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Creating Robust Environments for Online
                Learning and Teaching:
                    Part A- Foundations

   Scot Headley, George Fox University
A. Foundations for online learning and teaching include the
philosophical, psychological and theoretical bases for
developing and delivering effective online instruction.

B. Applications for online learning and teaching include the
technological, relational and instructional strategies and
techniques helpful for success in effective online instruction
Foundations in our consideration of online teaching and
learning:

Institutional and Instructional Considerations

Motivation for learning

Community of Inquiry

Instructional Design
Institutional and Instructional Considerations
Consider the following:

•Students protest seemingly inane institutional policies related to
institutional technology, library access and social media.

•Institutional Technology administrators faced with difficult
decisions regarding selection of supported applications.

•Faculty members who are asked to begin teaching online with no
appropriate rationale, prior background or preparation.

Each of these situations (and a myriad of others) creates
challenging tension and at times, unresolved difficulties in
university efforts at online education.
The Parallel Role and Functions Model provides explanation for
the competing and supporting interests, needs and outcomes
present in the delivery of online. This model puts forward the
notion that for each of the primary participants in university-
based online education; the institution, the faculty member and
the students, a pair of parallel roles exists.

These roles represent fundamental aspects of higher education
institutions, the bureaucratic element and the educational
element.
In this model, the university concurrently serves as a
facilitating medium for learning (the educational role) and as a
self-sustaining system (the bureaucratic role).

The faculty member serves as a guide for learning (the
educational role) while at the same time also performs her
role as an agent of the institution (a bureaucratic role).

The student, in this model, functions as both a learner
(educational role) and as a client of a corporate system (the
bureaucratic role).
This model seeks to explore and explain, for example, the
following:
a.institutional decision making regarding instructional delivery
schemes and policies and procedures associated with distance
education;
b.technological tools used and not used for online education;
c.faculty workload and faculty responsibilities in the online
education environment;
d.preparation of faculty and students to work online;
e.financial costs, investments and returns;
f.pedagogical assumptions, practices and outcome; and
g.relationships between faculty and administration, and faculty
and students in the online education milieu.
Educational roles and functions and bureaucratic roles and
functions often reflect differing values, needs and goals.

Consider applications such as academic freedom,
assessment, marketing, and faculty reward systems in light
of this model.

A key function of a bureaucratic system is to maintain itself.
A key function of an educational system is individual and
community growth.

The functions are not mutually exclusive, and do at times
compete with each other.

Instructors are not autonomous and work within a system
that requires commitments and investments that at times
appear to be counter-productive to the aim of
              supporting growth.
Motivation for learning

My students are adults, are responsible, independent and are
volunteers in the learning enterprise.

Andragogy is “any intentional and professionally guided
activity that aims at a change in adult person” (Knowles, Holton
III, & Swanson, 2005, p. 60). One of the definitions of
adulthood is that adults are responsible for their own lives and
learning.

Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The
adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and
human resource development (6th ed.). Burlington, MA:
Butterworth-Heinemann.
The foundational idea of andragogy is that adults learn differently
than children. Basic assumptions include:

(1) Adults need to understand why they should learn something;
(2) Adults recognize their personal responsibility for the outcome
of their life and operate in a self-directed manner as a result;
(3) Adults bring a depth and breadth of experiences to their
educational pursuits than do children;
(4) Adults pursue learning when faced with life circumstances not
previously encountered;
(5) Adults' approach to learning is centered around specific tasks
or challenges; and
(6) Adults are primarily motivated to learn by internal drivers such
as self-worth
Assumptions of Pedagogy and Andragogy
Pedagogical model                  Variable                     Andragogical model

Learn to “pass the course”     The Need to Know        Learner needs to know why
Dependent personality        Learner's Self-concept    Personal responsibility to learn
Of little worth              Learner's Experience      Quality of experience
What is needed to pass       Readiness to Learn        Relevance and applicability
Subject-oriented             Orientation to Learning   Life and problem-centered
External motivation                Motivation          Internal motivation
Characteristics exhibited by adults related to motivation for
learning (Wlodkowski)

Relevance is the ultimate criteria for sustaining adult interest.
Are critical and self-assured about their judgment of the value
of what they are learning.
Are reluctant to learn what they cannot endorse by the virtue
of its value, usefulness, or contribution to their goals
Require respect from their teachers as a condition for learning.
To want to actively test what they are learning in real work and
life settings.
Desire to use their experience and prior learning as
consciously and as directly as possible while learning
Desire to integrate new learning with their life roles
Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive
Teaching

Four strategies, or conditions to establish motivated learning.

Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn.
A comprehensive guide for teaching adults (third ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Establishing Inclusion
Developing Attitude
Enhancing Meaning
Engender competence
Establishing inclusion:
Description: Adult learners and teachers desire to feel they
are a part of the learning environment by experiencing a
sense of mutual respect, harmony, and community as they
are connected to each other.
Guide question: How do we create or affirm a learning
atmosphere in which we feel respected by and connected to
one another?
Means: collaborative learning, particularly through sharing
personal stories
Outcomes: the outcomes of establishing inclusion stretch
from experiencing a climate of belonging to increasing learner
involvement to neuronal network integration and long-term
memory.
Developing attitude:
Description: Attitudes are the outgrowth of our engagement in
culture and with others. A learning experience forms and
shapes attitudes both positively and negatively just as attitudes
form and shape a learning experience both positively and
negatively.
Guide question: How do we create or affirm a favorable
disposition toward learning through personal relevance and
learner volition?
Means: relevant learning goals, particularly learner-directed
Outcomes: learners will thrive best when they experience
relevance and exercise volition within their cultural contexts.
Enhancing meaning:
Description: Culturally responsive teaching allows the learner to
understand, to find significance, and to make sense out of
learning experiences that in some way connect with the
learner’s own experiences.
Guide question: How do we create engaging and challenging
learning experiences that include learners’ perspectives and
values?
Means: critical reflection and group discussion
Outcomes: enhancing meaning will also increase the learner’s
participation in the learning experience.
Engender competence:
Description: Adult learning that values praxis and application will
lead to competence, for the learner is motivated to apply such
learning to his/her cultural context.
Guide question: How do we create or affirm an understanding
that learners have effectively learned something they value and
perceive as authentic to their real world?
Means: self assessment and reflection
Outcomes: competency, when expressed through authentic
learning experiences, will build the learner’s confidence level.
community of learners where
 “critical

 both reflection and discourse are
 utilized to facilitate the construction of
 personally meaningful and
 socially valid knowledge”



                        Garrison & Anderson, 2007, p. 21
Supporting
 Social         Discourse
                                 Cognitive
Presence                         Presence
               Learning
               Experienc
                  e
     Setting                 Selecting
     Climate                 Content



                Teaching
                 Presence
                                 http://communitiesofinquiry.com/
 socialpresence is “the ability of
 participants in a Community of Inquiry to
 project themselves socially and
 emotionally, as ‘real’ people through the
 medium of communication being used”


     Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2007). E-Learning in the 21st century: A
     Framework for Research and Practice. New York: RoutledgeFalmer
 “the
     exploration, construction,
 resolution and confirmation of
 understanding through collaboration
 and reflection in a Community of
 Inquiry”
 Teaching   presence is “the design,
 facilitation, and direction of cognitive and
 social processes for the purpose of
 realizing personally meaningful and
 educationally worthwhile learning
 outcomes”
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Instructor’s general educational philosophy
Theory of learning
Content or Field, the theory and logic, the data and
relationships
Experience of instructor and students
Need (Institutional, societal, individual and corporate
needs of participants)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives




Assessment
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities


Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities
Tools                                     Forum, live chat, uploaded file,
                                          audio, video
Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities
Tools                                     Forum, live chat, uploaded file,
                                          audio, video
Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities
Tools                                     Forum, live chat, uploaded file,
                                          audio, video
Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities
Tools                                     Forum, live chat, uploaded file,
                                          audio, video
Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities
Tools                                     Forum, live chat, uploaded file,
                                          audio, video
Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Instructional Design


Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need
Objectives
Activities
                                          Forum, live chat, uploaded file,
Tools                                     audio, video
Assessment


             Assignments (read, react, compose,
             discuss, etc.)
Foundations for online learning and teaching include the
philosophical, psychological and theoretical bases for
developing and delivering effective online instruction.




