SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 26
Download to read offline
Solar Energy
How solar Panel convert light into electricity Lecture 2
Dr. Basman M. Hasan Alhafidh
Department of Computer Engineering
College of Engineering
Mosul University
Agenda
Solar energy basics
 Overview of the major sources of energy
- Primary Energy Resources
- Transformation of Energy
- Solar Energy
 How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Calculating Energy Efficiency
 Electrical and Mechanical components of a solar panel system
2
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Photovoltaic cells and modules
In the previous slides, you learned about the solar resource, the Sun. That's the largest
available energy source on earth, in that we can transform that light energy into electrical
energy using photovoltaics or solar panels.
 In this lesson, we're going to look more closely at solar panels and how they convert
that sunlight into electricity.
 By the end of this lesson, you should be able to
 Describe the major components of a solar panel,
 Distinguish between the different materials that are commonly used in solar panels,
 Describe how a semiconductor functions,
 and recognize new and emerging types of solar panels.
3
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Photovoltaic cells and modules
The most common type of photovoltaic we see in the world today are made of the element silicon.
 The solar cell is the basic unit of a photovoltaic module or panel.
 A single solar cell produces about a half a volt of electricity and up to about eight amps depending on
the type of cell.
 That's about one-third the voltage of a double A battery.
The solar cell consists of a piece of silicon with contacts or electrodes that are put across the surface and
on the back.
Often, you'll see many smaller contact is connected together by a few, larger contacts on the cell's surface.
Now, a half a volt isn't going to be able to do very much. So, cells are connected in series to create what's
called a series string Thus, increasing the voltage.
This is similar to how batteries are put together in electronics, front to back, front to back, so they add up
to a higher voltage. So, for example, you might put two double A batteries into a flashlight, which increases
the total voltage to three volts.
4
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Photovoltaic cells and modules
 Photovoltaic module (Solar Panel):
The voltage of the series string is simply the
sum of the half volt cells, which in this
illustrated example of eight cells would be four
volts. The series string is laminated to backing
material, sealed in a weather proof plastic
coating, and then a cover glass is placed on top,
often with an aluminum frame around the
edges. This assembly is called the photovoltaic
module.
- The typical solar panels you see on a home or
a commercial building will usually be a lot
bigger than our simplified example here, and
may contain series strings of 60 or even 72 cells
per module.
5
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Photovoltaic cells and modules
 Photovoltaic array:
- When designing a photovoltaic system,
photovoltaic modules, also known as panels, we
put together in what's called a photovoltaic array.
- Just like when the series strings of cells are
wired together to make the module, we can also
wire modules together in series to increase the
voltage of the overall system. - In this case, our
four four-volt modules would create 16 volts
when connected together in series.
- An array of modules is what you're looking at
when you see a roof-mounted photovoltaic system
or even a ground-mounted system.
6
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
Silicon Types:
There's some variety to the type of silicon and how it's processed that impacts the overall
cost of production in the light to electricity conversion efficiency of the module.
1) Amorphous silicon
2) Polycrystalline silicon
3) Monocrystalline silicon
7
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
8
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
9
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
Silicon Types:
There's some variety to the type of silicon and how it's processed that impacts the overall
cost of production in the light to electricity conversion efficiency of the module.
1) Amorphous silicon
 The least efficient but cheapest to produce.
 It has an efficiency of about 5-7% and is not commonly used for commercial photovoltaics.
 However, you've probably seen amorphous silicon on the surface of pocket calculators and
other small electronic devices.
Note: Most commercially available modules are either made of monocrystalline silicon or
polycrystalline silicon. 10
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
2) Polycrystalline silicon:
 Sometimes also referred to as a multicrystalline silicon,
 Has a flaky appearance.
 It's a little less efficient in converting light to electricity than the monocrystalline silicon in
the range of 15-17%,
 But it's cheaper to manufacture because it's not as pure or energy-intensive to produce.
 The silicon is deposited in a chemical vapor process that forms multiple crystals giving it that
characteristic flaky-like appearance.
 The ingot can then be sliced into wafers to make photovoltaic cells or serve as the stock for
making monocrystalline silicon.
11
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
3) Monocrystalline silicon or single crystal silicon
 Is more efficient in converting light to electricity in the range of about 15-22%,
 But it's also the most expensive to produce.
 The silicon must be first:
- melted down and then a seed crystal is attached to a rotating thread or rod,
- then grown around the seed and is slowly pulled up into what's called a bowl, which is one
single crystal piece of silicon.
- That round bowl is then cut into thin slices and that round shape often results in cells with
rounded corners or rectangles often seen in those monocrystalline modules.
 The overall appearance of silicon is uniform, flat, black and non flaky.
12
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
Sunlight conversion into electricity by silicon
silicon => semiconductor => electrons can flow or conducted under the right conditions.
In both monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon production,
 there's also a doping process where impurities are specially added to silicon to slightly alter
its conductivity and its charge.
 The typical dopants are:
- Boron which creates a positive charge.
