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Intelligent User
Interfaces
ICS2208
vanessa.camilleri@um.edu.mt
Dr Vanessa Camilleri
Department of AI,
University of Malta
Topic 3: Overview
• Why UI design?
• What is the Model-based Interface Development?
• UI models: task, abstract, concrete,
fi
nal
• Bene
fi
ts of MBID
• UMs & Intelligent Interfaces
2
Adaptive UIs
• UI design in terms Adaptive UI
• Hierarchy of properties of Adaptive UIs
3
source: Akiki, Bandara & Yu (2015)
Model-based UI
• UI Models capture world knowledge
• Doesn’t rely on code but on higher level speci
fi
cations
from which UI can be derived
• Types of Models:
• User Models;
• Task Models;
• System Models;
4
Class Group Activity
• Divide into groups of 2-3;
• Each group - analyse 2-3 existing intelligent
interfaces and identify the potential models used
(user, task, system);
• Examples may include: Net
fl
ix, Amazon, Spotify,
Duolingo, Khan Academy, Siri, Alexa, Facebook
(Meta), X, TikTok
5
Model-based UI vs.
Traditional UI
Model-based UI
• High Level Abstraction
• Step-wise Development
• A u t o m a t i c C o d e
Generation
• Adaptability
• Tools and Frameworks
6
Traditional UI
• Manual Coding
• I m m e d i a t e D e t a i l
Orientation
• Less Abstraction
• Static Presentation Models
• Direct Manipulation
Model-based UI
• Models representing world knowledge:
• Semantic
• Communicative
• Constructive
• Analytic
7
• Aspects of UI that are
captured:
• Structure
• Information
• Behaviour
• Style
Model-based UIs
• Design Principles:
• Abstraction
• Consistency
• Flexibility
• Accessibility
8
Model-based UIs
• Implementation Techniques
• State Machines
• Model Transformations
• UI Description Languages
9
Model-based UI
Frameworks
• Cameleon Reference Framework (CRF)
• MARIA (Model-based lAnguage foR Interactive
Applications)
• Functional UI with State Machines
• UsiXML
• Interaction Flow Modelling Language (IFML)
10
Model-based Interface
Development
11
The Cameleon Reference Framework
Source: Meixner, Cavalry & Coutaz, 2014.
http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-mbui-intro-20140107/
Bene
fi
ts of MBUIs
• I n d e p e n d e n t
development;
• Rapid development;
• Automatic analysis;
• F l e x i b i l i t y a n d
adaptation;
• Error reduction;
• Automation;
• Reuse;
• B e t t e r s y s t e m
comprehension;
• Support for safety
critical systems;
12
Challenges of MBUIs
• C o m p l e x i t y o f
development tools;
• Automatic generation
limitations;
• L a c k o f e x p l i c i t
recommendations;
• Integration of adaptation
capabilities;
• Separation of Concerns;
• Multimedia and web of
things;
• Safety critical systems;
• Organisational changes;
• Increasing complexity;
• Shortening development
cycles;
13
MBUIs Use
• Car Infotainment Systems;
• Safety-Critical Industries;
• Automated Interaction Design;
• Adaptation to Mobile Contexts;
• Cameleon Reference Framework;
14
Real World Trends
Re
fl
ecting MBUI Principles
• Adaptive and Responsive Design
• User Interface Frameworks and Tools
• Automated UI Testing and Generation
• Accessibility and Internationalisation
• Voice and Gesture Based Interfaces
15
Model-based UI tools
• ConcurTaskTrees Environment (CTTE),http://giove.isti.cnr.it/tools/
CTTE/home
• Task/Design time/Java application
• Model-based lAnguage foR Interactive Applications Environment
(MARIAE), http://giove.isti.cnr.it/tools/MARIAE/home
• Task, AUI, CUI, FUI/Design time/Java application
• USICOMP: an extensible model-driven composer
• http://www.usixml.org/en/garcia-frey-a-ce-ret-e-dupuy-chessa-s-
calvary-g-gabillon-y-usicomp-an-extensible-model-driven-
composer.html?IDC=465&IDD=2464
Class Group Activity
• Divide into groups of 2-3;
• Consider a scenario (e.g. language learning,
personal task organisation; work
fl
ow management.