           Institutional Considerations, Motivation,
          Community of Inquiry, Instructional Design
Creating Robust Environments for Online
                Learning and Teaching:
                    Part B- Applications

   Scot Headley, George Fox University
Applications for online learning and teaching include the
technological, relational and instructional strategies and
techniques helpful for success in effective online instruction




       Technology        Relationships       Instruction
Seven Principles for Good Practice in Effective
               Undergraduate Education
        (Chickering and Gamson, 1987 AAHE Bulletin)

                        Good practice in undergraduate
                        education:
1.                      encourages contact between
                        students and faculty,
2.                      develops reciprocity and
                        cooperation among students,
3.                      encourages active learning,
4.                      gives prompt feedback,
5.                      emphasizes time on task,
6.                      communicates high
                        expectations, and
7.                      respects diverse talents and
Technology Tools
•Email, FTP, Web-based resources (Web 1.0)
•Content Management System (Moodle, Blackboard, Sakai,
etc.)
•Web conferencing systems (Adobe Connect, Elumminate,
iVocalize, Go to Meeting)
•Multiuser Virtual Environments (Second Life)
•Web 2.0 tools (wikis, blogs, media hosting such as Flickr and
YouTube)
•Public content management and community sites such as
Google aps, Facebook, Ning, etc.
•Open Educational Resources (Connexions, TED, etc.)
•Chat, Phone over IP, Mobile applications
Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners

1.Access and Motivation
2.Online Socialization
3.Information Exchange
4.Knowledge Construction
5.Development

Salmon, G. (2000). E-Moderating: The key to teaching and
learning online. London: Kogan Page.
Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners
               1.Access and Motivation

Student Need: Get connected to course, access support
materials, understand purpose and develop motivation.
Instructor Response: Provide invitation and welcome, give
clear direction regarding access and support. Motivation
plan in place.

Specific suggestions: Consistent, well organized system of
presenting guidelines and instructions. Multiple
communication avenues (email and course site, at least).
Provide opportunity for informal exchange of personal
information (student lounge, autobiographical statements,
photos, etc.) Live gatherings, if possible for relation building
and question and answer sessions. Clear and appropriate
objectives, assignments and assessment.
Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners
                2. Online Socialization

Student Need: Develop a sense of belonging and identity,
learn to use the system(s) for accessing information and
communication, understand guidelines for behavior.
Instructor Response: Modeling appropriate interactivity,
making connections between participants and the learning
environment, promoting respect.
Specific suggestions: Detailed syllabus and guidelines for
expectations. Seed discussion areas with examples of
postings, provide prompt feedback to initial posts.
Encourage off-task communication in a lounge or “getting
to know you” space. Redundant communication on
expectations.
Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners
               3. Information Exchange

Student Need: Select and use information, exchange ideas
with others. Appropriately constrain interaction and
information retrieval.
Instructor Response: Directing effort. Presenting guidelines
for interaction, research and assignments. Personalizing
course activities.
Specific suggestions: Share examples, assessment rubrics.
 Provide access to information sources, coach on
information sources. Respond and interact with discretion.
Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners
              4. Knowledge Construction

Student Need: Assert individual views. Make meaning and
share new learning. Develop collaborative efforts at
knowledge building.
Instructor Response: Group building. Facilitating discussion
and connecting the conversations with the content.
Specific suggestions: Encourage collaboration, provide
options on assignment if appropriate. Provide opportunities
for demonstration of learning through reflection and
application projects. Make introductions of people,
resources, ideas.
Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners
                    5. Development

Student Need: Have and accept responsibility for self-
learning. Challenge assumptions regarding process and
content.
Instructor Response: Openness to challenge. Support for
self-directed learning. Troubleshoot technical or process
issues.
Specific suggestions: Provide appropriate and timely
feedback. Check and recheck published information.
Monitor discussions closely. Offer ongoing “office hours”.
Communication and Feedback Timelines
1.Do not “over-participate” in forum discussions. Respond to
conversations where appropriate, to answer direct questions,
to clear up misunderstanding or to further a key point.
2.Consider offering a general impression of a conversation (a
summary and analysis of a discussion as opposed to detailed
feedback to every message.
3.Establish and publish firm commitments for responding to
student communications:
    a.                                               Phone
                                                     and
                                                     email: 24
                                                     hour
                                                     response
    b.                                               Course
                                                     discussio
                                                     n posting:
Suggestions for Success

•Instructors invest more time working with smaller sections of
students.

