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INNOVATION
AND LIFE
Innovation, for its part, can refer to something
new or to a change made to an existing product,
might say that the first telephone was
telephone either an invention or an innovation,
smartphone an innovation.
TYPES OF INNOVATION
 INCREMENTAL
 Incremental innovation is small,
modular change that takes place
slowly over time, and allows for a
gradual development of the product
and its marketplace.
 Coca Cola - From the initial formula
containing illicit substances to Diet Coke
to the current-day product with a variety
of flavor offerings, their product
development strategy has been a slow
burn of innovation.
 DISRUPTIVE
 Disruption is a change to the market
that is so powerful and different that
it requires others in the field to
follow suit or be left behind.
 Netflix - You could always rent movies
and old TV shows (remember
Blockbuster?), but Netflix was the first to
turn its offering into an on-demand
subscription model, accessible from the
comfort of our own homes, changing the
market and ultimately putting
Blockbuster out of business.
According to McKinsey, 84% of executives say that their future
success is dependent on innovation. Although innovation may
sound like a buzzword for some, there are many reasons why
companies put a lot of emphasis on it. In addition to the fact
that innovation allows organizations to stay relevant in the
competitive market, it also plays an important role in economic
growth.
IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATIONS IN BUSINESS:
1) Economic growth:
There’s generally two ways to increase the output of the economy :
•Increase the number of inputs that go to the productive process
•Come up with new ways to get more output from the same number of inputs
The purpose of innovation is to come up with new ideas and technologies that increase
productivity and generate greater output and value with the same input.
2) Innovation and the future of jobs :
Technological advancement and increased productivity means major changes for careers today as
well. The world economy could more than double in size by 2050 due to continued technology-driven
product improvements.
3) Increased well-being :
In general, innovation and economic growth increases well-being because living standards rise.
According to the Brookings Institution, average life satisfaction is higher in countries with greater GDP
per capita. Another research also shows that there’s a link between innovation and subjective wellbeing.
4) Reduced sickness, poverty and hunger :
• Developing countries depend on innovation as new digital technologies and innovative solutions
create huge opportunities to fight sickness, poverty and hunger in the poorest regions of the world.
• Developing and sharing agricultural innovations such as connecting farmers to information about
the weather, has proven to be an efficient way to help farmers stay in business.
• Increased agricultural produce leads to increase in inputs for manufacturing units and thus results in
increase in employment.
5) Environmental sustainability :
New greener technology solutions, such as eco vehicles aren’t necessarily more competitive alternatives
alternatives to petrol-powered vehicles just yet, they will definitely offer many advantages for the future.
TYPES OF INNOVATIONS:
1. Incremental Innovation :
Incremental innovation constitutes a gradual, continuous improvement of existing products
and services. While the least flashy of any of the categories, it offers the most evident value
to an established bottom line. By continuously improving products, services, and business
operations, organizations can reduce stagnation and consistently grow market share.
2. Radical Innovation :
Radical innovation typically utilizes a technological breakthrough that transforms industries
and creates new markets. This type of innovation completely changes how an organization
interacts with the marketplace. The success of the underlying technological shift to drive this
type of innovation is often related to the firm’s organizational behaviors and capabilities that
create the right conditions for new ideas to be successfully commercialized in the first place.
Internet is a global communication system that links together thousands
of individual networks. It allows exchange of information between two or
more computers on a network. Thus internet helps in transfer of
messages through mail, chat, video & audio conference, etc. It has
become mandatory for day-to-day activities: bills payment, online
shopping and surfing, tutoring, working, communicating with peers, etc.
There are 4.5 billion internet users in the world out of a total population of
7.7 billion, and in India, the number of internet users is 0.56 billion out of
1.37 billion people. Growth in internet users in India is at 11%. This
statistics throws a tremendous opportunity for business to utilize internet
platform to reach their end customers in online mode and accelerate their
business growth. In this topic, we are going to learn about the Uses of the
Internet for Business.
INTERNET, BROADBAND, WWW
(BROWSER AND HTML)
1) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) :
The Internet enables the organization to connect with all its customers and build a strong network with its
customers. New customer leads can be generated through this CRM portal and converted into prospect and order
with a systematic follow-up.
This portal enables to create of visibility on the marketing campaign and service programs conducted by the
organization. Customer feedback and their inputs on the company are used to improve the efficiency of the
operations and take the company to the next level.
2) Employee Productivity enhancement :
• Employees are connected to their office through the internet, enabling them to work from home and avoid
commuting hassles.
• Employees are trained online at their own pace.
• You Tube , blogs, and content on the internet provide inputs to employees to enhance their skills.
• Tools like Skype, Slack, and Trello available over the internet help employees collaborate with each other
effectively and clear the hurdles in the project on time.
• Project management tools hosted on the internet connect remote employees in the project review and efficiently
manage the project.
• Productivity enhancement in employees leads to business growth and prosperity.
A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell
phone, cellphone, handphone, hand phone or pocket phone,
sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell, or just phone, is a
portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio
frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service
area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the
switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides
access to the PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE
NETWORK (PSTN).
The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by Martin
Cooper of Motorola in New York City in 1973, using a handset
weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs). In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and
Telephone (NTT) launched the world's first cellular network in Japan.
In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available
handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile
phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion; enough to provide
one for every person on Earth.
MOBILE PHONES
USES OF MOBILE PHONES IN BUSINESS :
1) Improved Efficiency :
Mobile solutions increase operational efficiency by:
• Cutting down the need for face-to-face meetings which are often unnecessary and mismanaged
• Creating increased opportunities for management to communicate with staff
• Eliminating data silos for a free flow of information accessible to all workers
• Enabling real-time messaging for faster alignment and decision making. Workers can send and receive
no matter where they are
2) Mobile Communication Facilitates Greater Collaboration :
Collaboration is what can push a company ahead of its competitors. Creating a workplace that is built on a diversity of
drives innovation.
