication and
  co-invention networks)
 Compare these impacts in Quebec, Canada and
  the US

                      Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                  8
                                Andrea Schiffauerova
Data and Methodology
Data (I/II)
   Scopus
         Extraction of nanotechnology scientific papers by using
          specific keywords in the title, abstract and keywords
         Selection the articles where there is at least one Canadian
          author

   United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
         Extraction of nanotechnology scientific patents by using
          specific keywords in the title, abstract and keywords
         Selection the patents where there is at least one Canadian
          inventor

                          Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                         10
                                    Andrea Schiffauerova
Data (II/II)
   Systèmes d’information de la recherche universitaire (SIRU) for
    Quebec
         Amounts of grants and contracts received by researchers in Quebec

   Database of three granting councils (CIHR(Canadian Institute for
    Health Research), NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
    Council), SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of
    Canada))
         Amount of grants received by Canadian researchers

   Nanobank
         Papers of the researchers in the US
         Patents of the researchers in the US
         Amount of grants( NIH (National Institutes of Health) and NSF(National
          Science Foundation) received by researchers in the US


                              Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                                    11
                                        Andrea Schiffauerova
Methodology
 Matching databases
 Creating a unique identifier for each individual
  researcher
 Data cleaning
 Creating co-publication and co-invention
  networks
 Calculating network characteristics and the
  position of researchers
                  Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                              12
                            Andrea Schiffauerova
Network (I/III)
   A, B and C have published an
    article or are the inventors of a
    patent
   A, B and E have published an                                     A          B
    article or are the inventors of a
    patent
   C and D have published an
    article or are the inventors of a
    patent
   Degree of a node                                            E                   C
         Number of links that are directly
          connected
         A, B and C have 3 connections                                     D
         E has 2 connections
         D has 1 connection



                                 Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                                         13
                                           Andrea Schiffauerova
Network (II/III)
   Centrality degree
         indicates the number of actors that are connected to a
          specific actor
   Geodesic distance
         Distance (shortest path) between two nodes
   Betweenness centrality of a node
          is defined as the proportion of all geodesic distances
          between two nodes that includes this node.
         It makes the node more powerful since it can control the
          knowledge flow between the other pair of actors

                          Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                      14
                                    Andrea Schiffauerova
Network (III/III)
   Clustering coefficient
       iftwo nodes are connected to the specific third
       node, they may also be connected to each other.
       It is computed as the fraction of pairs of neighbors
       of an actor that are directly connected each other.
                                                            A        B




                                                                 D       C
                      Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                              15
                                Andrea Schiffauerova
Hypotheses (I/II)
   Hypothesis 1a: Nanotechnology scientists/
    academic inventors who receive more public
    funding contribute to more publications/patents
    compared with scientists/ academic inventors who
    receive less or no public funding.

   Hypothesis 1b: Nanotechnology scientists/
    academic inventors who receive more public
    funding contribute to higher quality
    publications/patents compared with scientists/
    academic inventors who receive less or no public
    funding.
1 November 2012
                   Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
                             Andrea Schiffauerova
                                                              16
Hypotheses (II/II)
   Hypothesis 2a: A better network position of
    scientists/ academic inventors has a positive effect
    on the number of papers/patents to which a
    scientist/ academic inventor contributes.

   Hypothesis 2b: A better network position of
    scientists/ academic inventors has a positive effect
    on the quality of papers/patents to which a
    scientist/ academic inventor contributes.
                    Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                17
                              Andrea Schiffauerova
Econometric Models (I/II)
énbArtit / nbPatit ù
ê                  ú
                     = a + bS1TotSubvMoy3it-l + bS 2 [TotSubvMoy3it-l ]
                                                                        2
ê nbCitit          ú
ênbClaimit
ë                  ú
                   û
                       +bC1TotContMoy3it-l + bC 2 [TotContMoy3it-l ] + b P1nbPat3it-1 + b P 2 nbPat3it-1
                                                                                  2                 2



                       +g b BtwCentXit-2 + g c1CliqnessXit-2 + g c2 [CliqnessXit-2 ]
                                                                                       2