•Instructors take an active role in pursuing lurkers or non-
participants.

•Course planning and syllabi allow time for relationship
building and reflection as primary activities of the course.

•Depth of learning is a desired outcome, as much as or more
than breadth.

•Interaction amongst the participants is rewarded in the formal
assessment of the course.
Suggestions for Success

•Instructors model commitment to relationships through
prompt and respectful replies to inquiries and discussion.

•Personal and technical needs and concerns of students are
attended to and addressed appropriately.

•The instructor invites interactions outside of the formal course
space.

•Feedback is prompt and readily available.
Supporting
 Social         Discourse
                                Cognitive
Presence                        Presence
               Learning
               Experienc
                  e
     Setting                 Selecting
     Climate                 Content



                Teaching
                 Presence
                              http://communitiesofinquiry.com/
 Instructional   design and organization
 ◦ Setting Curriculum
 ◦ Designing Methods
 ◦ Establishing Time Parameters
 ◦ Utilizing Medium Effectively
 ◦ Establishing Netiquette
 Facilitating   Discourse
 ◦ Identifying Areas of Agreement/Disagreement
 ◦ Seeking to Reach Consensus/Understanding
 ◦ Encouraging, Acknowledging, or Reinforcing Student
   Contributions
 ◦ Setting Climate for Learning
 ◦ Drawing in Participants, Prompting Discussions
 ◦ Assess the Efficacy of the Process
 Direct   Instruction
 ◦ Present content/questions
 ◦ Focus the discussion on specific issues
 ◦ Summarize the discussion
 ◦ Confirm understanding through assessment and
   explanatory feedback
 ◦ Diagnose misconceptions
 ◦ Inject knowledge from diverse sources (Textbooks,
   articles, internet, personal experiences, etc)
 ◦ Responding to technical concerns
Assumptions
•Asynchronous vs. Synchronous elements
•Fully online vs. Hybrid or Mixed Delivery
•Orientation of Instructor regarding Nature of Learning, Role
of Instructor, Role of Student
•Activities (Reading, writing, discussing, building of…,
demonstrating, presenting
•Level of intellectual Activity (see Bloom)
•Relationships: Student to student, Student to content,
student to teacher, student to group
Bloom’s Taxonomy (updated)




Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?
Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts?
Applying: can the student use the information in a new way?
Analysing: can the student distinguish between the different parts?
Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision?
Creating: can the student create new product or point of view?