Computer-based workforce software has its limits. Primarily, it’s only accessible to desk-based workers. But mobile
reach to teams who are mobile or remote, particularly customer-facing workers who can provide their colleagues with
their products or services are being received.
3) Greater Autonomy and Empowered Workers :
A mobile communication tool at the tip of their fingertips gives workers a greater sense of belonging within the
with features that allow them to be more autonomous.
A few examples include:
• They can manage their own schedules.
• They have the power to provide feedback through surveys and messaging that can benefit the company.
MICROPROCESSOR
MEANING :
A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing
logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small
number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the
arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of
a computer's central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of
interpreting and executing program instructions and performing
arithmetic operations.
The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock-driven, register-based, digital integrated circuit that
accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results
(also in binary form) as output.
The integration of a whole CPU onto a single or a few integrated circuits using Very-Large-Scale
Integration (VLSI) greatly reduced the cost of processing power. Integrated circuit processors are produced in
large numbers by highly automated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) fabrication processes, resulting in a
relatively low unit price. Single-chip processors increase reliability because there are much fewer electrical
connections that could fail.
Advantages of a microprocessor :
•The microprocessor is that these are general purpose electronics processing devices which can be
programmed to execute a number of tasks
•Compact size
•High speed
•Low power consumption
•It is portable
•It is very reliable
•Less heat generation
•The microprocessor is very versatile
•The microprocessor is its speed, which is measured in basically Hertz. For instance, a microprocessor
with a measured speed 3 GHz, shortly GHz is capable of performing 3 billion tasks per second
•The microprocessor is that it can quickly move data between the various memory location
GLOBAL POSITIONING
SYSTEM
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is
a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States
government and operated by the United States Space Force.It is one of
the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) that
provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on
or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or
more GPS satellites. It does not require the user to transmit any data, and
operates independently of any telephonic or Internet reception, though
these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning
information. It provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and
commercial users around the world. Although the United States
government created, controls and maintains the GPS system, it is freely
accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
The GPS project was started by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973.
The first prototype spacecraft was launched in 1978 and the full
constellation of 24 satellites became operational in 1993. Originally limited
to use by the United States military, civilian use was allowed from the
1980s following an executive order from President Ronald Reagan after
the Korean Air Lines Flight 007 incident
What Are the Benefits of Using GPS in Business?
1) Efficiency :
Taking the time to ask for directions or attempting to find your way back to your preplanned route after getting lost on the road can waste
precious time, which can translate directly into lost revenue. Missing sales meetings and other crucial appointments can make or break a
small business courting its first customers. Using GPS can prevent you from getting lost on unfamiliar streets, showing you the quickest
route to get to your destination. This can be a life saver for business owners traveling to unfamiliar cities or meeting with potential strategic
partners, suppliers or customers in foreign countries.
2) Control :
Using GPS provides an unprecedented level of control over mobile units from a centralized location. Trucking companies and other delivery
services can view the locations of all trucks in their fleet from a central dispatch location in real time. Businesses providing company vehicles
for salespeople and other employees to use during work hours can track where the vehicles go throughout the day, ensuring that employees
in the field remain focused and do not take advantage of company assets.
3) Planning :
GPS is useful for planning routes before making a trip. Mobile or traveling employees and entrepreneurs can type in a route and review the
various turns and distances involved before striking out on their trip. This can allow you to feel more at ease when traveling, knowing what to
expect even before your GPS device signals an upcoming turn.
Microfinance
Microfinance is a category of financial services targeting individuals and
small businesses who lack access to conventional banking and related
services. Microfinance includes microcredit, the provision of small loans to
poor clients; savings and checking accounts; microinsurance; and payment
systems, among other services Microfinance services are designed to reach
excluded customers, usually poorer population segments, possibly socially
marginalized, or geographically more isolated, and to help them become self-
sufficient. ID Ghana is an example of a microfinance institution.
Microfinance initially had a limited definition: the provision of microloans to
poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to credit. The two
main mechanisms for the delivery of financial services to such clients were:
(1) relationship-based banking for individual entrepreneurs and small
businesses
(2) group-based models, where several entrepreneurs come together to apply
for loans and other services as a group. Over time, microfinance has
emerged as a larger movement whose object is: "a world in which as
everyone, especially the poor and socially marginalized people and
households have access to a wide range of affordable, high quality
financial products and services, including not just credit but also savings,
insurance, payment services, and fund transfers.
Goals of Microfinance Institutions :
Microfinance institutions have been gaining popularity in the recent years and are now considered as effective tools for
alleviating poverty. Most MFIs are well-run with great track records, while others are quite self-sufficient. The primary goals of
microfinance institutions are the following:
• Transform into a financial institution that assists in the development of communities that are sustainable.
• Help in the provision of resources that offer support to the lower sections of the society. There is special focus on women in
this regard, as they have emerged successful in setting up income generation enterprises.
• Evaluate the options available to help eradicate poverty at a faster rate.
• Mobilise self-employment opportunities for the underprivileged.
• Empowering rural people by training them in simple skills so that they are capable of setting up income generation businesses.
businesses.
Key Benefits :
• It enables people expand their present opportunities – The income accumulation of poor households has improved due to the
the presence of microfinance institutions that offer funds for their businesses.
• It provides easy access to credit – Microfinance opportunities provide people credit when it is needed the most. Banks do not
usually offer small loans to customers; MFIs providing microloans bridge this gap.
• It makes future investments possible– Microfinance makes more money available to the poor sections of the economy. So,
apart from financing the basic needs of these families, MFIs also provide them with credit for constructing better houses,
improving their healthcare facilities, and exploring better business opportunities.
• It serves the under-financed section of the society – Majority of the microfinance loans provided by MFIs are offered to
women. Unemployed people and those with disabilities are also beneficiaries of microfinance. These financing options help
people take control of their lives through the betterment of their living conditions.
