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Infection Control
‫البيطار‬ ‫حاتم‬ ‫د‬
0100564344
Overview
Infection control is important in departmental workplaces.
There are specific diseases that can spread easily in our
workplaces if controls are not in place.
To protect your own health as well as the health of those
around you, an understanding of infectious diseases, how they
are spread and how to control them is fundamental.
Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases are diseases you can “catch”.
Humans are susceptible to a wide range of diseases that can be
contracted from:
 Other people (e.g. measles)
 Insects (e.g. mosquitoes)
 Animals = zoonosis (e.g. bats, horses, cattle)
 The environment (e.g. contaminated water, waste).
DepartmentalWorkplaces
Infectious diseases spread easily
in our workplaces - why?
Groups of people, in close contact, for
extended periods and on a daily basis
e.g. classrooms.
Culture of attendance (staff/students/others)
Even when sick.
Possible contact with asymptomatic carriers
e.g. contagious before the symptoms show.
Non-vaccinated populations
Environmental
e.g. Returning to workplaces that may have been flooded,
contaminated with waste water/surface water.
DepartmentalWorkplaces continued
Hygiene issues
e.g. poor cough and sneeze etiquette, hand washing.
Workplace activities
e.g. contact sports, special education, first aid.
Work duties
e.g. cleaning and maintenance, toileting.
Community engagement
e.g.Visitors and volunteers
Curriculum
e.g. Handling animals, food preparation and
food consumption, science activities.
Locations
e.g. Mosquito-borne diseases (Ross River, Dengue,
Japanese Encephalitis).
How infectious diseases are transmitted
— modes of transmission
Contact transmission
– direct contact with infectious blood or body substances.
Droplet transmission
– infectious agent in large droplets (respiratory secretions / splash /
splatter).
Airborne transmission
– infectious agent in aerosols and are inhaled.
Food-borne transmission
– consumption of contaminated food.
Water-borne transmission
– consumption of contaminated water.
Vector-borne transmission
– carried by a vector e.g. mosquito bites etc.
Airborne/DropletTransmission
Large particles (droplets) can carry viruses and bacteria through the
air which can then be deposited onto mucous membranes (eye, nose,
mouth) of a susceptible person (e.g. via sneezing, coughing, talking).
e.g. whooping cough, rubella, mumps, influenza, meningococcal disease.
Small particles (aerosols) that are airborne, may also be
deposited on mucous membranes or inhaled directly.
e.g. tuberculosis, Q fever, legionella, chicken pox, measles.
ContactTransmission
Direct contact
When blood or bodily substances from a person or animal come in
direct contact with another person in such a way that it can enter
their body.
e.g. Infected blood or other bodily fluid enters
another person’s system directly, via a wound or
via mucous membrane
e.g. needle stick injury, diseases passed from mother to
foetus, saliva exchange.
e.g. Infected blood or other body fluid from an
animal, enters another person’s system via a
wound or via mucous membranes
e.g. bat lyssavirus (scratch/bite), Ross River virus
(mosquito).
ContactTransmission – Indirect
Indirect contact
When germs from an infected host or
other source are passively transmitted to
another person e.g. via an inanimate object.
Inanimate objects: e.g. surfaces, keyboards, mouse, telephone,
iPad, utensils, cups, toothbrushes, razors, soiled linen, taps and
sinks etc.
Controlling Infectious Diseases
Controlling infectious diseases requires a
“multi-faceted” approach considering:
 Modes of transmission
 Evolving diseases and germ resistance
 People’s behaviour, knowledge & beliefs
 Environment (where we work, learn & play)
 Changing circumstances & emergencies
 Individual requirements & group requirements
The department therefore requires a tailored
Infection Control Program be implemented
Infection Control Program
Key elements of and effective Infection Control Program
How to Implement Infection Control
◦ Promote infection control as standard
practice.
◦ Know the risks in your workplace, how diseases are
transmitted and how to implement controls.
◦ Have processes and protocols in place.
◦ Have appropriate facilities and consumables
(allocate funds).
◦ Signage e.g. correct hand washing technique.
◦ Provide and take part in training sessions.
◦ Maintain records of training.
◦ Promote vaccination.
◦ Adopt a risk management approach to infection
control.
