SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Leading Function
 Meaning – influencing the behavior of others
 Leaders and leadership – person - process
 Leadership Theories – trait, behavioural,
contingency/situational, transactional, transformational, goal
path, managerial grid etc..
 Leadership styles – autocratic, democratic, laissez faire,
 Principles of leadership – know yourself and seek to develop
yourself, build a team, lead the team, be technically proficient,
delegate authority, etc….
Management Fundamentals - Chapter
13
1
Management - Chapter 13 2
Leading Function
What is the nature of leadership?
What are the important leadership traits and
behaviors?
What are the contingency theories of
leadership?
What is transformational leadership?
What are current issues in leadership
development?
Management - Chapter 13 3
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Leadership.
– The process of inspiring others to work hard to
accomplish important tasks.
 Contemporary leadership challenges:
– Shorter time frames for accomplishing things.
– Expectations for success on the first attempt.
– Complex, ambiguous, and multidimensional problems.
– Taking a long-term view while meeting short-term
demands.
Management - Chapter 13 4
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
Visionary leadership.
– Vision
• A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order
to improve upon the present state of affairs.
– Visionary leadership
• A leader who brings to the situation a clear and
compelling sense of the future as well as an
understanding of the actions needed to get there
successfully.
Management - Chapter 13 5
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
Meeting the challenges of visionary
leadership:
– Challenge the process.
– Show enthusiasm.
– Help others to act.
– Set the example.
– Celebrate achievements.
Management - Chapter 13 6
Figure 13.1 Leading viewed in relationship
to the other management functions.
Management - Chapter 13 7
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Power.
– Ability to get someone else to do something you want
done or make things happen the way you want.
 Power should be used to influence and control
others for the common good rather seeking to
exercise control for personal satisfaction.
 Two sources of managerial power:
– Position power.
– Personal power.
Management - Chapter 13 8
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Position power.
– Based on a manager’s official status in the
organization’s hierarchy of authority.
 Sources of position power:
– Reward power.
• Capability to offer something of value.
– Coercive power.
• Capability to punish or withhold positive outcomes.
– Legitimate power.
• Organizational position or status confers the right to control
those in subordinate positions.
Management - Chapter 13 9
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Personal power.
– Based on the unique personal qualities that a person
brings to the leadership situation.
 Sources of personal power:
– Expert power.
• Capacity to influence others because of one’s knowledge and
skills.
– Referent power.
• Capacity to influence others because they admire you and want
to identify positively with you.
Management - Chapter 13 10
Figure 13.2 Sources of position power
and personal power used by managers.
Management - Chapter 13 11
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Turning power into influence …
– Successful leadership relies on acquiring and using all
sources of power.
– Use of reward power or legitimate power produces
temporary compliance.
– Use of coercive power produces, at best, temporary
compliance, often accompanied by resentment.
– Use of expert power or referent power has the most
enduring results and generates commitment.
Management - Chapter 13 12
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Keys to building managerial power:
– There is no substitute for expertise.
– Likable personal qualities are very important.
– Effort and hard work breed respect.
– Personal behavior must support expressed values.
 Power and influence are affected by workplace
structures and networks:
– Centrality.
– Criticality.
– Visibility.
Management - Chapter 13 13
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
Acceptance theory of authority.
– For a leader to achieve true influence, the other
person must:
• Truly understand the directive.
• Feel capable of carrying out the directive.
• Believe the directive is in the organization’s best
interests.
• Believe the directive is consistent with personal
values.
Management - Chapter 13 14
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 Leadership and empowerment.
– Empowerment.
• The process through which managers enable and help others to
gain power and achieve influence.
– Effective leaders empower others by providing them
with:
• Information.
• Responsibility.
• Authority.
• Trust.
Management - Chapter 13 15
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
 How leaders can empower others:
– Involve others is selecting their work assignments and task
methods.
– Create an environment of cooperation, information sharing,
discussion, and shared ownership of goals.
– Encourage others to take initiative, make decisions, and use their
knowledge.
– Find out what others think and let them help design solutions.
– Give others the freedom to put their ideas and solutions into
practice.
– Recognize successes and encourage high performance.
Management - Chapter 13 16
Study Question 2: What are the important
leadership traits and behaviors?
 Traits that are important for leadership success:
– Drive
– Self-confidence
– Creativity
– Cognitive ability
– Business knowledge
– Motivation
– Flexibility
– Honesty and integrity
Management - Chapter 13 17
Study Question 1: What is the nature
of leadership?
Leadership behavior …
– Leadership behavior theories focus on how leaders
behave when working with followers.
– Leadership styles are recurring patterns of behaviors
exhibited by leaders.
– Basic dimensions of leadership behaviors:
• Concern for the task to be accomplished.
• Concern for the people doing the work.
Management - Chapter 13 18
Study Question 2: What are the important
leadership traits and behaviors?
 Task concerns
– Plans and defines work to
be done.
– Assigns task
responsibilities.
– Sets clear work standards.
– Urges task completion.
– Monitors performance
results.
 People concerns
– Acts warm and supportive
toward followers.
– Develops social rapport
with followers.
– Respects the feelings of
followers.
– Is sensitive to followers’
needs.
– Shows trust in followers.
Management - Chapter 13 19
Study Question 2: What are the important
leadership traits and behaviors?
 Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid
– Team management.
• High task concern; high people concern.
– Authority-obedience management.
• High task concern; low people concern.
– Country club management.
• High people concern; low task concern.
– Impoverished management.
• Low task concern; low people concern.
– Middle of the road management.
• Non-committal for both task concern and people concern.
Management - Chapter 13 20
Figure 13.3 Managerial styles in Blake
and Mouton’s Leadership Grid.
Management - Chapter 13 21
Study Question 2: What are the important
leadership traits and behaviors?
 Classic leadership styles:
– Autocratic style.
• Emphasizes task over people, keeps authority and information
within the leader’s tight control, and acts in a unilateral
command-and-control fashion.
– Laissez-faire style.
• Shows little concern for task, lets the group make decisions,
and acts with a “do the best you can and don’t bother me”
attitude.
– Democratic style.
• Committed to task and people, getting things done while
sharing information, encouraging participation in decision
making, and helping people develop skills and competencies.
Management - Chapter 13 22
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 Fiedler’s contingency model.
– Good leadership depends on a match between
leadership and situational demands.
– Determining leadership style:
• Low LPC  task-motivated leaders.
• High LPC  relationship-motivated leaders.
– Leadership is part of one’s personality, and therefore
relatively enduring and difficult to change.
– Leadership style must be fit to the situation.
Management - Chapter 13 23
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.).
– Diagnosing situational control:
• Quality of leader-member relations (good or poor).
• Degree of task structure (high or low).
• Amount of position power (strong or weak).
– Task oriented leaders are most successful in:
• Very favorable (high control) situations.
• Very unfavorable (low control) situations.
– Relationship-oriented leaders are most successful in:
