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Leadership Learnings




   Asst. Prof. Anoop Sharma : HR Development Interventions
“A Manager Do the ‘Things Right’..
   A Leader Do the ‘Right Things’”
Definition of leadership

• Leadership is an ‘Influential process’ whereby an
  individual influences or motivates a group of
  individuals to achieve a common goal.

            Meaning of Leadership :
  Leadership can be said as the relationship in which one
  person influences others to work together willingly
  on related tasks to attain that level of results which he
  or she desires.

  The leader may or may not have any formal authority.
Role of Leader….

• ‘People Development’
• Building the ‘Teams’
• ‘Cascading the Vision', making it tangible.
Concept of Leadership:
• Leading is about setting direction and ensuring that
  that direction is followed. Leading can apply to leading
  oneself, other individuals, groups, organizations and
  societies.

  The concept has gone a sea-change from a born-leader
  to situational-leader to ‘effective leader’.

  Example: Mahatma MK Gandhi (Bapu), Shree
  Jamshedji Ratan ji tata, Shree Dheerubhai Ambani ji
  were said to be ‘in-born leaders’, where as Mr. Vikram
  Singh of Hindustan Aluminum , Mr. Pardhasaradhi of
  HUL belong to ‘made leader’ category.
Four constituents or factors of Leadership

• Communication
                               Leader
                              Followers
                            Communication
                              Situation
1st important factor of leadership :
           ‘Leader Him or herself’
• You must have an honest understanding of who
  you are, what you know, and what you can do.
  Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader
  or someone else who determines if the leader is
  successful.

• If they do not trust or lack confidence in their
  leader, then they will be uninspired.

• To be successful you have to convince your
  followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you
  are worthy of being followed.
2nd factor in leadership : ‘Followers’
• Different people require different styles of leadership.
• For example, a new hire requires more supervision
  than an experienced employee.

• A person who lacks motivation requires a different
  approach than one with a high degree of motivation.

• You must know your people! The fundamental starting
  point is having a good understanding of human nature,
  such as needs, emotions, and motivation.

• You must come to know your employees
• ‘be, know, and do’ attributes.
3. ‘Communication’
• You lead through two-way communication. Much
  of it is nonverbal.
• For instance, when you “set the example,” that
  communicates to your people that you would not
  ask them to perform anything that you would not
  be willing to do.

• What and how you communicate either builds or
  harms the relationship between you and your
  employees.
4th & Last Factor in Leadership is:‘Situation’

•   All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always
    work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of
    action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example,
    you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if
    the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the
    results may prove ineffective.

•   Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's
    action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an
    impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency
    across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership
    scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than
    the Trait Theory of Leadership.

•   Various forces will affect these four factors. Examples of forces are your
    relationship with your seniors, the skill of your followers, the informal
    leaders within your organization, and how your organization is organized.
Principles of Leadership
• Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to
  know yourself, you have to understand your be,
  know, and do, attributes.

• Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening
  your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-
  study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with
  others.

• Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your
  job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks.

• Know your people and look out for their well-being -
  Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring
  for your workers.
• Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your
  actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to
  new heights. And when things go wrong, one is more
  likely to commit mistakes sooner or later — do not
  blame others.
  Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move
  on to the next challenge.

• Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem
  solving, decision making, and planning tools.

• Set the example - Be a good role model for your
  employees. They must not only hear what they are
  expected to do, but also see. We must become the
  change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi
• Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate 
  with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.

• Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to 
  develop good character traits that will help them carry out 
  their professional responsibilities.

• Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and
  accomplished - Communication is the key to this 
  responsibility.

• Train as a ‘team’ - Although many so called leaders call their 
  organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not 
  really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs.


• Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing 
  a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, 
  department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.
Relationship Matrix : ‘Leadership and
              Power’
Leadership Styles
• ‘Engaging Style’ of Leadership:

• Engaging as part of leadership style has been 
  mentioned in various literature earlier. Dr. Stephen L. 
  Cohen, the Senior Vice President for Right 
  Management’s Leadership Development Center of 
  Excellence, has in his article Four Key Leadership 
  Practices for Leading in Tough Times has mentioned 
  Engagement as the fourth Key practice. 

• He writes, "these initiatives do for the organization is
  engage both leaders and employees in understanding
  the existing conditions and how they can collectively
  assist in addressing them
• Reaching out to employees during difficult times
  to better understand their concerns and 
  interests by openly and honestly conveying the 
  impact of the downturn on them and their 
  organizations can provide a solid foundation for 
  not only engaging them but retaining them when 
  things do turn around.

• Engagement as the key to Collaborative 
  Leadership is also emphasized as Most effective 
  in Modern tiem-frame.

•  Becoming an agile has long been associated with 
  Engaging leaders - rather than leadership with an 
  hands off approach.
Autocratic or authoritarian style
• Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-
  making powers are centralized in the leader, as 
  with dictators.

• Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives
  from subordinates.

• The autocratic management has been successful as it
  provides strong motivation to the manager,
  particularly in emergency Situations. 

• It permits quick decision-making, as only one person 
  decides for the whole group and keeps each decision 
  to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared 
  with the rest of the group.
‘Participative or Democratic’
           leadership style
• The democratic leadership style consists
  of the leader sharing the decision-making
  abilities with group members by
  promoting the interests of the group
  members and by practicing social
  equality.
Laissez-faire or free rein style

A person may be in a leadership
position without providing
leadership, leaving the group to
fend for itself. Subordinates are
given a free hand in deciding their
own policies and methods.
Leadership and Environment
• Environment dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders
  respond to problems and opportunities.

  Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of
  actions:
   Goals, Values, and Concepts :
  1. The Goals and performance standards they establish.