Potential Infectious
Diseases in the
Workplace
 The Queensland Health
“Time Out” poster is an
excellent quick reference
resource.
 Teachers/school staff and
managers should model the
recommended exclusion
periods when they are unwell.
Protocol for managing infectious diseases
If a staff or student/parent advises of an infectious disease…
1. Maintain confidentiality, but inform the appropriate person at
your location (e.g. school admin/workplace manager).
2. Actions for School Admin/ Management
a) Determine the nature of the disease? (measles,
chickenpox)
b) Confirm diagnosis (i.e. was the disease diagnosed by a
doctor?)
c) If confirmed by a doctor, seek relevant information
from Queensland Health.
d) When confirmed, the school/workplace may provide
information to staff/school community to be aware of
symptoms and recommended actions e.g. using a link
to a Queensland Health Fact Sheet.
Protocol for managing infectious diseases
continued
 Schools / workplaces do not notify
Queensland Health, but can call
them for advice if needed.
 If a prescribed contagious condition has
been diagnosed the doctor or
laboratory will notify Queensland
Health.
 Queensland Health will only notify a
school in particular circumstances, e.g. a
community cluster/outbreak.
Preventing the spread of infection
Hand Washing
Hand washing is one of the most important measures in preventing
transmission of infection.
Hands should be washed using soap, water and then dried:
 BEFORE
‒ handling, preparing or eating food
 BEFORE AND AFTER
‒ assisting students with eating/meals
‒ assisting students with toileting
‒ providing first aid or medication
‒ contact with an ill or injured person
 AFTER
‒ contact with blood or body fluids
(this includes your own e.g. sneezing/coughing)
‒ removal of protective gloves
‒ using the toilet; and
‒ after contact with animals.
Vaccination
 Vaccination is not mandatory for staff or students of the department.
 However where a vaccination exists, this is the highest order of protection
from the infectious disease.
 Vaccination boosts the immune system and creates immunity that protects
from an infection without causing the suffering of the disease itself.
 Most vaccines contain a little bit of the disease germ that is weak or dead.
Vaccines do NOT contain the type of germ that makes you sick.
 Getting the vaccine is a much safer way to make antibodies without
having to suffer the disease itself.
Occupation SpecificVaccination
RecommendedVaccinations for:
 Persons who work with children
‒ Influenza
‒ MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)
‒ Pertussis (whooping cough)
‒Varicella (chicken pox).
 Staff working in early childhood education
and care
‒ All of the above plus hepatitis A.
Source: Australian Immunisation Handbook
10th Edition
Vaccination Funding
StaffType Disease Funding Source
School Cleaners
School’s Officers
Teacher Aides
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Workplace
Living and working in outer
islands of Torres Strait
Japanese Encephalitis Workplace
At risk of acquiring TB Tuberculosis Workplace – check with TB
Control unit
Ag studies – with risk of
exposure to Q fever
Q fever Workplace
All staff participating in
Annual Flu Program
Seasonal Influenza Funding determined locally
All staff National Immunisation
Program
vaccinations/boosters
Self funded
Prescribed Contagious Conditions
Prescribed Contagious Conditions as defined by Queensland’s
Public Health Act 2005 - Chapter 5 Part 2
• chickenpox (varicella)
• diphtheria
• enterovirus 71
• gastroenteritis
• german measles (rubella)
• haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
• hepatitis A
• influenza
• measles
• meningococcal disease (bacterial)
• poliomyelitis
• typhoid and paratyphoid
• tuberculosis
• whooping cough (pertussis)
Fact Sheet for Schools and Education and Care Services
Public Health Act 2005 – Contagious Conditions
Fact Sheet for Schools and Education and Care Services
Information for Schools, Education and Care Services and Child Care
Services
Protocols for prescribed contagious
conditions
 Under the Public Health Act 2005 children with a prescribed contagious condition
should not attend school or childcare until well and non-infectious.
 Unvaccinated children may need to stay away during a measles outbreak if they
are at risk of infection or infecting others.
 Following consultation with Queensland Health, school principals can require
children to stay away for a specified period if they have or are suspected to have
a contagious condition.
 Staff are expected to model appropriate behaviour and stay away from the
workplace if they are unwell or infectious.