                       +g bp [BtwCentXit-2 ´ nbPat3it-1 ]+ g bc [BtwCentXit-2 ´ CliqnessXit-2 ]
                       +dt å dt + n i + eit
                             t
TotSubvMoy3it-l TotContMoy3it-l
     The amount of average grants / contracts that are received in 3 years preceding the patent application
      / paper publication with one year lag
 BtwCentXit-2
     The betweenness centrality of academic –inventors /scientists in the co –invention/ co –publication
      network over 3 years preceding the patent application/ paper publication with 2 years lag
 CliqnessXit-2
     The cliquishness centrality of academic –inventors / scientists in the co –invention / co –publication
      network over 3 years preceding the patent application /paper publication with 2 years lag
                                       Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
 1 November 2012                                                                                            18
                                                 Andrea Schiffauerova
Endogeneity Problem
   The explanatory variables are linked together since one
    can explain the other.
         The number of papers/patents is explained by the total
          grants/contracts received
   Two–Stage Residual Inclusion (2RSI) and Two –Stage
    –Least –Squares (2SLS)
   Instrumental variables
         Age :the number of years since the beginning of the career
          of researcher in nanotechnology
         Chair :value 0 if a researcher has no chair, 1 if he has an
          industrial chair, 2 for being a chair from two councils of the
          Canadian federal granting, 3 for a scientist who is a Canada
          Research chair
                          Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                       19
                                    Andrea Schiffauerova
Econometric Models (II/II)
                                  4
ln ( totSubvMoyXit-1 ) = a1 + x å Ait-i + l A1 Ageit-1 + lA2 Ageit-1 + lChChairi + la nbArtMoy3
                                                                2

                                 i=2

                        +Variables1st Stage + (n1i + e1it )


   énbArtit / nbPatit ù
   ê                  ú
                        = a 2 + bG1 ln (TotSubvMoy3it-1 ) + bG 2 éln (TotSubvMoy3it-1 )ù + [n1i + e1it ]
                                                                                        2
   ê nbCitit          ú                                          ë                     û
   ênbClaimit
   ë                  ú
                      û
                        +bC1 ln (TotContMoy3it-1 ) + bC 2 éln (TotContMoy3it-1 )ù
                                                                                    2
                                                          ë                     û
                        +g b BtwCentXit-2 + g c1CliqnessXit-2 + g c2 [CliqnessXit-2 ]
                                                                                        2


                        +g bp [BtwCentXit-2 ´ nbPat3it-1 ]+ g bc [BtwCentXit-2 ´ CliqnessXit-2 ]
                        +ådt dt + n 2i + e 2it
                           t

                                      Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                                                      20
                                                Andrea Schiffauerova
Regression results




                  Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                              21
                            Andrea Schiffauerova
Comparison
   Quebec
   Rest of Canada
   The US




                     Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                 22
                               Andrea Schiffauerova
The Impact of Public Funding
on Papers
Quebec (contracts and grants)
    The number of papers
       Positive impact of grants after threshold (right graph)
       Negative impact of contracts (left graph)
       Positive impact of network characteristics
       Positive impact of having patents




    1 November 2012                                          24
Quebec (contracts and grants)
    The number of citation
        Negative   impact of grants before threshold (right
         graph)
        Positive impact of contracts (left graph)
        Positive impact of network characteristics
        Positive impact of having patents




                                                               25
1 November 2012
Quebec (only grants)
 The number of papers (left) and citations (right)
  Positive impact of grants until reach the
   threshold
  Positive impact of network characteristics
  Positive impact of having patents




The Impact of Public Funding on the number of papers (left graph), and on the number of citations (right graph)
  1 November 2012                                                                                           26
Rest of Canada
         The number of papers (left) and the number
          of citations (right)
             Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold
             Positive impact of network characteristics
             Positive impact of having patents




                                                                    27
1 November 2012
The US
     The number of papers (left) and the number of
      citations (right)
         Positive impact of grants on the number of papers
         Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold
         Positive impact of network characteristics (only
          citations)




                                                                28
1 November 2012
The Impact of Public Funding
on Patents
Quebec (contracts and grants)
   The number of patents
       Positive impacts of contracts after pass the
        threshold
       No effect of grants
       Positive impact of network characteristics (only
        cliquishness)




1 November 2012                                            30
Quebec (contracts and grants)
     The number of citation
        Positive impact of contracts after a certain threshold (
         left graph)
        Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold
         (right graph)
        Positive impact of network characteristics




                                                                31
1 November 2012
Quebec (contracts and grants)
   The number of claims
       Positive   impact of contracts after pass the threshold (left
        graph)
       Positive impact of grants after pass the threshold (right
        graph)
       Positive impact of network characteristics (cliquishness)




                                                                 32
1 November 2012
Rest of Canada
   The number of patents

       No  effect of grants
       Positive impact of network characteristics (only
        cliquishness)