• Situations of moderate control.
Management - Chapter 13 24
Figure 13.4 Matching leadership style
and situation: summary predictions from
Fiedler’s contingency theory.
Management - Chapter 13 25
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership
model.
– Leaders adjust their styles depending on the
readiness of their followers to perform in a
given situation.
• Readiness — how able, willing and confident
followers are in performing tasks.
Management - Chapter 13 26
Figure 13.5 Leadership implications of
the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership
model.
Management - Chapter 13 27
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
Hersey-Blanchard leadership styles:
– Delegating.
• Low-task, low-relationship style.
• Works best in high readiness-situations
– Participating.
• Low-task, high-relationship style.
• Works best in low- to moderate-readiness situations.
Management - Chapter 13 28
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
Hersey-Blanchard leadership styles (cont.):
– Selling.
• High-task, high-relationship style.
• Work best in moderate- to high-readiness situations.
– Telling.
• High-task, low-relationship style.
• Work best in low-readiness situations.
Management - Chapter 13 29
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
House’s path-goal leadership theory.
– Effective leadership deals with the paths
through which followers can achieve goals.
– Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal
relationships:
• Directive leadership.
• Supportive leadership.
• Achievement-oriented leadership.
• Participative leadership.
Management - Chapter 13 30
Figure 13.6 Contingency relationships in
the path-goal leadership theory.
Management - Chapter 13 31
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 House’s leadership styles:
– Directive leadership.
• Communicate expectations.
• Give directions.
• Schedule work.
• Maintain performance standards.
• Clarify leader’s role.
– Supportive leadership.
• Make work pleasant.
• Treat group members as equals.
• Be friendly and approachable.
• Show concern for subordinates’ well-being.
Management - Chapter 13 32
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 House’s leadership styles:
– Achievement-oriented leadership.
• Set challenging goals.
• Expect high performance levels.
• Emphasize continuous improvement.
• Display confidence in meeting high standards.
– Participative leadership.
• Involve subordinates in decision making.
• Consult with subordinates.
• Ask for subordinates’ suggestions.
• Use subordinates’ suggestions.
Management - Chapter 13 33
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
When to use House’s leadership styles:
– Use directive leadership when job assignments
are ambiguous.
– Use supportive leadership when worker self-
confidence is low.
– Use participative leadership when performance
incentives are poor.
– Use achievement-oriented leadership when task
challenge is insufficient.
Management - Chapter 13 34
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
Substitutes for leadership.
– Aspects of the work setting and the people
involved that can reduce the need for a leader’s
personal involvement.
– Possible leadership substitutes:
• Subordinate characteristics.
• Task characteristics.
• Organizational characteristics.
Management - Chapter 13 35
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory.
– Helps leaders choose the method of decision
making that best fits the nature of the problem
situation.
– Basic decision-making choices:
• Authority decision.
• Consultative decision.
• Group decision.
Management - Chapter 13 36
Figure 13.7 Leadership implications of
Vroom-Jago leader-participation model.
Management - Chapter 13 37
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
Decision-making options in the Vroom-
Jago leader-participation theory:
– Decide alone.
– Consult individually.
– Consult with group.
– Facilitate.
– Delegate.
Management - Chapter 13 38
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 Contingency factors in the Vroom-Jago leader-
participation theory:
– Decision quality.
• Who has the information needed for problem solving.
– Decision acceptance.
• Importance of subordinate acceptance to eventual
implementation.
– Decision time.
• Time available to make and implement the decision.
Management - Chapter 13 39
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 According to Vroom-Jago leader-participation
theory, a leader should use authority-oriented
decision methods when …
– The leader has greater expertise to solve a problem.
– The leader is confident and capable of acting alone.
– Others are likely to accept and implement the decision.
– Little or no time is available for discussion.
Management - Chapter 13 40
Study Question 3: What are the contingency
theories leadership?
 According to Vroom-Jago leader-participation
theory, a leader should use group-oriented and
participative decision methods when …
– The leader lacks sufficient information to solve a
problem by himself/herself.
– The problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the
situation.
– Acceptance of the decision and commitment by others
is necessary for implementation.
– Adequate time is available for true participation.
Management - Chapter 13 41
Study Question 4: What is transformational
leadership?
 Benefits of participative decision methods:
– Help improve decision quality.
– Help improve decision acceptance.
– Helps develop leadership potential.
 Potential disadvantages of participative decision
methods:
– Lost efficiency.
– Not particularly useful when problems must be solved
immediately.
Management - Chapter 13 42
Study Question 4: What is transformational
leadership?
Superleaders.
– Persons whose vision and strength of
personality have an extraordinary impact on
others.
Charismatic leaders.
– Develop special leader-follower relationships
and inspire others in extraordinary ways.
Management - Chapter 13 43
Study Question 4: What is transformational
leadership?
Transactional leadership.
– Someone who directs the efforts of others
through tasks, rewards, and structures
Transformational leadership.
– Someone who is truly inspirational as a leader
and who arouses others to seek extraordinary
performance accomplishments.
Management - Chapter 13 44
Study Question 4: What is transformational
leadership?
Characteristics of transformational leaders:
– Vision.
– Charisma.
– Symbolism.
– Empowerment.
– Intellectual stimulation.
– Integrity.
Management - Chapter 13 45
Study Question 5: What are current issues in
leadership development?
Emotional intelligence.
– The ability of people to manage themselves and
their relationships effectively.
– Components of emotional intelligence:
• Self-awareness.
• Self-regulation.
• Motivation.
• Empathy.
• Social skill.
Management - Chapter 13 46
Study Question 5: What are current issues in
leadership development?
Gender and leadership.
– Both women and men can be effective leaders.
– Women tend to use interactive leadership.
• A style that shares qualities with transformational
leadership.
– Men tend to use transactional leadership.
– Interactive leadership provides a good fit with
the demands of a diverse workforce and the
new workplace.
Management - Chapter 13 47
Study Question 5: What are current issues in
leadership development?
Gender and leadership (cont.).
– Future leadership success will depend on a
person’s capacity to lead through :
• Openness.
• Positive relationships.
• Support.
• Empowerment.
Management - Chapter 13 48
Study Question 5: What are current issues in
leadership development?
Drucker’s “old-fashioned” leadership.
– Leadership is more than charisma; it is “good
old-fashioned” hard work.
– Essentials of “old-fashioned” leadership:
• Defining and establishing a sense of mission.
• Accepting leadership as a “responsibility” rather
than a rank.
• Earning and keeping the trust of others.
Management - Chapter 13 49
Study Question 5: What are current issues in
leadership development?
 Moral leadership.
– Ethical leadership adheres to moral standards meeting
the test of “good” rather than “bad” and “right” rather
than “wrong.”
– All leaders are expected to maintain high ethical
standards.
– Long-term, sustainable success requires ethical
behavior.
– Integrity involves the leader’s honesty, credibility, and
consistency in putting values into action.
Management - Chapter 13 50
Study Question 5: What are current issues in
leadership development?
 Moral leadership (cont.).
– Leaders with integrity earn the trust of their followers.
– Leaders have a moral obligation to build performance
capacities by awakening people’s potential.
– Authentic leadership activates performance through the
positive psychological states of confidence, hope,
optimism, and resilience.