 If a staff member contracts a work-caused serious illness as defined by Work
Health and Safety Legislation, this is to be notified toWorkplace Health and
Safety Queensland by the workplace.
Diseases related to pregnancy
Our departmental workplaces have a large number of
females on site. Infectious diseases that could impact
on pregnancy should be highlighted and precautions
noted.
Those considering pregnancy or who are pregnant
should tell their doctor about their work
requirements, seek advice about any recommended
vaccinations/precautions and know your
immunisation status.
◦ Refer to the procedure Pregnancy in the
Workplace
◦ Any issues with regard to work placement or leave
should be discussed with your Officer-in-Charge.
Infectious Diseases that
can impact on
pregnancy.
• Measles
• Mumps
• Rubella
• Influenza
• Chickenpox (Varicella)
• Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
• Parvovirus
What are your key responsibilities?
Know your immunisation status
Review your immunisation records. If you don’t have any, consider a blood test to
confirm your existing immunisation status.You may find you need a “booster”.
Keep this information handy.
Stay home when unwell
Staff are expected to model appropriate behaviour and stay home when they are
unwell or infectious.
Promote and follow Standard Precautions for Infection Control
Good hygiene practices, hand washing, cough and sneeze etiquette etc.
What are your responsibilities?
Prevent the spread of infectious diseases
 Understand and adhere to procedures
Infection Control and the Infection Control Guideline
 Understand and adhere to procedure
Management of Prescribed Contagious Conditions
 Implement and follow an Infection Control Program that has been
developed for your workplace
 Seek advice if required.
Pandemic Planning
Interdepartmental protocols are in place for managing a pandemic or
other health threat.
Queensland’s Chief Health Officer establishes a State Health
Emergency Coordination Centre.
 All government departments then take direction from this team.
 Health threat responses will be tailored to the disease type.
Take Home Message
Remember
 Workplaces may harbour infectious diseases.
 There is relevant legislation (WHS Act 2011 and Public Health Act 2005).
 There are Departmental procedures and guidelines to follow:
─ Infection Control
─ Management of Prescribed Contagious Conditions
 Prevent the spread of infectious disease following an Infection Control
Program including Standard Precautions.
 Be aware of your own immunity status to common infectious diseases.
 Some infectious diseases can be harmful during pregnancy.
 Seek advice if required.
Questions?
Infection Control Animation

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infection controlدبلومات طبية د حاتم البيطار.pdf

  • 2.
  • 3. Overview Infection control is important in departmental workplaces. There are specific diseases that can spread easily in our workplaces if controls are not in place. To protect your own health as well as the health of those around you, an understanding of infectious diseases, how they are spread and how to control them is fundamental.
  • 4. Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases are diseases you can “catch”. Humans are susceptible to a wide range of diseases that can be contracted from:  Other people (e.g. measles)  Insects (e.g. mosquitoes)  Animals = zoonosis (e.g. bats, horses, cattle)  The environment (e.g. contaminated water, waste).
  • 5. DepartmentalWorkplaces Infectious diseases spread easily in our workplaces - why? Groups of people, in close contact, for extended periods and on a daily basis e.g. classrooms. Culture of attendance (staff/students/others) Even when sick. Possible contact with asymptomatic carriers e.g. contagious before the symptoms show. Non-vaccinated populations Environmental e.g. Returning to workplaces that may have been flooded, contaminated with waste water/surface water.
  • 6. DepartmentalWorkplaces continued Hygiene issues e.g. poor cough and sneeze etiquette, hand washing. Workplace activities e.g. contact sports, special education, first aid. Work duties e.g. cleaning and maintenance, toileting. Community engagement e.g.Visitors and volunteers Curriculum e.g. Handling animals, food preparation and food consumption, science activities. Locations e.g. Mosquito-borne diseases (Ross River, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis).
  • 7. How infectious diseases are transmitted — modes of transmission Contact transmission – direct contact with infectious blood or body substances. Droplet transmission – infectious agent in large droplets (respiratory secretions / splash / splatter). Airborne transmission – infectious agent in aerosols and are inhaled. Food-borne transmission – consumption of contaminated food. Water-borne transmission – consumption of contaminated water. Vector-borne transmission – carried by a vector e.g. mosquito bites etc.