                     Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                 33
                               Andrea Schiffauerova
Rest of Canada
         The number of citations (left) and the
          number of claims (right)
             Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold
             Positive impact of network characteristics (only
              cliquishness has effect on citation)




                                                                    34
1 November 2012
The US
   The number of patents
       Positive linear impact of grants
       Positive impact of network characteristics (only
        cliquishness)




                     Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                 35
                               Andrea Schiffauerova
The US
   The number of citation (left) and the
    number of claims (right)
       Positive impact of grants
       Positive impact of network characteristics (only
        cliquishness)




1 November 2012                                            36
Conclusion
Conclusion (I/III)
 Scientists work in bigger teams, but inventors
  are in smaller groups
 Scientific network is more interconnected
  compared with technological networks which
  are fragmented
 Having central positions in scientific networks
  has more positive impact on the papers
  compared with technological networks

                  Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                              38
                            Andrea Schiffauerova
Conclusion (II/III)
   Positive impact of grants on scientific productions and their
    quality but there is a threshold for this impact in Canada

   Positive impact of grants on scientific productions and their
    quality in the US, the threshold only for the citation

   No impact of grants in Canada on the number of patents , but
    positive impact of grants in the US on the number of patents

   Positive impact of grants on quality of patents, but there is the
    threshold in Canada

   Positive impact of grants on quality of patents with no
    threshold in the US
                        Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                     39
                                  Andrea Schiffauerova
Conclusion (III/III)
   Negative impact of contracts on the number of papers

   Positive impact of contracts on the quality of papers

   Positive impact of contracts on the number of patents
    after passing the threshold

   Positive impact of contracts on the quality of patents
    considering the threshold

   Contracts are more crucial for patents, but we could not
    measure this impact for the rest of Canada and the US
                     Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                 40
                               Andrea Schiffauerova
Thank you




                     Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry
1 November 2012                                                 41
                               Andrea Schiffauerova

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Leila Tahmooresnejad_Impact of public funding on the development of nanotechnology a comparison of quebec, canada and the us