- Phosphorous which creates a negative charge.
 The positive charge => p-type material.
The negative charge => n-type material. 13
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
14
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
A cross-section of our solar cell.
 As we were down from the surface of the solar cell,
 There's a top anti-reflective coating.
 There's also the top contacts that will carry the electricity generated from the silicon out of
the cell and into the circuit.
 Even though we're showing them as two layers, the next two sections are actually one piece
of silicon.
 The upper part is the n-type region that was doped with phosphorus, and the lower part is
the p-type region which was doped with boron.
 The area where the n-type and p-type regions meet up is referred to as the np junction.
 Lastly, on the bottom, there's another contact that will complete the circuit, => electricity
flows from the top through the system and then back to the bottom of the solar cell.
15
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
16
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Silicon-based Photovoltaics
When photons of light hit that photovoltaic cell:
 Electrons are ejected from the n-type region, then move into those top contacts
through the circuit creating an electrical current.
 There's also a positive hole left by the n-region by the absence of that electron.
That's when the backfill movement occurs where the electron from the p-region fills
the whole left in the n-region.
 When the electron returns from the circuit through the bottom contact of the
silicon, it fills the positive hole that was left behind in the p-region.
17
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L_q6LRgKpTw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJ8XW9AgUrw
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Other photovoltaic materials
One of the newer types of photovoltaic materials is Copper, Indium, Gallium,
diSelenide, usually referred to by the acronym CIGS.
CIGS Cells:
- CIGS cells are projected to be better in (cloudy conditions),
- and have achieved a maximum of efficiency of 22% in a lab setting.
- There are also gallium arsenide cells which have high efficiency about 29% in lab
settings.
- However, there are concerns over health concerns with those materials.
18
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Other photovoltaic materials
 Over the last 40 years, researchers and manufacturers have made significant
efficiency improvements, and developed several types of photovoltaic cells like
silicon, CIGS, dye sensitized, and multijunction.
 The best performing cells, become the benchmarks for further improvements. So,
how do these different types of cells compare to one another, and how are they
improved over time?
19
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
20
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Other photovoltaic materials
On graph, we have time on the, from the mid 70's on the X-axis, and the overall cell
efficiency on the Y-axis.
 Silicon efficiency has gone up and remained pretty flat for the last two decades.
 That's because silicon has essentially reached its maximum, and can't get much
better.
 Thin film cells such as CIGS and cadmium telluride have made great improvements
over the years, and it become more and more efficient.
 However, there are concerns with toxicity which limits some of their
commercialization.
 Emerging technologies cells like dye-sensitized solar cells, perovskite, and organic
cells, are making quick gains, but they are many years from being towards
commercialization. 21
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Other photovoltaic materials
 The multijunction cells, show the highest efficiencies, but those cells are mainly in
the lab stage, and at this point are prohibitively expensive for commercial purposes.
 Although there have been some used recently in some highly specialized applications
by NASA for the Dawn space probe in the Mars Rover. You can see a little more
detailed breakdown of the efficiencies of the different types of solar cells over time
in the National Renewable Energy laboratory's graph of solar cell efficiencies.
22
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Other photovoltaic materials
 Efficiency Vs. Cost
 In nearly all cases, efficiency improvements are continuous, but cost inefficiently
tend to be directly related.
 Increased efficiency, typically comes at increased cost.
23
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
 Other photovoltaic materials
Future for commercialized photovoltaics
 Silicon will likely continue to be the primary material for commercial photovoltaics, for the foreseeable future.
 Because there are large quantities of the raw material available, and it's been in production for over 40 years.
 While the electrical and safety concepts are universal. The industry has evolved around working with traditional flat
panels.
 So, that keeps us as using this traditional silicon photovoltaic, as a current market driver.
 Within the crystal and silicon based photovoltaic market:
 Polycrystalline silicon currently has the largest market share, accounting for more than two-thirds of the crystalline silicon-based solar
cell production.
 Polycrystalline silicon will continue to dominate overall photovoltaics markets.
 However, the ratio of monocrystalline to polycrystalline photovoltaics, may vary with changing manufacturing methods and costs, as well
as changes in electricity pricing.
 The introduction of these novel types of solar panels into the commercial market, will likely be limited since silicon based
technology is very well matured.
Note: it's important to keep in mind that, unlike appliances that get energy guide or energy star rating to the United States, or
the European Union energy labels in the EU, there is no universal standard on size, power output or material for the solar
panel.
 You need to research each brand before designing an installation.
24
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
So now, you should be able to:
 Recognize and describe the major components of photovoltaics, which include the cell,
the module or panel, and the array.
 Distinguish between the types of materials used commonly in the solar panels;
monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon.
 Describe the system, how the system convert light to electricity through the semiconductor.
 Recognize some of the other types of photovoltaic cells that are currently being developed.
25
How solar Panel convert light into electricity
Thank you
26