• 2. The Values they establish for the organization.
     The business and people concepts they establish.

   3. The business and people concepts they establish.

• Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards
  and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market
  leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity,
  quality, and reliability.
• Values reflect the concern the organization has
  for its employees, customers, investors, vendors,
  and surrounding community. These values define
  the manner in how business will be conducted.

• Concepts define what products or services the
  organization will offer and the methods and
  processes for conducting business.

• These goals, values, and concepts make up the
  organization's personality or how the
  organization is observed by both outsiders and
  insiders. This personality defines the roles,
  relationships, rewards, and rites that take place.
Key to a good Leadership:
• According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management
  consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction
  (Lamb, McKee, 2004). Briefly to Elucidate Their Observations:

• Developing ‘Sense of Trust’ and confidence in top leadership was the
  single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an
  organization.

• Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the
  key to winning organizational trust and confidence :

    – Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.
    – Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key
      business objectives.
    – Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing
      and how an employee's own division is doing — relative to strategic
      business objectives.

• Challenging the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to
  be improved the most.
• Inspire a shared vision - Next, share your vision in words
  that can be understood by your followers.

• Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to
  solve the problem.

• Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your
  hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do, a leader shows
  that it can be done.

• Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers'
  hearts, while keeping the pains within your own.
Thank You!

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Leadership basics

  • 1. Leadership Learnings Asst. Prof. Anoop Sharma : HR Development Interventions
  • 2. “A Manager Do the ‘Things Right’.. A Leader Do the ‘Right Things’”
  • 3. Definition of leadership • Leadership is an ‘Influential process’ whereby an individual influences or motivates a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Meaning of Leadership : Leadership can be said as the relationship in which one person influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that level of results which he or she desires. The leader may or may not have any formal authority.
  • 4. Role of Leader…. • ‘People Development’ • Building the ‘Teams’ • ‘Cascading the Vision', making it tangible.
  • 5. Concept of Leadership: • Leading is about setting direction and ensuring that that direction is followed. Leading can apply to leading oneself, other individuals, groups, organizations and societies. The concept has gone a sea-change from a born-leader to situational-leader to ‘effective leader’. Example: Mahatma MK Gandhi (Bapu), Shree Jamshedji Ratan ji tata, Shree Dheerubhai Ambani ji were said to be ‘in-born leaders’, where as Mr. Vikram Singh of Hindustan Aluminum , Mr. Pardhasaradhi of HUL belong to ‘made leader’ category.
  • 6. Four constituents or factors of Leadership • Communication Leader Followers Communication Situation
  • 7. 1st important factor of leadership : ‘Leader Him or herself’ • You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. • If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. • To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
  • 8. 2nd factor in leadership : ‘Followers’ • Different people require different styles of leadership. • For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. • A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. • You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. • You must come to know your employees • ‘be, know, and do’ attributes.
  • 9. 3. ‘Communication’ • You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. • For instance, when you “set the example,” that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. • What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.
  • 10. 4th & Last Factor in Leadership is:‘Situation’ • All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. • Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership. • Various forces will affect these four factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your followers, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your organization is organized.
  • 11. Principles of Leadership • Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. • Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self- study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. • Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. • Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
  • 12. • Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, one is more likely to commit mistakes sooner or later — do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. • Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. • Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi
  • 13. • Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate  with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. • Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to  develop good character traits that will help them carry out  their professional responsibilities. • Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this  responsibility. • Train as a ‘team’ - Although many so called leaders call their  organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not  really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs. • Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing  a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization,  department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.
  • 14. Relationship Matrix : ‘Leadership and Power’
  • 15. Leadership Styles • ‘Engaging Style’ of Leadership: • Engaging as part of leadership style has been  mentioned in various literature earlier. Dr. Stephen L.  Cohen, the Senior Vice President for Right  Management’s Leadership Development Center of  Excellence, has in his article Four Key Leadership  Practices for Leading in Tough Times has mentioned  Engagement as the fourth Key practice.  • He writes, "these initiatives do for the organization is engage both leaders and employees in understanding the existing conditions and how they can collectively assist in addressing them
  • 16. • Reaching out to employees during difficult times to better understand their concerns and  interests by openly and honestly conveying the  impact of the downturn on them and their  organizations can provide a solid foundation for  not only engaging them but retaining them when  things do turn around. • Engagement as the key to Collaborative  Leadership is also emphasized as Most effective  in Modern tiem-frame. •  Becoming an agile has long been associated with  Engaging leaders - rather than leadership with an  hands off approach.
  • 17. Autocratic or authoritarian style • Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision- making powers are centralized in the leader, as  with dictators. • Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. • The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager, particularly in emergency Situations.  • It permits quick decision-making, as only one person  decides for the whole group and keeps each decision  to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared  with the rest of the group.
  • 18. ‘Participative or Democratic’ leadership style • The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality.
  • 19. Laissez-faire or free rein style A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods.
  • 20. Leadership and Environment • Environment dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions: Goals, Values, and Concepts : 1. The Goals and performance standards they establish. • 2. The Values they establish for the organization. The business and people concepts they establish. 3. The business and people concepts they establish. • Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability.
  • 21. • Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. • Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. • These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization's personality or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place.
  • 22. Key to a good Leadership: • According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004). Briefly to Elucidate Their Observations: • Developing ‘Sense of Trust’ and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. • Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence : – Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. – Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. – Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing — relative to strategic business objectives. • Challenging the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.
  • 23. • Inspire a shared vision - Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. • Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. • Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do, a leader shows that it can be done. • Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers' hearts, while keeping the pains within your own.

Editor's Notes

  1. Columbia Group of Institutions