Automated teller machine
An automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine (in British
English) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables
customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such
as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds transfers, balance inquiries or
account information inquiries, at any time and without the need for direct
interaction with bank staff. Using an ATM, customers can access their
bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of financial
transactions, most notably cash withdrawals and balance checking, as
well as transferring credit to and from mobile phones.
ATMs can also be used to withdraw cash in a foreign country. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is
different from that in which the bank account is denominated, the money will be converted at the financial
institution's exchange rate. Customers are typically identified by inserting a plastic ATM card (or some other
acceptable payment card) into the ATM, with authentication being by the customer entering a personal
identification number (PIN), which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card (if the card is so equipped),
or in the issuing financial institution's database.
According to the ATM Industry Association (ATMIA), as of 2015, there were close to 3.5 million ATMs installed
worldwide. However, the use of ATMs is gradually declining with the increase in cashless payment systems.
Benefits and Advantages of ATM :
•Users of ATM cards can easily withdraw cash by ATMs rather going to the bank and filling the withdraw slip and
standing in a queue.
•ATM machines are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week as well as 365 days a year we can use it anytime.
•We can make various payments with ATM cards like online shopping, restaurants, malls and numerous places you
can pay with the help of an ATM.
•ATM is now installed at many places like airports, railway stations, hospitals, and other places that facilitate the
people in withdrawing their money.
•ATM reduces the workload of the bank employees as the customers don’t visit banks to withdraw or deposit money.
The customer goes to the ATM instead of a bank.
•ATM is installed worldwide at a convenient place, so customers do not carry cash while travelling they quickly
withdraw money from ATM nearby.
•ATM is a monitor base system, so it saves human resources, and it saves time.
•The customer gets exact amount of money from the ATM.
•It is the service with minimum error.
•With every bank account a ATM card can be availed.
•No need of carrying cheque books and cash.
•Online shopping made extremely easy with the use of ATM cards.
•Can trace your account balance anytime using ATMs.
•Fixed deposit can be done using ATMs.
•Income tax filing can be done.
•Insurance payment can be done with the use of ATM cards.
•The personal loan can be applied using ATM.
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
Digital photography uses cameras containing arrays
of electronic photodetectors interfaced to an analog-to-digital
converter (ADC) to produce images focused by a lens, as opposed to
an exposure on photographic film. The digitized image is stored as
a computer file ready for further digital processing, viewing, electronic
publishing, or digital printing.
Digital photography spans a wide range of applications with a long
history. In the space industry, where much of the technology
originated, it pertains to highly customized, embedded
systems combined with sophisticated remote telemetry.
In the creative space, digital photos are often combined with
other digital images obtained from scanography and other methods
that are often used in digital art or media art.
The first consumer digital cameras were marketed in the late
1990s.[1] Professionals gravitated to digital slowly, and were won over
when their professional work required using digital files to fulfill the
demands of employers and/or clients, for faster turnaround than
conventional methods would allow.
Imagery in digital marketing :
The birth of digital marketing around 30 years ago has meant we are influenced online more than ever before.
before. Move aside newspapers and leaflets, social media platforms such as Instagram, are becoming an
increasingly effective way to raise your brand profile. Thus highlighting the importance of images and how they go
how they go hand in hand with digital marketing.
So this is where nailing your photography comes in. A precise, clear image will give a customer a quick delivery
delivery of what product you are selling. People don’t want to be bombarded with text after just landing on your
on your page, remember you have only around 3 seconds to engage that first-time user.
This means give them a smack in the face. No not literally, but we want to grab the user’s attention. We want to
want to show them the exact product they are interested in and how it can be used in everyday life, this is called
is called visual context. Once we’ve caught the consumer’s eye, further detail then can be provided.
The facts on imagery in digital marketing :
•Articles with relevant images average 94% more total views than articles without images.
•A press release with photos gets nearly 15% more online views than a text-only press release.
•60% of consumers who use online search say they prefer to contact a business whose listing includes an image.
an image.
•Nearly 70% of e-commerce website shoppers say the product image is very important when making their
their purchase decision
Instagram :
With over 800 million monthly users and over 200 million daily users, not getting to grips with this growing
growing platform could be detrimental to your company. If those numbers don’t do enough to tempt you, these
you, these will:
PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)
English mathematician and
inventor Charles Babbage is
credited with having conceived
the first automatic digital
computer. During the mid-
1830s Babbage developed plans
for the Analytical Engine.
Although it was never
completed, the Analytical
Engine would have had most of
the basic elements of the
present-day computer
Computer has been intervened to every sphere of
human life such as Mobile phones, TV shows,
Supermarkets, Hospitals, Railways, Matrimonial,
Share Tradings, Online Purchasing, Banking, Sports,
Traffic controls, Security Surveillance systems, Job
Recruitment, Robotics, Machine Learning, Artificial
Intelligence etc.
1. COMPUTER AND HUMAN LIFE
CORRELATED WITH COMMUNICATION
2. INFLUENCE OF COMPUTER IN
EDUCATION
3. INFLUENCE OF COMPUTER IN UTILITY
FACILITIES
4. COMPUTER BRINGS TREMENDOUS
PROGRESS IN HEALTH CARE SECTOR
E-MAIL
It was 1971 when Ray Tomlinson invented
and developed electronic mail, as we know
it today, by creating ARPANET's networked
email system. The concept of nearly
instantaneous communication between
machines within an organization proved to be
so beneficial and practical that the concept
soon began to spread
In 1971 the first ARPANET network mail was
sent, introducing the now-familiar address
syntax with the '@' symbol designating the
user's system address. Over a series of RFCs,
conventions were refined for sending mail
messages over the File Transfer Protocol.
Several other email networks developed in the
1970s and expanded subsequently
Five uses of email in our daily life are
given below.
•Communication.
•Receive Message.
•Send Attachments.
•Business use.
•Education Use
The benefit of email is that it provides people with standard, archived, one-to-many electronic communication.