More Related Content

Similar to Lecture 2 .pdf

24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir
24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir
24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasirijaprr_editor
 
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEMSolar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEMNavin Singh
 
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEMSolar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEMNavin Singh
 
Introductionto Solar
Introductionto SolarIntroductionto Solar
Introductionto Solarsanjoysanyal
 
Introductionto Solar
Introductionto SolarIntroductionto Solar
Introductionto Solarsanjoysanyal
 
Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation
Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation
Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation KumudGarg3
 
Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)
Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)
Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)dreamervikas
 
Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)
Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)
Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)slmnsvn
 
Solar pv cells
Solar pv cellsSolar pv cells
Solar pv cellssayantika6
 
Solar pv cells
Solar pv cellsSolar pv cells
Solar pv cellssayantika6
 
Solar energy and PV cells
Solar energy and PV cellsSolar energy and PV cells
Solar energy and PV cellsSurbhi Agarwal
 
SOLAR ENERGY report solar panel photo diode
SOLAR ENERGY  report solar panel photo diodeSOLAR ENERGY  report solar panel photo diode
SOLAR ENERGY report solar panel photo diodeManishkumarMaurya5
 

Similar to Lecture 2 .pdf (20)

solar energy.pptx
solar energy.pptxsolar energy.pptx
solar energy.pptx
 
24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir
24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir
24 ijaprr vol1-3-32-37nasir
 
Solar Energy By Shikha Kushwaha
Solar Energy By Shikha KushwahaSolar Energy By Shikha Kushwaha
Solar Energy By Shikha Kushwaha
 
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEMSolar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
 
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEMSolar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
Solar energy navin pratap singh UCEM
 
Introductionto Solar
Introductionto SolarIntroductionto Solar
Introductionto Solar
 