                    http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm

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Introducing Online learning

  • 1. Creating Robust Environments for Online Learning and Teaching: Part A- Foundations Scot Headley, George Fox University
  • 2. A. Foundations for online learning and teaching include the philosophical, psychological and theoretical bases for developing and delivering effective online instruction. B. Applications for online learning and teaching include the technological, relational and instructional strategies and techniques helpful for success in effective online instruction
  • 3. Foundations in our consideration of online teaching and learning: Institutional and Instructional Considerations Motivation for learning Community of Inquiry Instructional Design
  • 4. Institutional and Instructional Considerations Consider the following: •Students protest seemingly inane institutional policies related to institutional technology, library access and social media. •Institutional Technology administrators faced with difficult decisions regarding selection of supported applications. •Faculty members who are asked to begin teaching online with no appropriate rationale, prior background or preparation. Each of these situations (and a myriad of others) creates challenging tension and at times, unresolved difficulties in university efforts at online education.
  • 5. The Parallel Role and Functions Model provides explanation for the competing and supporting interests, needs and outcomes present in the delivery of online. This model puts forward the notion that for each of the primary participants in university- based online education; the institution, the faculty member and the students, a pair of parallel roles exists. These roles represent fundamental aspects of higher education institutions, the bureaucratic element and the educational element.
  • 6. In this model, the university concurrently serves as a facilitating medium for learning (the educational role) and as a self-sustaining system (the bureaucratic role). The faculty member serves as a guide for learning (the educational role) while at the same time also performs her role as an agent of the institution (a bureaucratic role). The student, in this model, functions as both a learner (educational role) and as a client of a corporate system (the bureaucratic role).
  • 7. This model seeks to explore and explain, for example, the following: a.institutional decision making regarding instructional delivery schemes and policies and procedures associated with distance education; b.technological tools used and not used for online education; c.faculty workload and faculty responsibilities in the online education environment; d.preparation of faculty and students to work online; e.financial costs, investments and returns; f.pedagogical assumptions, practices and outcome; and g.relationships between faculty and administration, and faculty and students in the online education milieu.
  • 8. Educational roles and functions and bureaucratic roles and functions often reflect differing values, needs and goals. Consider applications such as academic freedom, assessment, marketing, and faculty reward systems in light of this model. A key function of a bureaucratic system is to maintain itself. A key function of an educational system is individual and community growth. The functions are not mutually exclusive, and do at times compete with each other. Instructors are not autonomous and work within a system that requires commitments and investments that at times appear to be counter-productive to the aim of supporting growth.
  • 9. Motivation for learning My students are adults, are responsible, independent and are volunteers in the learning enterprise. Andragogy is “any intentional and professionally guided activity that aims at a change in adult person” (Knowles, Holton III, & Swanson, 2005, p. 60). One of the definitions of adulthood is that adults are responsible for their own lives and learning. Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • 10. The foundational idea of andragogy is that adults learn differently than children. Basic assumptions include: (1) Adults need to understand why they should learn something; (2) Adults recognize their personal responsibility for the outcome of their life and operate in a self-directed manner as a result; (3) Adults bring a depth and breadth of experiences to their educational pursuits than do children; (4) Adults pursue learning when faced with life circumstances not previously encountered; (5) Adults' approach to learning is centered around specific tasks or challenges; and (6) Adults are primarily motivated to learn by internal drivers such as self-worth
  • 11. Assumptions of Pedagogy and Andragogy Pedagogical model Variable Andragogical model Learn to “pass the course” The Need to Know Learner needs to know why Dependent personality Learner's Self-concept Personal responsibility to learn Of little worth Learner's Experience Quality of experience What is needed to pass Readiness to Learn Relevance and applicability Subject-oriented Orientation to Learning Life and problem-centered External motivation Motivation Internal motivation
  • 12. Characteristics exhibited by adults related to motivation for learning (Wlodkowski) Relevance is the ultimate criteria for sustaining adult interest. Are critical and self-assured about their judgment of the value of what they are learning. Are reluctant to learn what they cannot endorse by the virtue of its value, usefulness, or contribution to their goals Require respect from their teachers as a condition for learning. To want to actively test what they are learning in real work and life settings. Desire to use their experience and prior learning as consciously and as directly as possible while learning Desire to integrate new learning with their life roles
  • 13. Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching Four strategies, or conditions to establish motivated learning. Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn. A comprehensive guide for teaching adults (third ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Establishing Inclusion Developing Attitude Enhancing Meaning Engender competence