  • 1. Impact of Public Funding on the Development of Nanotechnology A Comparison of Quebec, Canada and the US Leila Tahmooresnejad – Polytechnique Montréal Catherine Beaudry – Polytechnique Montréal Andrea Schiffauerova – Concordia University 1st International Conference of Ne3LS Network November 2012
  • 2. Outline of the presentation  Motivation  Theoretical Framework  Data and Methodology  Network  Hypotheses  Econometric models  Regression results  Conclusion Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 2 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 3. Motivation  Public funding for research facilitates the production of knowledge and is a key element for innovation in high technologies  Facilitate the diffusion of knowledge  Develop new technologies  Universities and their affiliated centers play a vital role in National innovation systems (Hall et al., 2003; Link & Scott, 2004; Zucker, Darby & Armstrong, 2002) Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 3 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 4. Nanotechnology (I/II)  Emergence of nanotechnology over recent years was the starting point for many changes in a vast number of industries.  High competitive advantage for companies (Canton, 1999)  Creation of new companies (Porter et al., 2007)  Nano-enabled products with optimal features (Armstrong, 2008; Vokhidov and Dobrovol’skii, 2010)  Potential markets (Knol, 2004; Roco, 2007; Malanowski and Zweck, 2007)  Nano-related jobs (Freeman and Shukla, 2008) Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 4 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 5. Nanotechnology (II/II)  Nanotechnology requires considerable investment  Most of countries are following the US in initiating nanotechnology programs and increasing the allocated funds (Sargent, 2008)  Canada lags behind in the race of nanotechnology Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 5 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 6. Theoretical Framework (I/II)  Positive correlation between federal research funding and scientific outputs (Adams and Griliches, 1998; Payne and Siow, 2003; Blume-Kogut et al. 2009).  More government research funding results more papers (Payne and Siow , 2003)  More government research funding results more patents with a lower rate (Payne and Siow, 2003) Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 6 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 7. Theoretical Framework (II/II)  High quality research should obtain more citations (Raan et al., 2003)  Citations are 'proxy' (Cronin, 2005)  Papers and Patents of researchers, who received funding, may receive more citations  e.g. Patents of researchers, who received NSF funding, received more citations compared with those of other researchers in Nanoscale Science and Engineering (Huang et al., 2005). Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 7 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 8. Objectives  Measure the impact of grants and contracts on the outputs of academic researchers  Papers ( quantity and quality)  Patents ( quantity and quality)  Measure the impact of scientific and technological networks ( co-publication and co-invention networks)  Compare these impacts in Quebec, Canada and the US Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 8 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 10. Data (I/II)  Scopus  Extraction of nanotechnology scientific papers by using specific keywords in the title, abstract and keywords  Selection the articles where there is at least one Canadian author  United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)  Extraction of nanotechnology scientific patents by using specific keywords in the title, abstract and keywords  Selection the patents where there is at least one Canadian inventor Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 10 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 11. Data (II/II)  Systèmes d’information de la recherche universitaire (SIRU) for Quebec  Amounts of grants and contracts received by researchers in Quebec  Database of three granting councils (CIHR(Canadian Institute for Health Research), NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council), SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada))  Amount of grants received by Canadian researchers  Nanobank  Papers of the researchers in the US  Patents of the researchers in the US  Amount of grants( NIH (National Institutes of Health) and NSF(National Science Foundation) received by researchers in the US Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 11 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 12. Methodology  Matching databases  Creating a unique identifier for each individual researcher  Data cleaning  Creating co-publication and co-invention networks  Calculating network characteristics and the position of researchers Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 12 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 13. Network (I/III)  A, B and C have published an article or are the inventors of a patent  A, B and E have published an A B article or are the inventors of a patent  C and D have published an article or are the inventors of a patent  Degree of a node E C  Number of links that are directly connected  A, B and C have 3 connections D  E has 2 connections  D has 1 connection Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 13 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 14. Network (II/III)  Centrality degree  indicates the number of actors that are connected to a specific actor  Geodesic distance  Distance (shortest path) between two nodes  Betweenness centrality of a node  is defined as the proportion of all geodesic distances between two nodes that includes this node.  It makes the node more powerful since it can control the knowledge flow between the other pair of actors Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 14 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 15. Network (III/III)  Clustering coefficient  iftwo nodes are connected to the specific third node, they may also be connected to each other.  It is computed as the fraction of pairs of neighbors of an actor that are directly connected each other. A B D C Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 15 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 16. Hypotheses (I/II)  Hypothesis 1a: Nanotechnology scientists/ academic inventors who receive more public funding contribute to more publications/patents compared with scientists/ academic inventors who receive less or no public funding.  Hypothesis 1b: Nanotechnology scientists/ academic inventors who receive more public funding contribute to higher quality publications/patents compared with scientists/ academic inventors who receive less or no public funding. 1 November 2012 Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry Andrea Schiffauerova 16