Introductionto Solar
Introductionto SolarIntroductionto Solar
Introductionto Solar
 
solar cell
solar cellsolar cell
solar cell
 
Solar cell
Solar cellSolar cell
Solar cell
 
Solar energy PV cells
Solar energy PV cellsSolar energy PV cells
Solar energy PV cells
 
Varun sharma solar cell presentation seminar
Varun sharma solar cell presentation seminarVarun sharma solar cell presentation seminar
Varun sharma solar cell presentation seminar
 
Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation
Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation
Flexible Photovoltaic Technology Presentation
 
Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)
Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)
Seminar report on solar tree (by Vikas)
 
Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)
Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)
Pv i v characteristic tester(eee499.blogspot.com)
 
Solar cell
Solar cellSolar cell
Solar cell
 
solar PV
solar PVsolar PV
solar PV
 
Solar pv cells
Solar pv cellsSolar pv cells
Solar pv cells
 
Solar pv cells
Solar pv cellsSolar pv cells
Solar pv cells
 
Solar energy and PV cells
Solar energy and PV cellsSolar energy and PV cells
Solar energy and PV cells
 
SOLAR ENERGY report solar panel photo diode
SOLAR ENERGY  report solar panel photo diodeSOLAR ENERGY  report solar panel photo diode
SOLAR ENERGY report solar panel photo diode
 

More from abdnazar2003

laplace transform 2 .pdf
laplace transform 2                  .pdflaplace transform 2                  .pdf
laplace transform 2 .pdfabdnazar2003
 
laplace transform 1 .pdf
laplace transform 1                 .pdflaplace transform 1                 .pdf
laplace transform 1 .pdfabdnazar2003
 
C. N. II Lec.4.pdf h
C. N. II Lec.4.pdf                      hC. N. II Lec.4.pdf                      h
C. N. II Lec.4.pdf habdnazar2003
 
Lecture 2 Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.ppt
Lecture 2   Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.pptLecture 2   Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.ppt
Lecture 2 Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.pptabdnazar2003
 
Forouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptx
Forouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptxForouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptx
Forouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptxabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfabdnazar2003
 

More from abdnazar2003 (20)

laplace transform 2 .pdf
laplace transform 2                  .pdflaplace transform 2                  .pdf
laplace transform 2 .pdf
 
laplace transform 1 .pdf
laplace transform 1                 .pdflaplace transform 1                 .pdf
laplace transform 1 .pdf
 
Lecture 4 .pdf
Lecture 4                              .pdfLecture 4                              .pdf
Lecture 4 .pdf
 
Lecture 3 .pdf
Lecture   3                         .pdfLecture   3                         .pdf
Lecture 3 .pdf
 
Lecture 2 .pptx
Lecture 2                            .pptxLecture 2                            .pptx
Lecture 2 .pptx
 
Lecture 1 .pptx
Lecture 1                            .pptxLecture 1                            .pptx
Lecture 1 .pptx
 
LEC3 t.pdf
LEC3                               t.pdfLEC3                               t.pdf
LEC3 t.pdf
 
LEC2 j.pdf
LEC2                               j.pdfLEC2                               j.pdf
LEC2 j.pdf
 
LEC1 h.pdf
LEC1                               h.pdfLEC1                               h.pdf
LEC1 h.pdf
 
C. N. II Lec.4.pdf h
C. N. II Lec.4.pdf                      hC. N. II Lec.4.pdf                      h
C. N. II Lec.4.pdf h
 
Lecture 2 Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.ppt
Lecture 2   Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.pptLecture 2   Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.ppt
Lecture 2 Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs.ppt
 
Forouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptx
Forouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptxForouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptx
Forouzan6e_ch06_PPTs_Accessible 2024.pptx
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdfComputer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
Computer Networks/Computer Engineering.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingBootNeck1
 
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptxConcrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptxKartikeyaDwivedi3
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadaditya806802
 
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...121011101441
 
Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective IntroductionSachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective IntroductionDr.Costas Sachpazis
 