Standard means that it is based on an international standard, SMTP , so that email send from any email client
application in any language anywhere in the world will be delivered to any other email client. Archived means
that email naturally saved by email servers and email clients for later use in a way that is typically more
organized and robust than other forms of electronic communcation, like texting and instant messages. One-to-
many means that email is designed to be delivered from one sender to many recipients - again more naturally
than text and messaging applications support. It is faster, less expensive, more convenient than traditional mail
delivery. It also delivers electronic documents
OFFICE SOFTWARE
is the former name of a suite of productivity
applications from Microsoft, announced on August
1, 1988 at COMDEX in Las Vegas by Bill Gates, and
officially launched for Microsoft Windows on
October 1, 1990. It was also made available for
Windows Phone, macOS, iOS, and Android
Office is produced in severalversions targeted
towards different end-usersand computing
environments.The original, and most widely used
version,is the desktop version,available
for PCs running
the Windows and macOS operatingsystems.
Microsoft also maintainsmobile apps
for Android and iOS. Office on the web is a version
of the software that runs within aweb browser.
1. Universal Software
2. Used by over 1.2 billion people
and most businesses
3. offers anytime, anywhere
access
4.OnlineSupport from Microsoft
5. Easy to use
7. Security
E-COMMERCE
What do you mean by ecommerce?
Ecommerce or electronic commerce is the trading of goods
and services on the internet. It is your bustling city center
or brick-and-mortar shop translated into zeroes and ones on
the internet superhighway
E-Commerce basically means to buy, sell and exchange
products, services, and information through computer
networks. On an E-Commerce platform, a person can deal
with customers around the world.
Cost reduction. One of the biggest advantages of
ecommerce to business that keep sellers interested in
online selling is cost reduction. Many sellers have to pay
lots to maintain their physical store. They may need to
pay extra up front costs like rent, repairs, store design,
inventory etc
Importance of eCommerce in our daily life
The importance of eCommerce in modern business startups
is almost mandatory. Even small and digital age
entrepreneurs are taking full advantage of eCommerce by
creating and promoting online store websites to increase
sales.
We spend our daily time more on the internet for work, study,
marketing, business, learning, and entertainment. Now all
these commercial and social activities are connected to the
internet.
While almost all commercial activities on the internet are
eCommerce. It’s not just about building an online store
website or selling products. Even if you sell business card
designs it’s also eCommerce. And without eCommerce the
world around the internet is impossible and it will scare you
to imagine.
That’s why eCommerce is important not only for consumers
but equally or even more important for consumers
MEDIA FILE COMPRESSION
When video, photo, or music is saved in a digital format,
the result can be a huge file that is hard to stream and
uses up a lot of memory on the computer or hard drive to
which it is saved. Therefore, files are compressed or made
smaller by removing some of the data. This is called
"lossy" compression.
What data is processed to media file compression?
All types of data are compressible: audio, video, text
files, pictures — you name it. Compression essentially
takes an input data set and encodes it using fewer bits
than the original file would have taken up on its own. This
information must then be decoded before you can interact
with it again
Image compression is a process applied to a graphics file
to minimize its size in bytes without degrading image
quality below an acceptable threshold. By reducing the file
size, more images can be stored in a given amount of
disk or memory space.
File compression is a method of data compression
that reduces the logical size of files to save disk space
for easier and faster transmission over the network or
Internet. It can create one or more versions of files with
the same data that are much smaller than the original file
What is the purpose of compressing files and folders?
Zipped (compressed) files take up less storage space
and can be transferred to other computers more
quickly than uncompressed files. In Windows, you work
with zipped files and folders in the same way that you
work with uncompressed files and folders.
BARCODE AND SCANNERS
What is barcoding and scanning?
Barcodes are machine-readable codes represented
visually as numbers and parallel lines. When
scanned by the laser beam of a barcode scanner,
these symbols produce a unique digital code.
Barcodes are affixed to and associated with
products to identify and distinguish them
A barcode reader is an optical scanner that can read
printed barcodes, decode the data contained in the
barcode to a computer. Like a flatbed scanner, it
consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor
for translating optical impulses into electrical
signals. Additionally, nearly all barcode readers
contain decoder circuitry that can analyse the
barcode's image data provided by the sensor and
send the barcode's content to the scanner's output
port.
How do I scan and check barcodes?
1.Install a barcode scanner app.
2.Open the app.
3.Allow permissions to your camera.
4.Locate the barcode on the object.
5.Center the barcode in the camera frame
Four Key Barcode
Benefits
1. Efficiency
2. Error Reduction
3. Tracking
4. Data Collection
LARGE SCALE WIND TURNINE
Wind power or wind energy is mostly the use of wind
turbines to generate electricity. Wind power is a popular,
sustainable, renewable energy source that has a much
smaller impact on the environment than burning fossil
fuels
Large wind turbines, most often used by utilities to
provide power to a grid, range from 100 kilowatts to
several megawatts. These utility-scale turbines are often
grouped together in wind farms to produce large amounts
of electricity.
Several electricity providers today use wind plants to
supply power to their customers. Stand-alone wind
turbines are typically used for water pumping or
communications. However, homeowners, farmers, and
ranchers in windy areas can also use wind turbines as a
way to cut their electric bills
What is the impact of wind energy on humans?
Indeed, a small proportion of people that live near
wind turbines have reported adverse health
effects such as (but not limited to) ringing in
ears, headaches, lack of concentration,
vertigo, and sleep disruption that they attribute
to the wind turbines
What do humans use wind energy for?
Humans use this wind flow, or motion energy, for
many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even
generating electricity. The terms "wind energy"
and "wind power" both describe the process by
which the wind is used to generate mechanical
power or electricity.
Who benefits from wind turbines?
Wind energy can provide income for farmers and
ranchers, as well as economic benefits to
communities. 5. Wind energy is an inexhaustible
renewable energy source. Wind energy is plentiful
and readily available, and capturing its power does
not deplete our natural resources
GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS
Tastier food. Disease- and drought-resistant plants that
require fewer environmental resources (such as water and
fertilizer) Less use of pesticides. Increased supply of food
with reduced cost and longer shelf life.