  • 14. Establishing inclusion: Description: Adult learners and teachers desire to feel they are a part of the learning environment by experiencing a sense of mutual respect, harmony, and community as they are connected to each other. Guide question: How do we create or affirm a learning atmosphere in which we feel respected by and connected to one another? Means: collaborative learning, particularly through sharing personal stories Outcomes: the outcomes of establishing inclusion stretch from experiencing a climate of belonging to increasing learner involvement to neuronal network integration and long-term memory.
  • 15. Developing attitude: Description: Attitudes are the outgrowth of our engagement in culture and with others. A learning experience forms and shapes attitudes both positively and negatively just as attitudes form and shape a learning experience both positively and negatively. Guide question: How do we create or affirm a favorable disposition toward learning through personal relevance and learner volition? Means: relevant learning goals, particularly learner-directed Outcomes: learners will thrive best when they experience relevance and exercise volition within their cultural contexts.
  • 16. Enhancing meaning: Description: Culturally responsive teaching allows the learner to understand, to find significance, and to make sense out of learning experiences that in some way connect with the learner’s own experiences. Guide question: How do we create engaging and challenging learning experiences that include learners’ perspectives and values? Means: critical reflection and group discussion Outcomes: enhancing meaning will also increase the learner’s participation in the learning experience.
  • 17. Engender competence: Description: Adult learning that values praxis and application will lead to competence, for the learner is motivated to apply such learning to his/her cultural context. Guide question: How do we create or affirm an understanding that learners have effectively learned something they value and perceive as authentic to their real world? Means: self assessment and reflection Outcomes: competency, when expressed through authentic learning experiences, will build the learner’s confidence level.
  • 18.
  • 19. community of learners where  “critical both reflection and discourse are utilized to facilitate the construction of personally meaningful and socially valid knowledge” Garrison & Anderson, 2007, p. 21
  • 20. Supporting Social Discourse Cognitive Presence Presence Learning Experienc e Setting Selecting Climate Content Teaching Presence http://communitiesofinquiry.com/
  • 21.  socialpresence is “the ability of participants in a Community of Inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people through the medium of communication being used” Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2007). E-Learning in the 21st century: A Framework for Research and Practice. New York: RoutledgeFalmer
  • 22.  “the exploration, construction, resolution and confirmation of understanding through collaboration and reflection in a Community of Inquiry”
  • 23.  Teaching presence is “the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes”
  • 24. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Instructor’s general educational philosophy Theory of learning Content or Field, the theory and logic, the data and relationships Experience of instructor and students Need (Institutional, societal, individual and corporate needs of participants)
  • 25. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives
  • 26. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Assessment
  • 27. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 28. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Tools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, video Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 29. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Tools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, video Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 30. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Tools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, video Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 31. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Tools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, video Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 32. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Tools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, video Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 33. Instructional Design Philosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and Need Objectives Activities Forum, live chat, uploaded file, Tools audio, video Assessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
  • 34. Foundations for online learning and teaching include the philosophical, psychological and theoretical bases for developing and delivering effective online instruction. Institutional Considerations, Motivation, Community of Inquiry, Instructional Design
  • 35. Creating Robust Environments for Online Learning and Teaching: Part B- Applications Scot Headley, George Fox University
  • 36. Applications for online learning and teaching include the technological, relational and instructional strategies and techniques helpful for success in effective online instruction Technology Relationships Instruction
  • 37. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Effective Undergraduate Education (Chickering and Gamson, 1987 AAHE Bulletin) Good practice in undergraduate education: 1. encourages contact between students and faculty, 2. develops reciprocity and cooperation among students, 3. encourages active learning, 4. gives prompt feedback, 5. emphasizes time on task, 6. communicates high expectations, and 7. respects diverse talents and
  • 38. Technology Tools •Email, FTP, Web-based resources (Web 1.0) •Content Management System (Moodle, Blackboard, Sakai, etc.) •Web conferencing systems (Adobe Connect, Elumminate, iVocalize, Go to Meeting) •Multiuser Virtual Environments (Second Life) •Web 2.0 tools (wikis, blogs, media hosting such as Flickr and YouTube) •Public content management and community sites such as Google aps, Facebook, Ning, etc. •Open Educational Resources (Connexions, TED, etc.) •Chat, Phone over IP, Mobile applications
  • 39. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 1.Access and Motivation 2.Online Socialization 3.Information Exchange 4.Knowledge Construction 5.Development Salmon, G. (2000). E-Moderating: The key to teaching and learning online. London: Kogan Page.