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptxIntroduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptxk795866
 
welding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingwelding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingMuhammadUzairLiaqat
 
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)Dr SOUNDIRARAJ N
 
Transport layer issues and challenges - Guide
Transport layer issues and challenges - GuideTransport layer issues and challenges - Guide
Transport layer issues and challenges - GuideGOPINATHS437943
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHIntroduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHC Sai Kiran
 
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdfRisk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdfROCENODodongVILLACER
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catcherssdickerson1
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxsiddharthjain2303
 
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...Amil Baba Dawood bangali
 
IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024
IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024
IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024Mark Billinghurst
 
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsVishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsSachinPawar510423
 
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substationstephanwindworld
 

Recently uploaded (20)

System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
 
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptxConcrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
 
young call girls in Rajiv Chowk🔝 9953056974 🔝 Delhi escort Service
young call girls in Rajiv Chowk🔝 9953056974 🔝 Delhi escort Serviceyoung call girls in Rajiv Chowk🔝 9953056974 🔝 Delhi escort Service
young call girls in Rajiv Chowk🔝 9953056974 🔝 Delhi escort Service
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
 
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
 
Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating System
 
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective IntroductionSachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
 
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptxIntroduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
 
welding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingwelding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the welding
 
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
 
Transport layer issues and challenges - Guide
Transport layer issues and challenges - GuideTransport layer issues and challenges - Guide
Transport layer issues and challenges - Guide
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHIntroduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
 
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdfRisk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
 
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
 
IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024
IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024
IVE Industry Focused Event - Defence Sector 2024
 
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsVishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
 
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
 
young call girls in Green Park🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Service
young call girls in Green Park🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Serviceyoung call girls in Green Park🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Service
young call girls in Green Park🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Service
 