Plants with favourable characteristics have been
produced for thousands of years by conventional
breeding methods. Desirable traits are selected,
combined and propagated by repeated sexual crossings
over numerous generations. This is a long process,
taking up to 15 years to produce new varieties.1 Genetic
engineering not only allows this process to be
dramatically accelerated in a highly targeted manner
by introducing a small number of genes, it can also
overcome the barrier of sexual incompatibility between
plant species and vastly increase the size of the
available gene pool
Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a
large amount of media attention in recent years and
continue to do so. Despite this, the general public
remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually
is or what advantages and disadvantages the
technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the
range of applications for which they can be used. From
the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of
concern have emerged, namely risk to the
environment and risk to human health. As GM plants
are gradually being introduced into the European
Union there is likely to be increasing public concern
regarding potential health issues. Although it is now
commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health
campaigns’, the information they publish is often
unreliable and unrepresentative of the available
scientific evidence. We consider it important that the
medical profession should be aware of the state of the
art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a
concerned patient, be in a position to provide an
informed opinion.

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INNOVATION AND LIFE.pptx

  • 1. INNOVATION AND LIFE Innovation, for its part, can refer to something new or to a change made to an existing product, might say that the first telephone was telephone either an invention or an innovation, smartphone an innovation.
  • 2. TYPES OF INNOVATION  INCREMENTAL  Incremental innovation is small, modular change that takes place slowly over time, and allows for a gradual development of the product and its marketplace.  Coca Cola - From the initial formula containing illicit substances to Diet Coke to the current-day product with a variety of flavor offerings, their product development strategy has been a slow burn of innovation.  DISRUPTIVE  Disruption is a change to the market that is so powerful and different that it requires others in the field to follow suit or be left behind.  Netflix - You could always rent movies and old TV shows (remember Blockbuster?), but Netflix was the first to turn its offering into an on-demand subscription model, accessible from the comfort of our own homes, changing the market and ultimately putting Blockbuster out of business.
  • 3. According to McKinsey, 84% of executives say that their future success is dependent on innovation. Although innovation may sound like a buzzword for some, there are many reasons why companies put a lot of emphasis on it. In addition to the fact that innovation allows organizations to stay relevant in the competitive market, it also plays an important role in economic growth. IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATIONS IN BUSINESS: 1) Economic growth: There’s generally two ways to increase the output of the economy : •Increase the number of inputs that go to the productive process •Come up with new ways to get more output from the same number of inputs The purpose of innovation is to come up with new ideas and technologies that increase productivity and generate greater output and value with the same input. 2) Innovation and the future of jobs : Technological advancement and increased productivity means major changes for careers today as well. The world economy could more than double in size by 2050 due to continued technology-driven product improvements.
  • 4. 3) Increased well-being : In general, innovation and economic growth increases well-being because living standards rise. According to the Brookings Institution, average life satisfaction is higher in countries with greater GDP per capita. Another research also shows that there’s a link between innovation and subjective wellbeing. 4) Reduced sickness, poverty and hunger : • Developing countries depend on innovation as new digital technologies and innovative solutions create huge opportunities to fight sickness, poverty and hunger in the poorest regions of the world. • Developing and sharing agricultural innovations such as connecting farmers to information about the weather, has proven to be an efficient way to help farmers stay in business. • Increased agricultural produce leads to increase in inputs for manufacturing units and thus results in increase in employment. 5) Environmental sustainability : New greener technology solutions, such as eco vehicles aren’t necessarily more competitive alternatives alternatives to petrol-powered vehicles just yet, they will definitely offer many advantages for the future.
  • 5. TYPES OF INNOVATIONS: 1. Incremental Innovation : Incremental innovation constitutes a gradual, continuous improvement of existing products and services. While the least flashy of any of the categories, it offers the most evident value to an established bottom line. By continuously improving products, services, and business operations, organizations can reduce stagnation and consistently grow market share. 2. Radical Innovation : Radical innovation typically utilizes a technological breakthrough that transforms industries and creates new markets. This type of innovation completely changes how an organization interacts with the marketplace. The success of the underlying technological shift to drive this type of innovation is often related to the firm’s organizational behaviors and capabilities that create the right conditions for new ideas to be successfully commercialized in the first place.
  • 6. Internet is a global communication system that links together thousands of individual networks. It allows exchange of information between two or more computers on a network. Thus internet helps in transfer of messages through mail, chat, video & audio conference, etc. It has become mandatory for day-to-day activities: bills payment, online shopping and surfing, tutoring, working, communicating with peers, etc. There are 4.5 billion internet users in the world out of a total population of 7.7 billion, and in India, the number of internet users is 0.56 billion out of 1.37 billion people. Growth in internet users in India is at 11%. This statistics throws a tremendous opportunity for business to utilize internet platform to reach their end customers in online mode and accelerate their business growth. In this topic, we are going to learn about the Uses of the Internet for Business. INTERNET, BROADBAND, WWW (BROWSER AND HTML)
  • 7. 1) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) : The Internet enables the organization to connect with all its customers and build a strong network with its customers. New customer leads can be generated through this CRM portal and converted into prospect and order with a systematic follow-up. This portal enables to create of visibility on the marketing campaign and service programs conducted by the organization. Customer feedback and their inputs on the company are used to improve the efficiency of the operations and take the company to the next level. 2) Employee Productivity enhancement : • Employees are connected to their office through the internet, enabling them to work from home and avoid commuting hassles. • Employees are trained online at their own pace. • You Tube , blogs, and content on the internet provide inputs to employees to enhance their skills. • Tools like Skype, Slack, and Trello available over the internet help employees collaborate with each other effectively and clear the hurdles in the project on time. • Project management tools hosted on the internet connect remote employees in the project review and efficiently manage the project. • Productivity enhancement in employees leads to business growth and prosperity.