  • 17. Hypotheses (II/II)  Hypothesis 2a: A better network position of scientists/ academic inventors has a positive effect on the number of papers/patents to which a scientist/ academic inventor contributes.  Hypothesis 2b: A better network position of scientists/ academic inventors has a positive effect on the quality of papers/patents to which a scientist/ academic inventor contributes. Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 17 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 18. Econometric Models (I/II) énbArtit / nbPatit ù ê ú = a + bS1TotSubvMoy3it-l + bS 2 [TotSubvMoy3it-l ] 2 ê nbCitit ú ênbClaimit ë ú û +bC1TotContMoy3it-l + bC 2 [TotContMoy3it-l ] + b P1nbPat3it-1 + b P 2 nbPat3it-1 2 2 +g b BtwCentXit-2 + g c1CliqnessXit-2 + g c2 [CliqnessXit-2 ] 2 +g bp [BtwCentXit-2 ´ nbPat3it-1 ]+ g bc [BtwCentXit-2 ´ CliqnessXit-2 ] +dt å dt + n i + eit t TotSubvMoy3it-l TotContMoy3it-l  The amount of average grants / contracts that are received in 3 years preceding the patent application / paper publication with one year lag BtwCentXit-2  The betweenness centrality of academic –inventors /scientists in the co –invention/ co –publication network over 3 years preceding the patent application/ paper publication with 2 years lag CliqnessXit-2  The cliquishness centrality of academic –inventors / scientists in the co –invention / co –publication network over 3 years preceding the patent application /paper publication with 2 years lag Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 18 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 19. Endogeneity Problem  The explanatory variables are linked together since one can explain the other.  The number of papers/patents is explained by the total grants/contracts received  Two–Stage Residual Inclusion (2RSI) and Two –Stage –Least –Squares (2SLS)  Instrumental variables  Age :the number of years since the beginning of the career of researcher in nanotechnology  Chair :value 0 if a researcher has no chair, 1 if he has an industrial chair, 2 for being a chair from two councils of the Canadian federal granting, 3 for a scientist who is a Canada Research chair Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 19 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 20. Econometric Models (II/II) 4 ln ( totSubvMoyXit-1 ) = a1 + x å Ait-i + l A1 Ageit-1 + lA2 Ageit-1 + lChChairi + la nbArtMoy3 2 i=2 +Variables1st Stage + (n1i + e1it ) énbArtit / nbPatit ù ê ú = a 2 + bG1 ln (TotSubvMoy3it-1 ) + bG 2 éln (TotSubvMoy3it-1 )ù + [n1i + e1it ] 2 ê nbCitit ú ë û ênbClaimit ë ú û +bC1 ln (TotContMoy3it-1 ) + bC 2 éln (TotContMoy3it-1 )ù 2 ë û +g b BtwCentXit-2 + g c1CliqnessXit-2 + g c2 [CliqnessXit-2 ] 2 +g bp [BtwCentXit-2 ´ nbPat3it-1 ]+ g bc [BtwCentXit-2 ´ CliqnessXit-2 ] +ådt dt + n 2i + e 2it t Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 20 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 21. Regression results Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 21 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 22. Comparison  Quebec  Rest of Canada  The US Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 22 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 23. The Impact of Public Funding on Papers
  • 24. Quebec (contracts and grants)  The number of papers  Positive impact of grants after threshold (right graph)  Negative impact of contracts (left graph)  Positive impact of network characteristics  Positive impact of having patents 1 November 2012 24
  • 25. Quebec (contracts and grants)  The number of citation  Negative impact of grants before threshold (right graph)  Positive impact of contracts (left graph)  Positive impact of network characteristics  Positive impact of having patents 25 1 November 2012
  • 26. Quebec (only grants) The number of papers (left) and citations (right)  Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold  Positive impact of network characteristics  Positive impact of having patents The Impact of Public Funding on the number of papers (left graph), and on the number of citations (right graph) 1 November 2012 26
  • 27. Rest of Canada  The number of papers (left) and the number of citations (right)  Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold  Positive impact of network characteristics  Positive impact of having patents 27 1 November 2012
  • 28. The US  The number of papers (left) and the number of citations (right)  Positive impact of grants on the number of papers  Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold  Positive impact of network characteristics (only citations) 28 1 November 2012
  • 29. The Impact of Public Funding on Patents
  • 30. Quebec (contracts and grants)  The number of patents  Positive impacts of contracts after pass the threshold  No effect of grants  Positive impact of network characteristics (only cliquishness) 1 November 2012 30
  • 31. Quebec (contracts and grants)  The number of citation  Positive impact of contracts after a certain threshold ( left graph)  Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold (right graph)  Positive impact of network characteristics 31 1 November 2012
  • 32. Quebec (contracts and grants)  The number of claims  Positive impact of contracts after pass the threshold (left graph)  Positive impact of grants after pass the threshold (right graph)  Positive impact of network characteristics (cliquishness) 32 1 November 2012
  • 33. Rest of Canada  The number of patents  No effect of grants  Positive impact of network characteristics (only cliquishness) Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 33 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 34. Rest of Canada  The number of citations (left) and the number of claims (right)  Positive impact of grants until reach the threshold  Positive impact of network characteristics (only cliquishness has effect on citation) 34 1 November 2012
  • 35. The US  The number of patents  Positive linear impact of grants  Positive impact of network characteristics (only cliquishness) Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 35 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 36. The US  The number of citation (left) and the number of claims (right)  Positive impact of grants  Positive impact of network characteristics (only cliquishness) 1 November 2012 36
  • 38. Conclusion (I/III)  Scientists work in bigger teams, but inventors are in smaller groups  Scientific network is more interconnected compared with technological networks which are fragmented  Having central positions in scientific networks has more positive impact on the papers compared with technological networks Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 38 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 39. Conclusion (II/III)  Positive impact of grants on scientific productions and their quality but there is a threshold for this impact in Canada  Positive impact of grants on scientific productions and their quality in the US, the threshold only for the citation  No impact of grants in Canada on the number of patents , but positive impact of grants in the US on the number of patents  Positive impact of grants on quality of patents, but there is the threshold in Canada  Positive impact of grants on quality of patents with no threshold in the US Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 39 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 40. Conclusion (III/III)  Negative impact of contracts on the number of papers  Positive impact of contracts on the quality of papers  Positive impact of contracts on the number of patents after passing the threshold  Positive impact of contracts on the quality of patents considering the threshold  Contracts are more crucial for patents, but we could not measure this impact for the rest of Canada and the US Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 40 Andrea Schiffauerova
  • 41. Thank you Leila Tahmooresnejad - Catherine Beaudry 1 November 2012 41 Andrea Schiffauerova