Lecture 2 .pdf

  • 1. Solar Energy How solar Panel convert light into electricity Lecture 2 Dr. Basman M. Hasan Alhafidh Department of Computer Engineering College of Engineering Mosul University
  • 2. Agenda Solar energy basics  Overview of the major sources of energy - Primary Energy Resources - Transformation of Energy - Solar Energy  How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Calculating Energy Efficiency  Electrical and Mechanical components of a solar panel system 2
  • 3. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Photovoltaic cells and modules In the previous slides, you learned about the solar resource, the Sun. That's the largest available energy source on earth, in that we can transform that light energy into electrical energy using photovoltaics or solar panels.  In this lesson, we're going to look more closely at solar panels and how they convert that sunlight into electricity.  By the end of this lesson, you should be able to  Describe the major components of a solar panel,  Distinguish between the different materials that are commonly used in solar panels,  Describe how a semiconductor functions,  and recognize new and emerging types of solar panels. 3
  • 4. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Photovoltaic cells and modules The most common type of photovoltaic we see in the world today are made of the element silicon.  The solar cell is the basic unit of a photovoltaic module or panel.  A single solar cell produces about a half a volt of electricity and up to about eight amps depending on the type of cell.  That's about one-third the voltage of a double A battery. The solar cell consists of a piece of silicon with contacts or electrodes that are put across the surface and on the back. Often, you'll see many smaller contact is connected together by a few, larger contacts on the cell's surface. Now, a half a volt isn't going to be able to do very much. So, cells are connected in series to create what's called a series string Thus, increasing the voltage. This is similar to how batteries are put together in electronics, front to back, front to back, so they add up to a higher voltage. So, for example, you might put two double A batteries into a flashlight, which increases the total voltage to three volts. 4
  • 5. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Photovoltaic cells and modules  Photovoltaic module (Solar Panel): The voltage of the series string is simply the sum of the half volt cells, which in this illustrated example of eight cells would be four volts. The series string is laminated to backing material, sealed in a weather proof plastic coating, and then a cover glass is placed on top, often with an aluminum frame around the edges. This assembly is called the photovoltaic module. - The typical solar panels you see on a home or a commercial building will usually be a lot bigger than our simplified example here, and may contain series strings of 60 or even 72 cells per module. 5
  • 6. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Photovoltaic cells and modules  Photovoltaic array: - When designing a photovoltaic system, photovoltaic modules, also known as panels, we put together in what's called a photovoltaic array. - Just like when the series strings of cells are wired together to make the module, we can also wire modules together in series to increase the voltage of the overall system. - In this case, our four four-volt modules would create 16 volts when connected together in series. - An array of modules is what you're looking at when you see a roof-mounted photovoltaic system or even a ground-mounted system. 6
  • 7. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics Silicon Types: There's some variety to the type of silicon and how it's processed that impacts the overall cost of production in the light to electricity conversion efficiency of the module. 1) Amorphous silicon 2) Polycrystalline silicon 3) Monocrystalline silicon 7
  • 8. How solar Panel convert light into electricity 8
  • 9. How solar Panel convert light into electricity 9
  • 10. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics Silicon Types: There's some variety to the type of silicon and how it's processed that impacts the overall cost of production in the light to electricity conversion efficiency of the module. 1) Amorphous silicon  The least efficient but cheapest to produce.  It has an efficiency of about 5-7% and is not commonly used for commercial photovoltaics.  However, you've probably seen amorphous silicon on the surface of pocket calculators and other small electronic devices. Note: Most commercially available modules are either made of monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon. 10
  • 11. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics 2) Polycrystalline silicon:  Sometimes also referred to as a multicrystalline silicon,  Has a flaky appearance.  It's a little less efficient in converting light to electricity than the monocrystalline silicon in the range of 15-17%,  But it's cheaper to manufacture because it's not as pure or energy-intensive to produce.  The silicon is deposited in a chemical vapor process that forms multiple crystals giving it that characteristic flaky-like appearance.  The ingot can then be sliced into wafers to make photovoltaic cells or serve as the stock for making monocrystalline silicon. 11
  • 12. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics 3) Monocrystalline silicon or single crystal silicon  Is more efficient in converting light to electricity in the range of about 15-22%,  But it's also the most expensive to produce.  The silicon must be first: - melted down and then a seed crystal is attached to a rotating thread or rod, - then grown around the seed and is slowly pulled up into what's called a bowl, which is one single crystal piece of silicon. - That round bowl is then cut into thin slices and that round shape often results in cells with rounded corners or rectangles often seen in those monocrystalline modules.  The overall appearance of silicon is uniform, flat, black and non flaky. 12
  • 13. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics Sunlight conversion into electricity by silicon silicon => semiconductor => electrons can flow or conducted under the right conditions. In both monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon production,  there's also a doping process where impurities are specially added to silicon to slightly alter its conductivity and its charge.  The typical dopants are: - Boron which creates a positive charge. - Phosphorous which creates a negative charge.  The positive charge => p-type material. The negative charge => n-type material. 13