  • 8. A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, hand phone or pocket phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell, or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK (PSTN). The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by Martin Cooper of Motorola in New York City in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs). In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion; enough to provide one for every person on Earth. MOBILE PHONES
  • 9. USES OF MOBILE PHONES IN BUSINESS : 1) Improved Efficiency : Mobile solutions increase operational efficiency by: • Cutting down the need for face-to-face meetings which are often unnecessary and mismanaged • Creating increased opportunities for management to communicate with staff • Eliminating data silos for a free flow of information accessible to all workers • Enabling real-time messaging for faster alignment and decision making. Workers can send and receive no matter where they are 2) Mobile Communication Facilitates Greater Collaboration : Collaboration is what can push a company ahead of its competitors. Creating a workplace that is built on a diversity of drives innovation. Computer-based workforce software has its limits. Primarily, it’s only accessible to desk-based workers. But mobile reach to teams who are mobile or remote, particularly customer-facing workers who can provide their colleagues with their products or services are being received. 3) Greater Autonomy and Empowered Workers : A mobile communication tool at the tip of their fingertips gives workers a greater sense of belonging within the with features that allow them to be more autonomous. A few examples include: • They can manage their own schedules. • They have the power to provide feedback through surveys and messaging that can benefit the company.
  • 10. MICROPROCESSOR MEANING : A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer's central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of interpreting and executing program instructions and performing arithmetic operations. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock-driven, register-based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results (also in binary form) as output. The integration of a whole CPU onto a single or a few integrated circuits using Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) greatly reduced the cost of processing power. Integrated circuit processors are produced in large numbers by highly automated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) fabrication processes, resulting in a relatively low unit price. Single-chip processors increase reliability because there are much fewer electrical connections that could fail.
  • 11. Advantages of a microprocessor : •The microprocessor is that these are general purpose electronics processing devices which can be programmed to execute a number of tasks •Compact size •High speed •Low power consumption •It is portable •It is very reliable •Less heat generation •The microprocessor is very versatile •The microprocessor is its speed, which is measured in basically Hertz. For instance, a microprocessor with a measured speed 3 GHz, shortly GHz is capable of performing 3 billion tasks per second •The microprocessor is that it can quickly move data between the various memory location
  • 12. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Space Force.It is one of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It does not require the user to transmit any data, and operates independently of any telephonic or Internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. It provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. Although the United States government created, controls and maintains the GPS system, it is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was started by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973. The first prototype spacecraft was launched in 1978 and the full constellation of 24 satellites became operational in 1993. Originally limited to use by the United States military, civilian use was allowed from the 1980s following an executive order from President Ronald Reagan after the Korean Air Lines Flight 007 incident
  • 13. What Are the Benefits of Using GPS in Business? 1) Efficiency : Taking the time to ask for directions or attempting to find your way back to your preplanned route after getting lost on the road can waste precious time, which can translate directly into lost revenue. Missing sales meetings and other crucial appointments can make or break a small business courting its first customers. Using GPS can prevent you from getting lost on unfamiliar streets, showing you the quickest route to get to your destination. This can be a life saver for business owners traveling to unfamiliar cities or meeting with potential strategic partners, suppliers or customers in foreign countries. 2) Control : Using GPS provides an unprecedented level of control over mobile units from a centralized location. Trucking companies and other delivery services can view the locations of all trucks in their fleet from a central dispatch location in real time. Businesses providing company vehicles for salespeople and other employees to use during work hours can track where the vehicles go throughout the day, ensuring that employees in the field remain focused and do not take advantage of company assets. 3) Planning : GPS is useful for planning routes before making a trip. Mobile or traveling employees and entrepreneurs can type in a route and review the various turns and distances involved before striking out on their trip. This can allow you to feel more at ease when traveling, knowing what to expect even before your GPS device signals an upcoming turn.
  • 14. Microfinance Microfinance is a category of financial services targeting individuals and small businesses who lack access to conventional banking and related services. Microfinance includes microcredit, the provision of small loans to poor clients; savings and checking accounts; microinsurance; and payment systems, among other services Microfinance services are designed to reach excluded customers, usually poorer population segments, possibly socially marginalized, or geographically more isolated, and to help them become self- sufficient. ID Ghana is an example of a microfinance institution. Microfinance initially had a limited definition: the provision of microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to credit. The two main mechanisms for the delivery of financial services to such clients were: (1) relationship-based banking for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses (2) group-based models, where several entrepreneurs come together to apply for loans and other services as a group. Over time, microfinance has emerged as a larger movement whose object is: "a world in which as everyone, especially the poor and socially marginalized people and households have access to a wide range of affordable, high quality financial products and services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, payment services, and fund transfers.
  • 15. Goals of Microfinance Institutions : Microfinance institutions have been gaining popularity in the recent years and are now considered as effective tools for alleviating poverty. Most MFIs are well-run with great track records, while others are quite self-sufficient. The primary goals of microfinance institutions are the following: • Transform into a financial institution that assists in the development of communities that are sustainable. • Help in the provision of resources that offer support to the lower sections of the society. There is special focus on women in this regard, as they have emerged successful in setting up income generation enterprises. • Evaluate the options available to help eradicate poverty at a faster rate. • Mobilise self-employment opportunities for the underprivileged. • Empowering rural people by training them in simple skills so that they are capable of setting up income generation businesses. businesses. Key Benefits : • It enables people expand their present opportunities – The income accumulation of poor households has improved due to the the presence of microfinance institutions that offer funds for their businesses. • It provides easy access to credit – Microfinance opportunities provide people credit when it is needed the most. Banks do not usually offer small loans to customers; MFIs providing microloans bridge this gap. • It makes future investments possible– Microfinance makes more money available to the poor sections of the economy. So, apart from financing the basic needs of these families, MFIs also provide them with credit for constructing better houses, improving their healthcare facilities, and exploring better business opportunities. • It serves the under-financed section of the society – Majority of the microfinance loans provided by MFIs are offered to women. Unemployed people and those with disabilities are also beneficiaries of microfinance. These financing options help people take control of their lives through the betterment of their living conditions.