  • 40. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 1.Access and Motivation Student Need: Get connected to course, access support materials, understand purpose and develop motivation. Instructor Response: Provide invitation and welcome, give clear direction regarding access and support. Motivation plan in place. Specific suggestions: Consistent, well organized system of presenting guidelines and instructions. Multiple communication avenues (email and course site, at least). Provide opportunity for informal exchange of personal information (student lounge, autobiographical statements, photos, etc.) Live gatherings, if possible for relation building and question and answer sessions. Clear and appropriate objectives, assignments and assessment.
  • 41. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 2. Online Socialization Student Need: Develop a sense of belonging and identity, learn to use the system(s) for accessing information and communication, understand guidelines for behavior. Instructor Response: Modeling appropriate interactivity, making connections between participants and the learning environment, promoting respect. Specific suggestions: Detailed syllabus and guidelines for expectations. Seed discussion areas with examples of postings, provide prompt feedback to initial posts. Encourage off-task communication in a lounge or “getting to know you” space. Redundant communication on expectations.
  • 42. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 3. Information Exchange Student Need: Select and use information, exchange ideas with others. Appropriately constrain interaction and information retrieval. Instructor Response: Directing effort. Presenting guidelines for interaction, research and assignments. Personalizing course activities. Specific suggestions: Share examples, assessment rubrics. Provide access to information sources, coach on information sources. Respond and interact with discretion.
  • 43. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 4. Knowledge Construction Student Need: Assert individual views. Make meaning and share new learning. Develop collaborative efforts at knowledge building. Instructor Response: Group building. Facilitating discussion and connecting the conversations with the content. Specific suggestions: Encourage collaboration, provide options on assignment if appropriate. Provide opportunities for demonstration of learning through reflection and application projects. Make introductions of people, resources, ideas.
  • 44. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 5. Development Student Need: Have and accept responsibility for self- learning. Challenge assumptions regarding process and content. Instructor Response: Openness to challenge. Support for self-directed learning. Troubleshoot technical or process issues. Specific suggestions: Provide appropriate and timely feedback. Check and recheck published information. Monitor discussions closely. Offer ongoing “office hours”.
  • 45. Communication and Feedback Timelines 1.Do not “over-participate” in forum discussions. Respond to conversations where appropriate, to answer direct questions, to clear up misunderstanding or to further a key point. 2.Consider offering a general impression of a conversation (a summary and analysis of a discussion as opposed to detailed feedback to every message. 3.Establish and publish firm commitments for responding to student communications: a. Phone and email: 24 hour response b. Course discussio n posting:
  • 46. Suggestions for Success •Instructors invest more time working with smaller sections of students. •Instructors take an active role in pursuing lurkers or non- participants. •Course planning and syllabi allow time for relationship building and reflection as primary activities of the course. •Depth of learning is a desired outcome, as much as or more than breadth. •Interaction amongst the participants is rewarded in the formal assessment of the course.
  • 47. Suggestions for Success •Instructors model commitment to relationships through prompt and respectful replies to inquiries and discussion. •Personal and technical needs and concerns of students are attended to and addressed appropriately. •The instructor invites interactions outside of the formal course space. •Feedback is prompt and readily available.
  • 48. Supporting Social Discourse Cognitive Presence Presence Learning Experienc e Setting Selecting Climate Content Teaching Presence http://communitiesofinquiry.com/
  • 49.  Instructional design and organization ◦ Setting Curriculum ◦ Designing Methods ◦ Establishing Time Parameters ◦ Utilizing Medium Effectively ◦ Establishing Netiquette
  • 50.  Facilitating Discourse ◦ Identifying Areas of Agreement/Disagreement ◦ Seeking to Reach Consensus/Understanding ◦ Encouraging, Acknowledging, or Reinforcing Student Contributions ◦ Setting Climate for Learning ◦ Drawing in Participants, Prompting Discussions ◦ Assess the Efficacy of the Process
  • 51.  Direct Instruction ◦ Present content/questions ◦ Focus the discussion on specific issues ◦ Summarize the discussion ◦ Confirm understanding through assessment and explanatory feedback ◦ Diagnose misconceptions ◦ Inject knowledge from diverse sources (Textbooks, articles, internet, personal experiences, etc) ◦ Responding to technical concerns
  • 52. Assumptions •Asynchronous vs. Synchronous elements •Fully online vs. Hybrid or Mixed Delivery •Orientation of Instructor regarding Nature of Learning, Role of Instructor, Role of Student •Activities (Reading, writing, discussing, building of…, demonstrating, presenting •Level of intellectual Activity (see Bloom) •Relationships: Student to student, Student to content, student to teacher, student to group
  • 53. Bloom’s Taxonomy (updated) Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information? Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? Analysing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm

Editor's Notes

  1. COI says that within an online course environment, there are three types of communication that occurs between participants—Social, Cognitive, and teaching. Together these forms of communication make up the Learning Experience.
  2. COI says that within an online course environment, there are three types of communication that occurs between participants—Social, Cognitive, and teaching. Together these forms of communication make up the Learning Experience.