– Authentic leadership helps in clearly framing and
responding to moral dilemmas, and serving as ethical
role models.
Management Fundamentals - Chapter
13
51
Welcome to the presentation on
“Leadership Styles”
A leader is one who inspires,
motivates and leads people to
accomplish organizational goals
Leadership is all about
influencing a group of people
Characteristics of effective leader
Take the challenges to grow
Take
calculated
risks
Adopt the leadership style that fits
you and your personality
Have courage at the time of
controversies
Accept their mistakes
Communicate frequently
Be approachable
Understand the situation
and the fact
Essential requisites of
leadership are
Trust
Collaboration
Confidence
Competence
Competitive Spirit
How do you define leadership
style?
Types of Leadership Styles
1. Democratic/ Participative
Leadership Style
When to use Democratic
Leadership Style?
Team Agreement is needed
Greater motivation and
commitment
Knowledgeable and skillful team
members
Limitation of Democratic
Leadership Style
It is a time consuming affair
2. Autocratic Leadership
Style
When to use Autocratic
Leadership Style?
When quick decisions are
needed
No need for others input
Team agreement is not
necessary
When high level of
management control is needed
Limitations of Autocratic
Leadership
Employees cannot question
decisions
Little opportunity to give
suggestions
3. Laissez-Faire/ Free Rein
Leadership Style
When to use Laissez Faire/
Free Rein Style?
When the team is highly
capable
When team members are able
to analyze the situation
When close monitoring of a
decision is not needed
When there is full trust and
confidence in the team
members
Limitations of Laissez Faire/
Free Rein Leadership Style
Not suitable for lesser
experienced employees
Lack of motivation
Poor productivity
What are the factors for
selecting leadership style?
Objectives that need to be achieved
Followers
Situation
Apply the appropriate
leadership style and
techniques
Leadership style is the approach for
providing the right way to the team
members, implementing planning
strategies and motivating people by
including all the three leadership
styles.
Effective leadership is not
about making speeches or
being liked; leadership is
defined by results not
attributes.
Peter
Drucker
Management Fundamentals - Chapter
13
105
Leadership Theories
Theories
 Trait Approach
 Skills Approach
 Style Approach
 Situational Approach
 Contingency Theory
 Path-Goal Theory
 Leader Member
Exchange
 Transformational
 Transactional
 Team Leadership
Style Approach
Emphasizes the behavior of the leader
Style approach seeks to explain how leaders
combine task and relationship behaviors to
influence subordinates in their efforts to reach a
goal.
Style Approach reminds leaders that their
actions toward others occur on a task level and a
relationship level. Some situations demand
more task orientated style and others a more
relationship style based orientation.
Style Theory
Two General kinds of behaviors
– Task behaviors - facilitate goal
accomplishment
– Relationship behaviors - help
subordinates feel comfortable with
themselves, with each other, and with the
situation they find themselves
Style Approach
Ohio State
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire
(LBDQ) - composed of 150 questions
Found that there are two general types of
leader behavior
Initiating structure - task behaviors
Consideration- relationship behaviors
Style Approach
 University of Michigan Studies
Research identified two types of leadership behaviors
Employee orientation- behavior of leaders who
approach subordinates with strong human
relations emphasis (similar to consideration)
Production orientation- leadership behaviors
that stress the technical and production aspects
of a job (similar to production orientation)
Style Approach
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
 9,1 Authority compliance- heavy emphasis on task
and job requirements and less emphasis on people
 1,9 Country Club Management- low concern for task
accomplishment coupled with high concern for
interpersonal relationships
 1,1 Impoverished Management- unconcerned with
both task and interpersonal relationships
 5,5 Middle of the Road Management- leaders who are
compromisers
 9,9 Team Management- strong emphasis on both tasks
and interpersonal relationships
Style Approach
 Pros
– Expanded research to include what leaders did and how
they acted
– Research has been validated by several studies and
researchers
– Task and relationship behaviors work together to form
the core of the leadership process
– Leaders can learn a lot about themselves by looking at
their behaviors in the light of task and relationship
dimensions
Style Approach
Cons
– Research has not shown the connection from
leader’s styles to performance outcomes
– Theory fails to find a universal style of
leadership that could be effective in almost
every situation
– Theory implies that 9,9 is most effective
leadership style however that may not be the
case in all situations
Situational
Approach
Situational Approach
 Focuses on leadership in situations
 Composed of a directive and supportive dimension
 A leader must match his or her style to the competence
and commitment of the subordinates.
 Effective leaders are those who can recognize what
employees need and then adapt their own style to meet
those needs
 Effective leadership occurs when the leader can
accurately diagnose the development level of the
subordinates in a task situation and then exhibit the
prescribed leadership style that matches that situation
Situational Approach
Directive Behavior
helps group members accomplish goals by
giving directions, defining roles, setting time
lines, evaluating and showing how goals will be
met.
Explains what is to be done, how it is to be
done, and who is responsible for doing it
One way communication
Situational Approach
Supportive Behavior
helps coworkers feel comfortable
about themselves, their coworkers and
the situation.
Asking for input, praising, listening,
sharing information about oneself
Two way communication
Situational approach
Four Leadership Styles
High supportive High Directive and
And low directive High Supportive
Behavior Behavior
(Supporting) (Coaching)
Low Supportive and High Directive and
Low Directive Behavior low supportive
(Delegating) Behavior
(Directing)
↑
S
U
P
P
O
R
T
I
V
E
↓
←Directive Behavior→
Situational approach
Four Development Levels
Low competence variable competence
and some commitment and high
commitment
High commitment and High commitment and
high competence some competence
↑
H
I
G
H
L
O
W
↓ ←Developed Developing→
High Moderate Low
Situational Approach
Constructed around the idea that employees
move forward and backward along the
developmental continuum
In any situation the leader must first determine
the nature of the situation
– Leader asks him/herself questions like:
What is the task I need to ask the subordinates
complete?
How complex is the task?
Are the subordinates sufficiently skilled to complete
the task?
Situational Leadership: A Brief
Questionnaire
Situation 1:
Because of budget restrictions imposed on your department it is
necessary to consolidate. You are thinking of asking a highly
capable and experience member of your department to take charge
of the consolidation. This person has worked in all areas of your
department and has the trust and respect of most of the staff. She is
willing to help with the consolidation.
A. Assign the project to her and let her determine how to accomplish it
B. Assign the task to her, indicate to her precisely what must be done,
and supervise her work closely.
C. Assign the task to her and provide support and encouragement as
needed.
D. Assign the task to her and indicate to her precisely what needs to be
done and make sure you incorporate her suggestions
Situational Approach
Pros
– Has stood the test of time in the marketplace
• More than 400 fortune 500 companies use it in training
programs
– It is practical and has straight forward approach
– It is prescriptive – it tells you what you should and
should not do in various contexts
– Emphases leader flexibility – leaders need to find
out about their subordinates needs and adapt their
style accordingly
– Forces leader to treat each subordinate differently
based on the task at hand
Situational Approach
Cons
– Only a few research studies have been completed on
this approach
– Not a clear connection between commitment and
competency or how this is determined
– Why do subordinates who learn a task (become
more competent) become less committed?
– Fails to take into account certain demographics
(education, experience, age, and gender)
– Also fails to address how one on one leadership vs
group leadership is taken into account- Should the
leader match each subordinate or the overall group