  • 16. Automated teller machine An automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine (in British English) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds transfers, balance inquiries or account information inquiries, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of financial transactions, most notably cash withdrawals and balance checking, as well as transferring credit to and from mobile phones. ATMs can also be used to withdraw cash in a foreign country. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated, the money will be converted at the financial institution's exchange rate. Customers are typically identified by inserting a plastic ATM card (or some other acceptable payment card) into the ATM, with authentication being by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN), which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card (if the card is so equipped), or in the issuing financial institution's database. According to the ATM Industry Association (ATMIA), as of 2015, there were close to 3.5 million ATMs installed worldwide. However, the use of ATMs is gradually declining with the increase in cashless payment systems.
  • 17. Benefits and Advantages of ATM : •Users of ATM cards can easily withdraw cash by ATMs rather going to the bank and filling the withdraw slip and standing in a queue. •ATM machines are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week as well as 365 days a year we can use it anytime. •We can make various payments with ATM cards like online shopping, restaurants, malls and numerous places you can pay with the help of an ATM. •ATM is now installed at many places like airports, railway stations, hospitals, and other places that facilitate the people in withdrawing their money. •ATM reduces the workload of the bank employees as the customers don’t visit banks to withdraw or deposit money. The customer goes to the ATM instead of a bank. •ATM is installed worldwide at a convenient place, so customers do not carry cash while travelling they quickly withdraw money from ATM nearby. •ATM is a monitor base system, so it saves human resources, and it saves time. •The customer gets exact amount of money from the ATM. •It is the service with minimum error. •With every bank account a ATM card can be availed. •No need of carrying cheque books and cash. •Online shopping made extremely easy with the use of ATM cards. •Can trace your account balance anytime using ATMs. •Fixed deposit can be done using ATMs. •Income tax filing can be done. •Insurance payment can be done with the use of ATM cards. •The personal loan can be applied using ATM.
  • 18. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Digital photography uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors interfaced to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to produce images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film. The digitized image is stored as a computer file ready for further digital processing, viewing, electronic publishing, or digital printing. Digital photography spans a wide range of applications with a long history. In the space industry, where much of the technology originated, it pertains to highly customized, embedded systems combined with sophisticated remote telemetry. In the creative space, digital photos are often combined with other digital images obtained from scanography and other methods that are often used in digital art or media art. The first consumer digital cameras were marketed in the late 1990s.[1] Professionals gravitated to digital slowly, and were won over when their professional work required using digital files to fulfill the demands of employers and/or clients, for faster turnaround than conventional methods would allow.
  • 19. Imagery in digital marketing : The birth of digital marketing around 30 years ago has meant we are influenced online more than ever before. before. Move aside newspapers and leaflets, social media platforms such as Instagram, are becoming an increasingly effective way to raise your brand profile. Thus highlighting the importance of images and how they go how they go hand in hand with digital marketing. So this is where nailing your photography comes in. A precise, clear image will give a customer a quick delivery delivery of what product you are selling. People don’t want to be bombarded with text after just landing on your on your page, remember you have only around 3 seconds to engage that first-time user. This means give them a smack in the face. No not literally, but we want to grab the user’s attention. We want to want to show them the exact product they are interested in and how it can be used in everyday life, this is called is called visual context. Once we’ve caught the consumer’s eye, further detail then can be provided. The facts on imagery in digital marketing : •Articles with relevant images average 94% more total views than articles without images. •A press release with photos gets nearly 15% more online views than a text-only press release. •60% of consumers who use online search say they prefer to contact a business whose listing includes an image. an image. •Nearly 70% of e-commerce website shoppers say the product image is very important when making their their purchase decision Instagram : With over 800 million monthly users and over 200 million daily users, not getting to grips with this growing growing platform could be detrimental to your company. If those numbers don’t do enough to tempt you, these you, these will:
  • 20. PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) English mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage is credited with having conceived the first automatic digital computer. During the mid- 1830s Babbage developed plans for the Analytical Engine. Although it was never completed, the Analytical Engine would have had most of the basic elements of the present-day computer
  • 21. Computer has been intervened to every sphere of human life such as Mobile phones, TV shows, Supermarkets, Hospitals, Railways, Matrimonial, Share Tradings, Online Purchasing, Banking, Sports, Traffic controls, Security Surveillance systems, Job Recruitment, Robotics, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence etc. 1. COMPUTER AND HUMAN LIFE CORRELATED WITH COMMUNICATION 2. INFLUENCE OF COMPUTER IN EDUCATION 3. INFLUENCE OF COMPUTER IN UTILITY FACILITIES 4. COMPUTER BRINGS TREMENDOUS PROGRESS IN HEALTH CARE SECTOR
  • 22. E-MAIL It was 1971 when Ray Tomlinson invented and developed electronic mail, as we know it today, by creating ARPANET's networked email system. The concept of nearly instantaneous communication between machines within an organization proved to be so beneficial and practical that the concept soon began to spread In 1971 the first ARPANET network mail was sent, introducing the now-familiar address syntax with the '@' symbol designating the user's system address. Over a series of RFCs, conventions were refined for sending mail messages over the File Transfer Protocol. Several other email networks developed in the 1970s and expanded subsequently
  • 23. Five uses of email in our daily life are given below. •Communication. •Receive Message. •Send Attachments. •Business use. •Education Use The benefit of email is that it provides people with standard, archived, one-to-many electronic communication. Standard means that it is based on an international standard, SMTP , so that email send from any email client application in any language anywhere in the world will be delivered to any other email client. Archived means that email naturally saved by email servers and email clients for later use in a way that is typically more organized and robust than other forms of electronic communcation, like texting and instant messages. One-to- many means that email is designed to be delivered from one sender to many recipients - again more naturally than text and messaging applications support. It is faster, less expensive, more convenient than traditional mail delivery. It also delivers electronic documents
  • 24. OFFICE SOFTWARE is the former name of a suite of productivity applications from Microsoft, announced on August 1, 1988 at COMDEX in Las Vegas by Bill Gates, and officially launched for Microsoft Windows on October 1, 1990. It was also made available for Windows Phone, macOS, iOS, and Android Office is produced in severalversions targeted towards different end-usersand computing environments.The original, and most widely used version,is the desktop version,available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operatingsystems. Microsoft also maintainsmobile apps for Android and iOS. Office on the web is a version of the software that runs within aweb browser.