  • 14. How solar Panel convert light into electricity 14
  • 15. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics A cross-section of our solar cell.  As we were down from the surface of the solar cell,  There's a top anti-reflective coating.  There's also the top contacts that will carry the electricity generated from the silicon out of the cell and into the circuit.  Even though we're showing them as two layers, the next two sections are actually one piece of silicon.  The upper part is the n-type region that was doped with phosphorus, and the lower part is the p-type region which was doped with boron.  The area where the n-type and p-type regions meet up is referred to as the np junction.  Lastly, on the bottom, there's another contact that will complete the circuit, => electricity flows from the top through the system and then back to the bottom of the solar cell. 15
  • 16. How solar Panel convert light into electricity 16
  • 17. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Silicon-based Photovoltaics When photons of light hit that photovoltaic cell:  Electrons are ejected from the n-type region, then move into those top contacts through the circuit creating an electrical current.  There's also a positive hole left by the n-region by the absence of that electron. That's when the backfill movement occurs where the electron from the p-region fills the whole left in the n-region.  When the electron returns from the circuit through the bottom contact of the silicon, it fills the positive hole that was left behind in the p-region. 17 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L_q6LRgKpTw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJ8XW9AgUrw
  • 18. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Other photovoltaic materials One of the newer types of photovoltaic materials is Copper, Indium, Gallium, diSelenide, usually referred to by the acronym CIGS. CIGS Cells: - CIGS cells are projected to be better in (cloudy conditions), - and have achieved a maximum of efficiency of 22% in a lab setting. - There are also gallium arsenide cells which have high efficiency about 29% in lab settings. - However, there are concerns over health concerns with those materials. 18
  • 19. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Other photovoltaic materials  Over the last 40 years, researchers and manufacturers have made significant efficiency improvements, and developed several types of photovoltaic cells like silicon, CIGS, dye sensitized, and multijunction.  The best performing cells, become the benchmarks for further improvements. So, how do these different types of cells compare to one another, and how are they improved over time? 19
  • 20. How solar Panel convert light into electricity 20
  • 21. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Other photovoltaic materials On graph, we have time on the, from the mid 70's on the X-axis, and the overall cell efficiency on the Y-axis.  Silicon efficiency has gone up and remained pretty flat for the last two decades.  That's because silicon has essentially reached its maximum, and can't get much better.  Thin film cells such as CIGS and cadmium telluride have made great improvements over the years, and it become more and more efficient.  However, there are concerns with toxicity which limits some of their commercialization.  Emerging technologies cells like dye-sensitized solar cells, perovskite, and organic cells, are making quick gains, but they are many years from being towards commercialization. 21
  • 22. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Other photovoltaic materials  The multijunction cells, show the highest efficiencies, but those cells are mainly in the lab stage, and at this point are prohibitively expensive for commercial purposes.  Although there have been some used recently in some highly specialized applications by NASA for the Dawn space probe in the Mars Rover. You can see a little more detailed breakdown of the efficiencies of the different types of solar cells over time in the National Renewable Energy laboratory's graph of solar cell efficiencies. 22
  • 23. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Other photovoltaic materials  Efficiency Vs. Cost  In nearly all cases, efficiency improvements are continuous, but cost inefficiently tend to be directly related.  Increased efficiency, typically comes at increased cost. 23
  • 24. How solar Panel convert light into electricity  Other photovoltaic materials Future for commercialized photovoltaics  Silicon will likely continue to be the primary material for commercial photovoltaics, for the foreseeable future.  Because there are large quantities of the raw material available, and it's been in production for over 40 years.  While the electrical and safety concepts are universal. The industry has evolved around working with traditional flat panels.  So, that keeps us as using this traditional silicon photovoltaic, as a current market driver.  Within the crystal and silicon based photovoltaic market:  Polycrystalline silicon currently has the largest market share, accounting for more than two-thirds of the crystalline silicon-based solar cell production.  Polycrystalline silicon will continue to dominate overall photovoltaics markets.  However, the ratio of monocrystalline to polycrystalline photovoltaics, may vary with changing manufacturing methods and costs, as well as changes in electricity pricing.  The introduction of these novel types of solar panels into the commercial market, will likely be limited since silicon based technology is very well matured. Note: it's important to keep in mind that, unlike appliances that get energy guide or energy star rating to the United States, or the European Union energy labels in the EU, there is no universal standard on size, power output or material for the solar panel.  You need to research each brand before designing an installation. 24
  • 25. How solar Panel convert light into electricity So now, you should be able to:  Recognize and describe the major components of photovoltaics, which include the cell, the module or panel, and the array.  Distinguish between the types of materials used commonly in the solar panels; monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon.  Describe the system, how the system convert light to electricity through the semiconductor.  Recognize some of the other types of photovoltaic cells that are currently being developed. 25
  • 26. How solar Panel convert light into electricity Thank you 26