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Lecture 3 
Corporate Culture and The Environment
The External Environment 
The elements of the world constantly change 
• The external organizational environment 
includes all outside elements that effect the 
organization 
• General Environment: 
– Outer layer that directly affects organization 
• Task Environment: 
– Sectors that conduct transactions with the 
organization 
• Internal Environment: 
– Elements within the organization boundaries 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2
3.1 The General, Task, and Internal 
Environments 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3
General Environment: International 
• Globalization influences all other aspects of the 
external environment 
– New competitors, customers, suppliers 
– Changes in social, technological, and economic trends 
• All organizations must compete and think globally 
• Economic power has shifted to China and India 
• The global environment is complex and ever-changing 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4
Technological 
 Massive changes for 
organizations 
 The tool for doing business 
 Advances are impacting 
organizations and managers 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5
Sociocultural 
Demographic characteristics, norms, 
customs, and values 
 U.S. Population is aging 
 Large influx of immigrants 
 Generation Y is entering the 
workplace 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6
Economic 
• Economic health of the country/region 
– Extended globally with uncertainty 
• Consumer purchasing power 
• Unemployment rate 
• Economic shift impacted small business 
although there is still vitality in small business 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7
Legal-Political 
• Government regulation; state, local, and federal 
– Political activities 
– Government agencies and regulation 
• Managers must recognize the power of pressure 
groups 
– Work to influence companies to behave in a socially 
responsible way 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8
Natural 
• Growing importance and pressure 
• Organizations must be sensitive to the 
environment 
• Natural dimension does not have own voice 
• Environmental groups advocate action/policy 
– Reduce pollution 
– Develop renewable energy 
– Climate change/global warming 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9
Task Environment 
 Customers 
 Competitors 
 Suppliers 
 Labor Market 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 10
3.2 Environmental 
Performance Index 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 11
Organization-Environment Relationship 
 The environment creates 
uncertainty for managers 
 Managers must respond and 
design adaptive organizations 
 Uncertainty can be managed 
through effectiveness 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 12
3.3 Sample External Environment 
SOURCES: “Chinese Ministry of Railways Chooses Nortel Mobile Network,” M2Presswire 
(January 29, 2008); Nortel Web site, http:www.nortel.com (accessed May 12, 2010); 
J. Weber with A. Reinhardt and P. Burrows, “Racing Ahead at Nortel,” BusinessWeek 
(November 8, 1999): 93–99; “Nortel’s Waffling Continues: First Job Cuts, Then Product 
Lines, and Now the CEO,” Telephony (May 21, 2001): 12; and M. Heinzl, “Nortel’s 
Profits of 499 Million Exceeds Forecast,” The Wall Street Journal, January 30, 2004. 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13
3.4 External Environment 
and Uncertainty 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14
Adapting to the Environment 
 Boundary-spanning roles – link and coordinate 
the organization with external environment, 
seek: 
• Business intelligence 
• Competitive intelligence 
 Interorganizational partnerships – reduce 
boundaries and begin collaborating with other 
organizations 
 Mergers/joint ventures – legal combination of 
operations; legal collaboration for specific 
project 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 15
3.5 The Shift to a 
Partnership Paradigm 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 16
The Internal Environment: Corporate 
Culture 
Corporate culture is the set of key values, beliefs, 
understandings, and norms that members of an 
organization share 
Symbols 
Stories 
Heroes 
Slogans 
Ceremonies 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 17
3.6 Levels of Corporate Culture 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 18
3.7 Four Types of 
Corporate Cultures 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 19
Shaping Corporate Culture for 
Innovative Response 
• Corporate culture plays a key role in 
learning and innovate responses 
• Bottom-line strategies are successful in the 
short-term 
• Successful companies balance culture and 
performance 
• Culture is the “glue” that holds the 
organization together 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20
High Performance Culture 
 Based on solid organizational 
mission/purpose 
 Shared adaptive values that guide 
decisions and practices 
 Encourages individual employee 
ownership 
– Bottom-line results 
– Organization’s culture 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21
3.8 Combining Culture 
and Performance 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 22
Cultural Leadership 
Articulate a vision for the organizational culture 
that employees can believe in 
Heeds the day-to-day activities that reinforce the 
cultural vision 
Leaders communicate through words and actions 