  • 25. 1. Universal Software 2. Used by over 1.2 billion people and most businesses 3. offers anytime, anywhere access 4.OnlineSupport from Microsoft 5. Easy to use 7. Security
  • 26. E-COMMERCE What do you mean by ecommerce? Ecommerce or electronic commerce is the trading of goods and services on the internet. It is your bustling city center or brick-and-mortar shop translated into zeroes and ones on the internet superhighway E-Commerce basically means to buy, sell and exchange products, services, and information through computer networks. On an E-Commerce platform, a person can deal with customers around the world. Cost reduction. One of the biggest advantages of ecommerce to business that keep sellers interested in online selling is cost reduction. Many sellers have to pay lots to maintain their physical store. They may need to pay extra up front costs like rent, repairs, store design, inventory etc
  • 27. Importance of eCommerce in our daily life The importance of eCommerce in modern business startups is almost mandatory. Even small and digital age entrepreneurs are taking full advantage of eCommerce by creating and promoting online store websites to increase sales. We spend our daily time more on the internet for work, study, marketing, business, learning, and entertainment. Now all these commercial and social activities are connected to the internet. While almost all commercial activities on the internet are eCommerce. It’s not just about building an online store website or selling products. Even if you sell business card designs it’s also eCommerce. And without eCommerce the world around the internet is impossible and it will scare you to imagine. That’s why eCommerce is important not only for consumers but equally or even more important for consumers
  • 28. MEDIA FILE COMPRESSION When video, photo, or music is saved in a digital format, the result can be a huge file that is hard to stream and uses up a lot of memory on the computer or hard drive to which it is saved. Therefore, files are compressed or made smaller by removing some of the data. This is called "lossy" compression. What data is processed to media file compression? All types of data are compressible: audio, video, text files, pictures — you name it. Compression essentially takes an input data set and encodes it using fewer bits than the original file would have taken up on its own. This information must then be decoded before you can interact with it again
  • 29. Image compression is a process applied to a graphics file to minimize its size in bytes without degrading image quality below an acceptable threshold. By reducing the file size, more images can be stored in a given amount of disk or memory space. File compression is a method of data compression that reduces the logical size of files to save disk space for easier and faster transmission over the network or Internet. It can create one or more versions of files with the same data that are much smaller than the original file What is the purpose of compressing files and folders? Zipped (compressed) files take up less storage space and can be transferred to other computers more quickly than uncompressed files. In Windows, you work with zipped files and folders in the same way that you work with uncompressed files and folders.
  • 30. BARCODE AND SCANNERS What is barcoding and scanning? Barcodes are machine-readable codes represented visually as numbers and parallel lines. When scanned by the laser beam of a barcode scanner, these symbols produce a unique digital code. Barcodes are affixed to and associated with products to identify and distinguish them A barcode reader is an optical scanner that can read printed barcodes, decode the data contained in the barcode to a computer. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor for translating optical impulses into electrical signals. Additionally, nearly all barcode readers contain decoder circuitry that can analyse the barcode's image data provided by the sensor and send the barcode's content to the scanner's output port.
  • 31. How do I scan and check barcodes? 1.Install a barcode scanner app. 2.Open the app. 3.Allow permissions to your camera. 4.Locate the barcode on the object. 5.Center the barcode in the camera frame Four Key Barcode Benefits 1. Efficiency 2. Error Reduction 3. Tracking 4. Data Collection
  • 32. LARGE SCALE WIND TURNINE Wind power or wind energy is mostly the use of wind turbines to generate electricity. Wind power is a popular, sustainable, renewable energy source that has a much smaller impact on the environment than burning fossil fuels Large wind turbines, most often used by utilities to provide power to a grid, range from 100 kilowatts to several megawatts. These utility-scale turbines are often grouped together in wind farms to produce large amounts of electricity. Several electricity providers today use wind plants to supply power to their customers. Stand-alone wind turbines are typically used for water pumping or communications. However, homeowners, farmers, and ranchers in windy areas can also use wind turbines as a way to cut their electric bills
  • 33. What is the impact of wind energy on humans? Indeed, a small proportion of people that live near wind turbines have reported adverse health effects such as (but not limited to) ringing in ears, headaches, lack of concentration, vertigo, and sleep disruption that they attribute to the wind turbines What do humans use wind energy for? Humans use this wind flow, or motion energy, for many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even generating electricity. The terms "wind energy" and "wind power" both describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Who benefits from wind turbines? Wind energy can provide income for farmers and ranchers, as well as economic benefits to communities. 5. Wind energy is an inexhaustible renewable energy source. Wind energy is plentiful and readily available, and capturing its power does not deplete our natural resources
  • 34. GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS Tastier food. Disease- and drought-resistant plants that require fewer environmental resources (such as water and fertilizer) Less use of pesticides. Increased supply of food with reduced cost and longer shelf life. Plants with favourable characteristics have been produced for thousands of years by conventional breeding methods. Desirable traits are selected, combined and propagated by repeated sexual crossings over numerous generations. This is a long process, taking up to 15 years to produce new varieties.1 Genetic engineering not only allows this process to be dramatically accelerated in a highly targeted manner by introducing a small number of genes, it can also overcome the barrier of sexual incompatibility between plant species and vastly increase the size of the available gene pool
  • 35. Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion.