Planning

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  • Planning

    1. 2. <ul><li>“ Planning involves selecting mission and objectives and the actions to achieve them; it requires decision-making that is, choosing from alternative courses of action.” </li></ul><ul><li>Heinz and Koontz </li></ul><ul><li>“ A plan is a trap laid to capture.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Allen </li></ul>Definition
    2. 3. <ul><li>Planning is the process of bridging the gap between where we are and where we want to be in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking before doing is planning. </li></ul>
    3. 4. Nature of planning Current Status Planning Required Gap Desired Status status Time T1 T2
    4. 5. Characteristics of Planning <ul><li>Planning is goal- oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is an intellectual or rational process </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is a primary function </li></ul><ul><li>Planning all- pervasive </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is forward looking </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is a perpetual process </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is an integrated process </li></ul><ul><li>Planning involves choice </li></ul>
    5. 6. Planning Process Analyzing opportunities Reviewing the plans Establishing objectives Determining Planning premises Identification of alternatives Evaluation of alternatives Choice of Alternative plans Formulating of Supporting plans
    6. 7. Types of Planning <ul><li>Plans based on organizational levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term (Strategic) Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium- term Planning 3yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>shifts </li></ul>
    7. 8. Strategic Planning <ul><li>To achieve strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates recourse allocation and priorities </li></ul><ul><li>It involves SWOT Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Generally developed by top management </li></ul><ul><li>Long- term in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain environment </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of information is required </li></ul>
    8. 9. Tactical Planning <ul><li>Aims at achieving tactical or short-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Support the implementation of strategic plans </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Actual getting the things done </li></ul><ul><li>Less risky </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be derived from internal sources </li></ul>
    9. 10. Operational Planning <ul><li>Steps for achieving tactical plans </li></ul><ul><li>Specific, quantitative terms and for day-to-day operations </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by lover-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Time frame is less than a year </li></ul><ul><li>Certain environment </li></ul><ul><li>Operational goals are necessary for the success of tactical and strategic plans </li></ul>
    10. 11. Types of Planning <ul><li>Plans based on frequency of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single- use plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Single-use Plan <ul><li>Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale single-use plans that coordinates a complex set of activities to achieve important non- recurring goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budgets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The expected results of a given future period in numerical terms. It quantifies the plans and established for actual operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps in the precise allocation of duties and effective control and easy implementation of plans. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Standing Plan <ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It specifies the broad parameters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a chronological sequence of steps to be undertaken to achieve an objective. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rule is a statement that spells out what should or should not be done in a particular situation. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Types of Planning <ul><li>Plans based on time frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term Plans </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Linked to long-term objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Direction for action </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul>Making Planning Effective <ul><li>Plans are of little importance, but planning is essential </li></ul>

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