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 23

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Fundamental of Management. Lecture 2

  • 1. Lecture 3 Corporate Culture and The Environment
  • 2. The External Environment The elements of the world constantly change • The external organizational environment includes all outside elements that effect the organization • General Environment: – Outer layer that directly affects organization • Task Environment: – Sectors that conduct transactions with the organization • Internal Environment: – Elements within the organization boundaries Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. 3.1 The General, Task, and Internal Environments Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3
  • 4. General Environment: International • Globalization influences all other aspects of the external environment – New competitors, customers, suppliers – Changes in social, technological, and economic trends • All organizations must compete and think globally • Economic power has shifted to China and India • The global environment is complex and ever-changing Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4
  • 5. Technological  Massive changes for organizations  The tool for doing business  Advances are impacting organizations and managers Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. Sociocultural Demographic characteristics, norms, customs, and values  U.S. Population is aging  Large influx of immigrants  Generation Y is entering the workplace Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6
  • 7. Economic • Economic health of the country/region – Extended globally with uncertainty • Consumer purchasing power • Unemployment rate • Economic shift impacted small business although there is still vitality in small business Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7
  • 8. Legal-Political • Government regulation; state, local, and federal – Political activities – Government agencies and regulation • Managers must recognize the power of pressure groups – Work to influence companies to behave in a socially responsible way Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. Natural • Growing importance and pressure • Organizations must be sensitive to the environment • Natural dimension does not have own voice • Environmental groups advocate action/policy – Reduce pollution – Develop renewable energy – Climate change/global warming Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9
  • 10. Task Environment  Customers  Competitors  Suppliers  Labor Market Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. 3.2 Environmental Performance Index Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Organization-Environment Relationship  The environment creates uncertainty for managers  Managers must respond and design adaptive organizations  Uncertainty can be managed through effectiveness Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. 3.3 Sample External Environment SOURCES: “Chinese Ministry of Railways Chooses Nortel Mobile Network,” M2Presswire (January 29, 2008); Nortel Web site, http:www.nortel.com (accessed May 12, 2010); J. Weber with A. Reinhardt and P. Burrows, “Racing Ahead at Nortel,” BusinessWeek (November 8, 1999): 93–99; “Nortel’s Waffling Continues: First Job Cuts, Then Product Lines, and Now the CEO,” Telephony (May 21, 2001): 12; and M. Heinzl, “Nortel’s Profits of 499 Million Exceeds Forecast,” The Wall Street Journal, January 30, 2004. Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. 3.4 External Environment and Uncertainty Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Adapting to the Environment  Boundary-spanning roles – link and coordinate the organization with external environment, seek: • Business intelligence • Competitive intelligence  Interorganizational partnerships – reduce boundaries and begin collaborating with other organizations  Mergers/joint ventures – legal combination of operations; legal collaboration for specific project Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. 3.5 The Shift to a Partnership Paradigm Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. The Internal Environment: Corporate Culture Corporate culture is the set of key values, beliefs, understandings, and norms that members of an organization share Symbols Stories Heroes Slogans Ceremonies Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. 3.6 Levels of Corporate Culture Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. 3.7 Four Types of Corporate Cultures Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. Shaping Corporate Culture for Innovative Response • Corporate culture plays a key role in learning and innovate responses • Bottom-line strategies are successful in the short-term • Successful companies balance culture and performance • Culture is the “glue” that holds the organization together Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. High Performance Culture  Based on solid organizational mission/purpose  Shared adaptive values that guide decisions and practices  Encourages individual employee ownership – Bottom-line results – Organization’s culture Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21
  • 22. 3.8 Combining Culture and Performance Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. Cultural Leadership Articulate a vision for the organizational culture that employees can believe in Heeds the day-to-day activities that reinforce the cultural vision Leaders communicate through words and actions Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 23