  • 8. Airborne/DropletTransmission Large particles (droplets) can carry viruses and bacteria through the air which can then be deposited onto mucous membranes (eye, nose, mouth) of a susceptible person (e.g. via sneezing, coughing, talking). e.g. whooping cough, rubella, mumps, influenza, meningococcal disease. Small particles (aerosols) that are airborne, may also be deposited on mucous membranes or inhaled directly. e.g. tuberculosis, Q fever, legionella, chicken pox, measles.
  • 9. ContactTransmission Direct contact When blood or bodily substances from a person or animal come in direct contact with another person in such a way that it can enter their body. e.g. Infected blood or other bodily fluid enters another person’s system directly, via a wound or via mucous membrane e.g. needle stick injury, diseases passed from mother to foetus, saliva exchange. e.g. Infected blood or other body fluid from an animal, enters another person’s system via a wound or via mucous membranes e.g. bat lyssavirus (scratch/bite), Ross River virus (mosquito).
  • 10. ContactTransmission – Indirect Indirect contact When germs from an infected host or other source are passively transmitted to another person e.g. via an inanimate object. Inanimate objects: e.g. surfaces, keyboards, mouse, telephone, iPad, utensils, cups, toothbrushes, razors, soiled linen, taps and sinks etc.
  • 11. Controlling Infectious Diseases Controlling infectious diseases requires a “multi-faceted” approach considering:  Modes of transmission  Evolving diseases and germ resistance  People’s behaviour, knowledge & beliefs  Environment (where we work, learn & play)  Changing circumstances & emergencies  Individual requirements & group requirements The department therefore requires a tailored Infection Control Program be implemented
  • 12. Infection Control Program Key elements of and effective Infection Control Program
  • 13. How to Implement Infection Control ◦ Promote infection control as standard practice. ◦ Know the risks in your workplace, how diseases are transmitted and how to implement controls. ◦ Have processes and protocols in place. ◦ Have appropriate facilities and consumables (allocate funds). ◦ Signage e.g. correct hand washing technique. ◦ Provide and take part in training sessions. ◦ Maintain records of training. ◦ Promote vaccination. ◦ Adopt a risk management approach to infection control.
  • 14. Potential Infectious Diseases in the Workplace  The Queensland Health “Time Out” poster is an excellent quick reference resource.  Teachers/school staff and managers should model the recommended exclusion periods when they are unwell.
  • 15. Protocol for managing infectious diseases If a staff or student/parent advises of an infectious disease… 1. Maintain confidentiality, but inform the appropriate person at your location (e.g. school admin/workplace manager). 2. Actions for School Admin/ Management a) Determine the nature of the disease? (measles, chickenpox) b) Confirm diagnosis (i.e. was the disease diagnosed by a doctor?) c) If confirmed by a doctor, seek relevant information from Queensland Health. d) When confirmed, the school/workplace may provide information to staff/school community to be aware of symptoms and recommended actions e.g. using a link to a Queensland Health Fact Sheet.
  • 16. Protocol for managing infectious diseases continued  Schools / workplaces do not notify Queensland Health, but can call them for advice if needed.  If a prescribed contagious condition has been diagnosed the doctor or laboratory will notify Queensland Health.  Queensland Health will only notify a school in particular circumstances, e.g. a community cluster/outbreak.
  • 17. Preventing the spread of infection Hand Washing Hand washing is one of the most important measures in preventing transmission of infection. Hands should be washed using soap, water and then dried:  BEFORE ‒ handling, preparing or eating food  BEFORE AND AFTER ‒ assisting students with eating/meals ‒ assisting students with toileting ‒ providing first aid or medication ‒ contact with an ill or injured person  AFTER ‒ contact with blood or body fluids (this includes your own e.g. sneezing/coughing) ‒ removal of protective gloves ‒ using the toilet; and ‒ after contact with animals.
  • 18. Vaccination  Vaccination is not mandatory for staff or students of the department.  However where a vaccination exists, this is the highest order of protection from the infectious disease.  Vaccination boosts the immune system and creates immunity that protects from an infection without causing the suffering of the disease itself.  Most vaccines contain a little bit of the disease germ that is weak or dead. Vaccines do NOT contain the type of germ that makes you sick.  Getting the vaccine is a much safer way to make antibodies without having to suffer the disease itself.