More Related Content

Similar to Leading Function.ppt

Chapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdf
Chapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdfChapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdf
Chapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdf
abdulfetah2
 
Megat on Leadership
Megat on LeadershipMegat on Leadership
Megat on Leadership
TrainingandCoaching Trainer
 
leadership.ppt
leadership.pptleadership.ppt
leadership.ppt
RenieHernandez1
 
leadership (1).ppt
leadership (1).pptleadership (1).ppt
leadership (1).ppt
RenieHernandez1
 
Leadership
Leadership Leadership
Leadership
Swagat Rath
 
Chapter 17 Leadership New.ppt
Chapter 17 Leadership New.pptChapter 17 Leadership New.ppt
Chapter 17 Leadership New.ppt
MehediHasan636262
 
Entreprenuer
EntreprenuerEntreprenuer
Entreprenuer
Angel Pari
 
Leadership (1)
Leadership (1)Leadership (1)
Leadership (1)
Subhash Mandal
 
Ongamo joe marshal - basic approaches to leadership
Ongamo joe marshal -  basic approaches to leadershipOngamo joe marshal -  basic approaches to leadership
Ongamo joe marshal - basic approaches to leadership
OngamoJoeMarshal
 
OB unit 3 (Leadership).pptx
OB unit 3 (Leadership).pptxOB unit 3 (Leadership).pptx
OB unit 3 (Leadership).pptx
KarunaNishanrao
 
Session 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptx
Session 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptxSession 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptx
Session 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptx
ssuserde1c26
 
Chapter #08
Chapter #08Chapter #08
Leadership
LeadershipLeadership
Leadership
Ruth Ascuna
 
Leadership Theories Definition
Leadership Theories DefinitionLeadership Theories Definition
Leadership Theories Definition
Emre Dirlik
 
Leadership management chapter 7
Leadership management  chapter 7Leadership management  chapter 7
Leadership management chapter 7
Rudra Poudel(susil)
 
leadejagagajanrship.pptx
leadejagagajanrship.pptxleadejagagajanrship.pptx
leadejagagajanrship.pptx
KomalPatil963018
 
Leadership - HBO
Leadership - HBOLeadership - HBO
Leadership - HBO
Neens Cabrera
 
LEADERSHIP.pptx
LEADERSHIP.pptxLEADERSHIP.pptx
LEADERSHIP.pptx
Pargianshu
 
8. leadership
8. leadership8. leadership
8. leadership
VJTI Production
 
C12_13_leadership.ppt
C12_13_leadership.pptC12_13_leadership.ppt
C12_13_leadership.ppt
souravB3
 

Similar to Leading Function.ppt (20)

Chapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdf
Chapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdfChapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdf
Chapter 5-Leadership and Motivation.pdf
 
Megat on Leadership
Megat on LeadershipMegat on Leadership
Megat on Leadership
 
leadership.ppt
leadership.pptleadership.ppt
leadership.ppt
 
leadership (1).ppt
leadership (1).pptleadership (1).ppt
leadership (1).ppt
 
Leadership
Leadership Leadership
Leadership
 
Chapter 17 Leadership New.ppt
Chapter 17 Leadership New.pptChapter 17 Leadership New.ppt
Chapter 17 Leadership New.ppt
 
Entreprenuer
EntreprenuerEntreprenuer
Entreprenuer
 
Leadership (1)
Leadership (1)Leadership (1)
Leadership (1)
 
Ongamo joe marshal - basic approaches to leadership
Ongamo joe marshal -  basic approaches to leadershipOngamo joe marshal -  basic approaches to leadership
Ongamo joe marshal - basic approaches to leadership
 
OB unit 3 (Leadership).pptx
OB unit 3 (Leadership).pptxOB unit 3 (Leadership).pptx
OB unit 3 (Leadership).pptx
 
Session 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptx
Session 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptxSession 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptx
Session 2 - Early Leadership Theories.pptx
 
Chapter #08
Chapter #08Chapter #08
Chapter #08
 
Leadership
LeadershipLeadership
Leadership
 
Leadership Theories Definition
Leadership Theories DefinitionLeadership Theories Definition
Leadership Theories Definition
 
Leadership management chapter 7
Leadership management  chapter 7Leadership management  chapter 7
Leadership management chapter 7
 
leadejagagajanrship.pptx
leadejagagajanrship.pptxleadejagagajanrship.pptx
leadejagagajanrship.pptx
 
Leadership - HBO
Leadership - HBOLeadership - HBO
Leadership - HBO
 
LEADERSHIP.pptx
LEADERSHIP.pptxLEADERSHIP.pptx
LEADERSHIP.pptx
 
8. leadership
8. leadership8. leadership
8. leadership
 
C12_13_leadership.ppt
C12_13_leadership.pptC12_13_leadership.ppt
C12_13_leadership.ppt
 

More from Teshome48

installandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptx
installandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptxinstallandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptx
installandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptx
Teshome48
 
Chapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptx
Chapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptxChapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptx
Chapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptx
Teshome48
 
Chapter 1 Overview of OB.ppt
Chapter 1 Overview of OB.pptChapter 1 Overview of OB.ppt
Chapter 1 Overview of OB.ppt
Teshome48
 
Chapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.ppt
Chapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.pptChapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.ppt
Chapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.ppt
Teshome48
 
Chapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptx
Chapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptxChapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptx
Chapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptx
Teshome48
 
Chapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptx
Chapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptxChapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptx
Chapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptx
Teshome48
 
Chapter 2 Globalization.pptx
Chapter 2 Globalization.pptxChapter 2 Globalization.pptx
Chapter 2 Globalization.pptx
Teshome48
 
Research Methodology(1).pptx
Research Methodology(1).pptxResearch Methodology(1).pptx
Research Methodology(1).pptx
Teshome48
 
Entrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptx
Entrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptxEntrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptx
Entrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptx
Teshome48
 
QA CHAPTER I.pptx
QA CHAPTER I.pptxQA CHAPTER I.pptx
QA CHAPTER I.pptx
Teshome48
 
Operations Management PPT RVU 2022.ppt
Operations Management  PPT RVU   2022.pptOperations Management  PPT RVU   2022.ppt
Operations Management PPT RVU 2022.ppt
Teshome48
 
Zelalem final power point..pptx
Zelalem final power point..pptxZelalem final power point..pptx
Zelalem final power point..pptx
Teshome48
 
QA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdf
QA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdfQA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdf
QA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdf
Teshome48
 
is chap 6.pptx
is chap 6.pptxis chap 6.pptx
is chap 6.pptx
Teshome48
 
Data Link Control.ppt
Data Link Control.pptData Link Control.ppt
Data Link Control.ppt
Teshome48
 
Chapter 2Management Theories.ppt
Chapter 2Management Theories.pptChapter 2Management Theories.ppt
Chapter 2Management Theories.ppt
Teshome48
 
journal.docx
journal.docxjournal.docx
journal.docx
Teshome48
 
amtreuf.docx
amtreuf.docxamtreuf.docx
amtreuf.docx
Teshome48
 
fra'ool ass.pptx
fra'ool ass.pptxfra'ool ass.pptx
fra'ool ass.pptx
Teshome48
 
ababa pre.pptx
ababa pre.pptxababa pre.pptx
ababa pre.pptx
Teshome48
 

More from Teshome48 (20)

installandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptx
installandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptxinstallandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptx
installandmanagenetworkprotocols.pptx
 
Chapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptx
Chapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptxChapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptx
Chapter 4 EThics, CSR, Sustainability, & Governance.pptx
 
Chapter 1 Overview of OB.ppt
Chapter 1 Overview of OB.pptChapter 1 Overview of OB.ppt
Chapter 1 Overview of OB.ppt
 
Chapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.ppt
Chapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.pptChapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.ppt
Chapter 5 The External, Industry, and Competitive Analysis.ppt
 
Chapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptx
Chapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptxChapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptx
Chapter_5_New_Market_Segmentation,_Targeting_and_Positioning.pptx
 
Chapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptx
Chapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptxChapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptx
Chapter 1_ Overview of International Business.pptx
 
Chapter 2 Globalization.pptx
Chapter 2 Globalization.pptxChapter 2 Globalization.pptx
Chapter 2 Globalization.pptx
 
Research Methodology(1).pptx
Research Methodology(1).pptxResearch Methodology(1).pptx
Research Methodology(1).pptx
 
Entrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptx
Entrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptxEntrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptx
Entrepreneurship PPT - Yohannes.pptx
 
QA CHAPTER I.pptx
QA CHAPTER I.pptxQA CHAPTER I.pptx
QA CHAPTER I.pptx
 
Operations Management PPT RVU 2022.ppt
Operations Management  PPT RVU   2022.pptOperations Management  PPT RVU   2022.ppt
Operations Management PPT RVU 2022.ppt
 
Zelalem final power point..pptx
Zelalem final power point..pptxZelalem final power point..pptx
Zelalem final power point..pptx
 
QA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdf
QA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdfQA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdf
QA CHAPTER III and IV(1)(1).pdf
 
is chap 6.pptx
is chap 6.pptxis chap 6.pptx
is chap 6.pptx
 
Data Link Control.ppt
Data Link Control.pptData Link Control.ppt
Data Link Control.ppt
 
Chapter 2Management Theories.ppt
Chapter 2Management Theories.pptChapter 2Management Theories.ppt
Chapter 2Management Theories.ppt
 
journal.docx
journal.docxjournal.docx
journal.docx
 
amtreuf.docx
amtreuf.docxamtreuf.docx
amtreuf.docx
 
fra'ool ass.pptx
fra'ool ass.pptxfra'ool ass.pptx
fra'ool ass.pptx
 
ababa pre.pptx
ababa pre.pptxababa pre.pptx
ababa pre.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...
Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...
Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...
itnewsafrica
 
PAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
lawrenceads01
 
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdfTop Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top IT Marketing
 
Cryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with Rivals
Cryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with RivalsCryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with Rivals
Cryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with Rivals
Any kyc Account
 
NewBase 05 July 2024 Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   05 July 2024  Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   05 July 2024  Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 05 July 2024 Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
Khaled Al Awadi
 
PETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
lawrenceads01
 
1234567891011121314151617181920212223242
12345678910111213141516171819202122232421234567891011121314151617181920212223242
1234567891011121314151617181920212223242
fauzanal343
 
Satta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatka
Satta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatkaSatta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatka
Satta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatka
➑➌➋➑➒➎➑➑➊➍
 
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
dimplekumaridk322
 
MEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final Presentation
MEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final PresentationMEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final Presentation
MEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final Presentation
PhysicsUtu
 
Managing Customer & User Experience of Customers
Managing Customer & User Experience of CustomersManaging Customer & User Experience of Customers
Managing Customer & User Experience of Customers
SalmanTahir60
 
Mandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your role
Mandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your roleMandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your role
Mandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your role
khidalgo2
 
Case study on Indian Ecommerce logistics
Case study on Indian Ecommerce logisticsCase study on Indian Ecommerce logistics
Case study on Indian Ecommerce logistics
UnheardShayari
 
PETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
lawrenceads01
 
Transforming the Future of Limo Services.pptx
Transforming the Future of Limo Services.pptxTransforming the Future of Limo Services.pptx
Transforming the Future of Limo Services.pptx
limocaptaincom
 
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
Auxis Consulting & Outsourcing
 
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptxCracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Workforce Group
 
A STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND OF BANK OF INDIA .pdf
A STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND  OF BANK OF INDIA .pdfA STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND  OF BANK OF INDIA .pdf
A STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND OF BANK OF INDIA .pdf
rsonics22
 
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
projectseasy
 
Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...
Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...
Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...
Rajesh Math
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...
Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...
Anton Grutzmache- Ominisient: The Data Revolution in Banking: From Scoring Cr...
 
PAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PAWFESSIONAL ELVA MAX.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
 
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdfTop Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
 
Cryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with Rivals
Cryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with RivalsCryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with Rivals
Cryptocurrency KYC Policies: Comparing Binance KYC Bypass with Rivals
 
NewBase 05 July 2024 Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   05 July 2024  Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   05 July 2024  Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 05 July 2024 Energy News issue - 1736 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
 
PETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT MICHAEL TAY.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
 
1234567891011121314151617181920212223242
12345678910111213141516171819202122232421234567891011121314151617181920212223242
1234567891011121314151617181920212223242
 
Satta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatka
Satta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatkaSatta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatka
Satta matka guessing Kalyan result sattamatka
 
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
 
MEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final Presentation
MEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final PresentationMEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final Presentation
MEA Union Budget 2024-25 Final Presentation
 
Managing Customer & User Experience of Customers
Managing Customer & User Experience of CustomersManaging Customer & User Experience of Customers
Managing Customer & User Experience of Customers
 
Mandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your role
Mandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your roleMandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your role
Mandated reporting powerpoint to help with understanding your role
 
Case study on Indian Ecommerce logistics
Case study on Indian Ecommerce logisticsCase study on Indian Ecommerce logistics
Case study on Indian Ecommerce logistics
 
PETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PETAVIT SIP-05.pdfAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
 
Transforming the Future of Limo Services.pptx
Transforming the Future of Limo Services.pptxTransforming the Future of Limo Services.pptx
Transforming the Future of Limo Services.pptx
 
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
 
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptxCracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
 
A STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND OF BANK OF INDIA .pdf
A STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND  OF BANK OF INDIA .pdfA STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND  OF BANK OF INDIA .pdf
A STUDY OF MUTUAL FUND OF BANK OF INDIA .pdf
 
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
 
Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...
Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...
Travel Tech Pitch Deck | ByeByeCity,com - Short Breaks Discovery & Booking Pl...
 

Leading Function.ppt

  • 1. Leading Function  Meaning – influencing the behavior of others  Leaders and leadership – person - process  Leadership Theories – trait, behavioural, contingency/situational, transactional, transformational, goal path, managerial grid etc..  Leadership styles – autocratic, democratic, laissez faire,  Principles of leadership – know yourself and seek to develop yourself, build a team, lead the team, be technically proficient, delegate authority, etc…. Management Fundamentals - Chapter 13 1
  • 2. Management - Chapter 13 2 Leading Function What is the nature of leadership? What are the important leadership traits and behaviors? What are the contingency theories of leadership? What is transformational leadership? What are current issues in leadership development?
  • 3. Management - Chapter 13 3 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Leadership. – The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks.  Contemporary leadership challenges: – Shorter time frames for accomplishing things. – Expectations for success on the first attempt. – Complex, ambiguous, and multidimensional problems. – Taking a long-term view while meeting short-term demands.
  • 4. Management - Chapter 13 4 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership? Visionary leadership. – Vision • A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs. – Visionary leadership • A leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future as well as an understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully.
  • 5. Management - Chapter 13 5 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership? Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership: – Challenge the process. – Show enthusiasm. – Help others to act. – Set the example. – Celebrate achievements.
  • 6. Management - Chapter 13 6 Figure 13.1 Leading viewed in relationship to the other management functions.
  • 7. Management - Chapter 13 7 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Power. – Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want.  Power should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction.  Two sources of managerial power: – Position power. – Personal power.
  • 8. Management - Chapter 13 8 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Position power. – Based on a manager’s official status in the organization’s hierarchy of authority.  Sources of position power: – Reward power. • Capability to offer something of value. – Coercive power. • Capability to punish or withhold positive outcomes. – Legitimate power. • Organizational position or status confers the right to control those in subordinate positions.
  • 9. Management - Chapter 13 9 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Personal power. – Based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership situation.  Sources of personal power: – Expert power. • Capacity to influence others because of one’s knowledge and skills. – Referent power. • Capacity to influence others because they admire you and want to identify positively with you.
  • 10. Management - Chapter 13 10 Figure 13.2 Sources of position power and personal power used by managers.
  • 11. Management - Chapter 13 11 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Turning power into influence … – Successful leadership relies on acquiring and using all sources of power. – Use of reward power or legitimate power produces temporary compliance. – Use of coercive power produces, at best, temporary compliance, often accompanied by resentment. – Use of expert power or referent power has the most enduring results and generates commitment.
  • 12. Management - Chapter 13 12 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Keys to building managerial power: – There is no substitute for expertise. – Likable personal qualities are very important. – Effort and hard work breed respect. – Personal behavior must support expressed values.  Power and influence are affected by workplace structures and networks: – Centrality. – Criticality. – Visibility.
  • 13. Management - Chapter 13 13 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership? Acceptance theory of authority. – For a leader to achieve true influence, the other person must: • Truly understand the directive. • Feel capable of carrying out the directive. • Believe the directive is in the organization’s best interests. • Believe the directive is consistent with personal values.
  • 14. Management - Chapter 13 14 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  Leadership and empowerment. – Empowerment. • The process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence. – Effective leaders empower others by providing them with: • Information. • Responsibility. • Authority. • Trust.
  • 15. Management - Chapter 13 15 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?  How leaders can empower others: – Involve others is selecting their work assignments and task methods. – Create an environment of cooperation, information sharing, discussion, and shared ownership of goals. – Encourage others to take initiative, make decisions, and use their knowledge. – Find out what others think and let them help design solutions. – Give others the freedom to put their ideas and solutions into practice. – Recognize successes and encourage high performance.
  • 16. Management - Chapter 13 16 Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?  Traits that are important for leadership success: – Drive – Self-confidence – Creativity – Cognitive ability – Business knowledge – Motivation – Flexibility – Honesty and integrity
  • 17. Management - Chapter 13 17 Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership? Leadership behavior … – Leadership behavior theories focus on how leaders behave when working with followers. – Leadership styles are recurring patterns of behaviors exhibited by leaders. – Basic dimensions of leadership behaviors: • Concern for the task to be accomplished. • Concern for the people doing the work.
  • 18. Management - Chapter 13 18 Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?  Task concerns – Plans and defines work to be done. – Assigns task responsibilities. – Sets clear work standards. – Urges task completion. – Monitors performance results.  People concerns – Acts warm and supportive toward followers. – Develops social rapport with followers. – Respects the feelings of followers. – Is sensitive to followers’ needs. – Shows trust in followers.
  • 19. Management - Chapter 13 19 Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?  Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid – Team management. • High task concern; high people concern. – Authority-obedience management. • High task concern; low people concern. – Country club management. • High people concern; low task concern. – Impoverished management. • Low task concern; low people concern. – Middle of the road management. • Non-committal for both task concern and people concern.
  • 20. Management - Chapter 13 20 Figure 13.3 Managerial styles in Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid.
  • 21. Management - Chapter 13 21 Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?  Classic leadership styles: – Autocratic style. • Emphasizes task over people, keeps authority and information within the leader’s tight control, and acts in a unilateral command-and-control fashion. – Laissez-faire style. • Shows little concern for task, lets the group make decisions, and acts with a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude. – Democratic style. • Committed to task and people, getting things done while sharing information, encouraging participation in decision making, and helping people develop skills and competencies.
  • 22. Management - Chapter 13 22 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  Fiedler’s contingency model. – Good leadership depends on a match between leadership and situational demands. – Determining leadership style: • Low LPC  task-motivated leaders. • High LPC  relationship-motivated leaders. – Leadership is part of one’s personality, and therefore relatively enduring and difficult to change. – Leadership style must be fit to the situation.
  • 23. Management - Chapter 13 23 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.). – Diagnosing situational control: • Quality of leader-member relations (good or poor). • Degree of task structure (high or low). • Amount of position power (strong or weak). – Task oriented leaders are most successful in: • Very favorable (high control) situations. • Very unfavorable (low control) situations. – Relationship-oriented leaders are most successful in: • Situations of moderate control.
  • 24. Management - Chapter 13 24 Figure 13.4 Matching leadership style and situation: summary predictions from Fiedler’s contingency theory.
  • 25. Management - Chapter 13 25 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model. – Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation. • Readiness — how able, willing and confident followers are in performing tasks.
  • 26. Management - Chapter 13 26 Figure 13.5 Leadership implications of the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model.
  • 27. Management - Chapter 13 27 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? Hersey-Blanchard leadership styles: – Delegating. • Low-task, low-relationship style. • Works best in high readiness-situations – Participating. • Low-task, high-relationship style. • Works best in low- to moderate-readiness situations.
  • 28. Management - Chapter 13 28 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? Hersey-Blanchard leadership styles (cont.): – Selling. • High-task, high-relationship style. • Work best in moderate- to high-readiness situations. – Telling. • High-task, low-relationship style. • Work best in low-readiness situations.
  • 29. Management - Chapter 13 29 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? House’s path-goal leadership theory. – Effective leadership deals with the paths through which followers can achieve goals. – Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal relationships: • Directive leadership. • Supportive leadership. • Achievement-oriented leadership. • Participative leadership.
  • 30. Management - Chapter 13 30 Figure 13.6 Contingency relationships in the path-goal leadership theory.
  • 31. Management - Chapter 13 31 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  House’s leadership styles: – Directive leadership. • Communicate expectations. • Give directions. • Schedule work. • Maintain performance standards. • Clarify leader’s role. – Supportive leadership. • Make work pleasant. • Treat group members as equals. • Be friendly and approachable. • Show concern for subordinates’ well-being.
  • 32. Management - Chapter 13 32 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  House’s leadership styles: – Achievement-oriented leadership. • Set challenging goals. • Expect high performance levels. • Emphasize continuous improvement. • Display confidence in meeting high standards. – Participative leadership. • Involve subordinates in decision making. • Consult with subordinates. • Ask for subordinates’ suggestions. • Use subordinates’ suggestions.
  • 33. Management - Chapter 13 33 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? When to use House’s leadership styles: – Use directive leadership when job assignments are ambiguous. – Use supportive leadership when worker self- confidence is low. – Use participative leadership when performance incentives are poor. – Use achievement-oriented leadership when task challenge is insufficient.
  • 34. Management - Chapter 13 34 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? Substitutes for leadership. – Aspects of the work setting and the people involved that can reduce the need for a leader’s personal involvement. – Possible leadership substitutes: • Subordinate characteristics. • Task characteristics. • Organizational characteristics.
  • 35. Management - Chapter 13 35 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory. – Helps leaders choose the method of decision making that best fits the nature of the problem situation. – Basic decision-making choices: • Authority decision. • Consultative decision. • Group decision.
  • 36. Management - Chapter 13 36 Figure 13.7 Leadership implications of Vroom-Jago leader-participation model.
  • 37. Management - Chapter 13 37 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership? Decision-making options in the Vroom- Jago leader-participation theory: – Decide alone. – Consult individually. – Consult with group. – Facilitate. – Delegate.
  • 38. Management - Chapter 13 38 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  Contingency factors in the Vroom-Jago leader- participation theory: – Decision quality. • Who has the information needed for problem solving. – Decision acceptance. • Importance of subordinate acceptance to eventual implementation. – Decision time. • Time available to make and implement the decision.
  • 39. Management - Chapter 13 39 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  According to Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory, a leader should use authority-oriented decision methods when … – The leader has greater expertise to solve a problem. – The leader is confident and capable of acting alone. – Others are likely to accept and implement the decision. – Little or no time is available for discussion.
  • 40. Management - Chapter 13 40 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories leadership?  According to Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory, a leader should use group-oriented and participative decision methods when … – The leader lacks sufficient information to solve a problem by himself/herself. – The problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the situation. – Acceptance of the decision and commitment by others is necessary for implementation. – Adequate time is available for true participation.
  • 41. Management - Chapter 13 41 Study Question 4: What is transformational leadership?  Benefits of participative decision methods: – Help improve decision quality. – Help improve decision acceptance. – Helps develop leadership potential.  Potential disadvantages of participative decision methods: – Lost efficiency. – Not particularly useful when problems must be solved immediately.
  • 42. Management - Chapter 13 42 Study Question 4: What is transformational leadership? Superleaders. – Persons whose vision and strength of personality have an extraordinary impact on others. Charismatic leaders. – Develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire others in extraordinary ways.
  • 43. Management - Chapter 13 43 Study Question 4: What is transformational leadership? Transactional leadership. – Someone who directs the efforts of others through tasks, rewards, and structures Transformational leadership. – Someone who is truly inspirational as a leader and who arouses others to seek extraordinary performance accomplishments.
  • 44. Management - Chapter 13 44 Study Question 4: What is transformational leadership? Characteristics of transformational leaders: – Vision. – Charisma. – Symbolism. – Empowerment. – Intellectual stimulation. – Integrity.
  • 45. Management - Chapter 13 45 Study Question 5: What are current issues in leadership development? Emotional intelligence. – The ability of people to manage themselves and their relationships effectively. – Components of emotional intelligence: • Self-awareness. • Self-regulation. • Motivation. • Empathy. • Social skill.
  • 46. Management - Chapter 13 46 Study Question 5: What are current issues in leadership development? Gender and leadership. – Both women and men can be effective leaders. – Women tend to use interactive leadership. • A style that shares qualities with transformational leadership. – Men tend to use transactional leadership. – Interactive leadership provides a good fit with the demands of a diverse workforce and the new workplace.
  • 47. Management - Chapter 13 47 Study Question 5: What are current issues in leadership development? Gender and leadership (cont.). – Future leadership success will depend on a person’s capacity to lead through : • Openness. • Positive relationships. • Support. • Empowerment.
  • 48. Management - Chapter 13 48 Study Question 5: What are current issues in leadership development? Drucker’s “old-fashioned” leadership. – Leadership is more than charisma; it is “good old-fashioned” hard work. – Essentials of “old-fashioned” leadership: • Defining and establishing a sense of mission. • Accepting leadership as a “responsibility” rather than a rank. • Earning and keeping the trust of others.
  • 49. Management - Chapter 13 49 Study Question 5: What are current issues in leadership development?  Moral leadership. – Ethical leadership adheres to moral standards meeting the test of “good” rather than “bad” and “right” rather than “wrong.” – All leaders are expected to maintain high ethical standards. – Long-term, sustainable success requires ethical behavior. – Integrity involves the leader’s honesty, credibility, and consistency in putting values into action.
  • 50. Management - Chapter 13 50 Study Question 5: What are current issues in leadership development?  Moral leadership (cont.). – Leaders with integrity earn the trust of their followers. – Leaders have a moral obligation to build performance capacities by awakening people’s potential. – Authentic leadership activates performance through the positive psychological states of confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience. – Authentic leadership helps in clearly framing and responding to moral dilemmas, and serving as ethical role models.
  • 51. Management Fundamentals - Chapter 13 51
  • 52. Welcome to the presentation on “Leadership Styles”
  • 53. A leader is one who inspires, motivates and leads people to accomplish organizational goals
  • 54. Leadership is all about influencing a group of people
  • 58. Adopt the leadership style that fits you and your personality
  • 59. Have courage at the time of controversies
  • 65. Trust
  • 70. How do you define leadership style?
  • 73. When to use Democratic Leadership Style?
  • 78. It is a time consuming affair
  • 80. When to use Autocratic Leadership Style?
  • 81. When quick decisions are needed
  • 82. No need for others input
  • 83. Team agreement is not necessary
  • 84. When high level of management control is needed
  • 87. Little opportunity to give suggestions
  • 88. 3. Laissez-Faire/ Free Rein Leadership Style
  • 89. When to use Laissez Faire/ Free Rein Style?
  • 90. When the team is highly capable
  • 91. When team members are able to analyze the situation
  • 92. When close monitoring of a decision is not needed
  • 93. When there is full trust and confidence in the team members
  • 94. Limitations of Laissez Faire/ Free Rein Leadership Style
  • 95. Not suitable for lesser experienced employees
  • 98. What are the factors for selecting leadership style?
  • 99. Objectives that need to be achieved
  • 102. Apply the appropriate leadership style and techniques
  • 103. Leadership style is the approach for providing the right way to the team members, implementing planning strategies and motivating people by including all the three leadership styles.
  • 104. Effective leadership is not about making speeches or being liked; leadership is defined by results not attributes. Peter Drucker
  • 105. Management Fundamentals - Chapter 13 105
  • 107. Theories  Trait Approach  Skills Approach  Style Approach  Situational Approach  Contingency Theory  Path-Goal Theory  Leader Member Exchange  Transformational  Transactional  Team Leadership
  • 108. Style Approach Emphasizes the behavior of the leader Style approach seeks to explain how leaders combine task and relationship behaviors to influence subordinates in their efforts to reach a goal. Style Approach reminds leaders that their actions toward others occur on a task level and a relationship level. Some situations demand more task orientated style and others a more relationship style based orientation.
  • 109. Style Theory Two General kinds of behaviors – Task behaviors - facilitate goal accomplishment – Relationship behaviors - help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, with each other, and with the situation they find themselves
  • 110. Style Approach Ohio State Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) - composed of 150 questions Found that there are two general types of leader behavior Initiating structure - task behaviors Consideration- relationship behaviors
  • 111. Style Approach  University of Michigan Studies Research identified two types of leadership behaviors Employee orientation- behavior of leaders who approach subordinates with strong human relations emphasis (similar to consideration) Production orientation- leadership behaviors that stress the technical and production aspects of a job (similar to production orientation)
  • 112. Style Approach Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid  9,1 Authority compliance- heavy emphasis on task and job requirements and less emphasis on people  1,9 Country Club Management- low concern for task accomplishment coupled with high concern for interpersonal relationships  1,1 Impoverished Management- unconcerned with both task and interpersonal relationships  5,5 Middle of the Road Management- leaders who are compromisers  9,9 Team Management- strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships
  • 113. Style Approach  Pros – Expanded research to include what leaders did and how they acted – Research has been validated by several studies and researchers – Task and relationship behaviors work together to form the core of the leadership process – Leaders can learn a lot about themselves by looking at their behaviors in the light of task and relationship dimensions
  • 114. Style Approach Cons – Research has not shown the connection from leader’s styles to performance outcomes – Theory fails to find a universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation – Theory implies that 9,9 is most effective leadership style however that may not be the case in all situations
  • 116. Situational Approach  Focuses on leadership in situations  Composed of a directive and supportive dimension  A leader must match his or her style to the competence and commitment of the subordinates.  Effective leaders are those who can recognize what employees need and then adapt their own style to meet those needs  Effective leadership occurs when the leader can accurately diagnose the development level of the subordinates in a task situation and then exhibit the prescribed leadership style that matches that situation
  • 117. Situational Approach Directive Behavior helps group members accomplish goals by giving directions, defining roles, setting time lines, evaluating and showing how goals will be met. Explains what is to be done, how it is to be done, and who is responsible for doing it One way communication
  • 118. Situational Approach Supportive Behavior helps coworkers feel comfortable about themselves, their coworkers and the situation. Asking for input, praising, listening, sharing information about oneself Two way communication
  • 119. Situational approach Four Leadership Styles High supportive High Directive and And low directive High Supportive Behavior Behavior (Supporting) (Coaching) Low Supportive and High Directive and Low Directive Behavior low supportive (Delegating) Behavior (Directing) ↑ S U P P O R T I V E ↓ ←Directive Behavior→
  • 120. Situational approach Four Development Levels Low competence variable competence and some commitment and high commitment High commitment and High commitment and high competence some competence ↑ H I G H L O W ↓ ←Developed Developing→ High Moderate Low
  • 121. Situational Approach Constructed around the idea that employees move forward and backward along the developmental continuum In any situation the leader must first determine the nature of the situation – Leader asks him/herself questions like: What is the task I need to ask the subordinates complete? How complex is the task? Are the subordinates sufficiently skilled to complete the task?
  • 122. Situational Leadership: A Brief Questionnaire Situation 1: Because of budget restrictions imposed on your department it is necessary to consolidate. You are thinking of asking a highly capable and experience member of your department to take charge of the consolidation. This person has worked in all areas of your department and has the trust and respect of most of the staff. She is willing to help with the consolidation. A. Assign the project to her and let her determine how to accomplish it B. Assign the task to her, indicate to her precisely what must be done, and supervise her work closely. C. Assign the task to her and provide support and encouragement as needed. D. Assign the task to her and indicate to her precisely what needs to be done and make sure you incorporate her suggestions
  • 123. Situational Approach Pros – Has stood the test of time in the marketplace • More than 400 fortune 500 companies use it in training programs – It is practical and has straight forward approach – It is prescriptive – it tells you what you should and should not do in various contexts – Emphases leader flexibility – leaders need to find out about their subordinates needs and adapt their style accordingly – Forces leader to treat each subordinate differently based on the task at hand
  • 124. Situational Approach Cons – Only a few research studies have been completed on this approach – Not a clear connection between commitment and competency or how this is determined – Why do subordinates who learn a task (become more competent) become less committed? – Fails to take into account certain demographics (education, experience, age, and gender) – Also fails to address how one on one leadership vs group leadership is taken into account- Should the leader match each subordinate or the overall group