  • 19. Occupation SpecificVaccination RecommendedVaccinations for:  Persons who work with children ‒ Influenza ‒ MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) ‒ Pertussis (whooping cough) ‒Varicella (chicken pox).  Staff working in early childhood education and care ‒ All of the above plus hepatitis A. Source: Australian Immunisation Handbook 10th Edition
  • 20. Vaccination Funding StaffType Disease Funding Source School Cleaners School’s Officers Teacher Aides Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Workplace Living and working in outer islands of Torres Strait Japanese Encephalitis Workplace At risk of acquiring TB Tuberculosis Workplace – check with TB Control unit Ag studies – with risk of exposure to Q fever Q fever Workplace All staff participating in Annual Flu Program Seasonal Influenza Funding determined locally All staff National Immunisation Program vaccinations/boosters Self funded
  • 21. Prescribed Contagious Conditions Prescribed Contagious Conditions as defined by Queensland’s Public Health Act 2005 - Chapter 5 Part 2 • chickenpox (varicella) • diphtheria • enterovirus 71 • gastroenteritis • german measles (rubella) • haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) • hepatitis A • influenza • measles • meningococcal disease (bacterial) • poliomyelitis • typhoid and paratyphoid • tuberculosis • whooping cough (pertussis) Fact Sheet for Schools and Education and Care Services Public Health Act 2005 – Contagious Conditions Fact Sheet for Schools and Education and Care Services Information for Schools, Education and Care Services and Child Care Services
  • 22. Protocols for prescribed contagious conditions  Under the Public Health Act 2005 children with a prescribed contagious condition should not attend school or childcare until well and non-infectious.  Unvaccinated children may need to stay away during a measles outbreak if they are at risk of infection or infecting others.  Following consultation with Queensland Health, school principals can require children to stay away for a specified period if they have or are suspected to have a contagious condition.  Staff are expected to model appropriate behaviour and stay away from the workplace if they are unwell or infectious.  If a staff member contracts a work-caused serious illness as defined by Work Health and Safety Legislation, this is to be notified toWorkplace Health and Safety Queensland by the workplace.
  • 23. Diseases related to pregnancy Our departmental workplaces have a large number of females on site. Infectious diseases that could impact on pregnancy should be highlighted and precautions noted. Those considering pregnancy or who are pregnant should tell their doctor about their work requirements, seek advice about any recommended vaccinations/precautions and know your immunisation status. ◦ Refer to the procedure Pregnancy in the Workplace ◦ Any issues with regard to work placement or leave should be discussed with your Officer-in-Charge. Infectious Diseases that can impact on pregnancy. • Measles • Mumps • Rubella • Influenza • Chickenpox (Varicella) • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) • Parvovirus
  • 24. What are your key responsibilities? Know your immunisation status Review your immunisation records. If you don’t have any, consider a blood test to confirm your existing immunisation status.You may find you need a “booster”. Keep this information handy. Stay home when unwell Staff are expected to model appropriate behaviour and stay home when they are unwell or infectious. Promote and follow Standard Precautions for Infection Control Good hygiene practices, hand washing, cough and sneeze etiquette etc.
  • 25. What are your responsibilities? Prevent the spread of infectious diseases  Understand and adhere to procedures Infection Control and the Infection Control Guideline  Understand and adhere to procedure Management of Prescribed Contagious Conditions  Implement and follow an Infection Control Program that has been developed for your workplace  Seek advice if required.
  • 26. Pandemic Planning Interdepartmental protocols are in place for managing a pandemic or other health threat. Queensland’s Chief Health Officer establishes a State Health Emergency Coordination Centre.  All government departments then take direction from this team.  Health threat responses will be tailored to the disease type.
  • 27. Take Home Message Remember  Workplaces may harbour infectious diseases.  There is relevant legislation (WHS Act 2011 and Public Health Act 2005).  There are Departmental procedures and guidelines to follow: ─ Infection Control ─ Management of Prescribed Contagious Conditions  Prevent the spread of infectious disease following an Infection Control Program including Standard Precautions.  Be aware of your own immunity status to common infectious diseases.  Some infectious diseases can be harmful during pregnancy.  Seek advice if required.