etc.);
• Design a basic MBUI for the scenario chosen and
identify the model it would use. Discuss the
strengths and weaknesses of your design;
17
Model-based Tools:
Research Gaps
• Model Integration
• Model Evolution
• P e r s o n a l i s a t i o n a n d
Adaptation
• Task Modelling
• System Modelling
• Cross Platform Consistency
• User Modelling
• Model Validation and
Veri
fi
cation
• Design and Development
• Scalability and Performance
• E x p l a i n a b i l i t y a n d
Transparency
• Multimodal Interaction
Future of MBUIs
I n t e g r a t i n g M a c h i n e
Learning
• Predictive User Modelling
• Adaptive Interfaces
• Automated UI Testing
and Optimisation
• N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e
Processing for UI Design
User-Centred Design
• Participatory Design Tools
• Accessibility and Inclusivity
• Emotion Recognition and
Response
• Cross Platform Consistency
• Sustainability and Ethical Design
• Collaboration and Social
Interaction

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ICS2208 Lecture3 2023-2024 - Model Based User Interfaces

  • 1. Intelligent User Interfaces ICS2208 vanessa.camilleri@um.edu.mt Dr Vanessa Camilleri Department of AI, University of Malta
  • 2. Topic 3: Overview • Why UI design? • What is the Model-based Interface Development? • UI models: task, abstract, concrete, fi nal • Bene fi ts of MBID • UMs & Intelligent Interfaces 2
  • 3. Adaptive UIs • UI design in terms Adaptive UI • Hierarchy of properties of Adaptive UIs 3 source: Akiki, Bandara & Yu (2015)
  • 4. Model-based UI • UI Models capture world knowledge • Doesn’t rely on code but on higher level speci fi cations from which UI can be derived • Types of Models: • User Models; • Task Models; • System Models; 4
  • 5. Class Group Activity • Divide into groups of 2-3; • Each group - analyse 2-3 existing intelligent interfaces and identify the potential models used (user, task, system); • Examples may include: Net fl ix, Amazon, Spotify, Duolingo, Khan Academy, Siri, Alexa, Facebook (Meta), X, TikTok 5
  • 6. Model-based UI vs. Traditional UI Model-based UI • High Level Abstraction • Step-wise Development • A u t o m a t i c C o d e Generation • Adaptability • Tools and Frameworks 6 Traditional UI • Manual Coding • I m m e d i a t e D e t a i l Orientation • Less Abstraction • Static Presentation Models • Direct Manipulation
  • 7. Model-based UI • Models representing world knowledge: • Semantic • Communicative • Constructive • Analytic 7 • Aspects of UI that are captured: • Structure • Information • Behaviour • Style
  • 8. Model-based UIs • Design Principles: • Abstraction • Consistency • Flexibility • Accessibility 8
  • 9. Model-based UIs • Implementation Techniques • State Machines • Model Transformations • UI Description Languages 9
  • 10. Model-based UI Frameworks • Cameleon Reference Framework (CRF) • MARIA (Model-based lAnguage foR Interactive Applications) • Functional UI with State Machines • UsiXML • Interaction Flow Modelling Language (IFML) 10
  • 11. Model-based Interface Development 11 The Cameleon Reference Framework Source: Meixner, Cavalry & Coutaz, 2014. http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-mbui-intro-20140107/
  • 12. Bene fi ts of MBUIs • I n d e p e n d e n t development; • Rapid development; • Automatic analysis; • F l e x i b i l i t y a n d adaptation; • Error reduction; • Automation; • Reuse; • B e t t e r s y s t e m comprehension; • Support for safety critical systems; 12
  • 13. Challenges of MBUIs • C o m p l e x i t y o f development tools; • Automatic generation limitations; • L a c k o f e x p l i c i t recommendations; • Integration of adaptation capabilities; • Separation of Concerns; • Multimedia and web of things; • Safety critical systems; • Organisational changes; • Increasing complexity; • Shortening development cycles; 13
  • 14. MBUIs Use • Car Infotainment Systems; • Safety-Critical Industries; • Automated Interaction Design; • Adaptation to Mobile Contexts; • Cameleon Reference Framework; 14
  • 15. Real World Trends Re fl ecting MBUI Principles • Adaptive and Responsive Design • User Interface Frameworks and Tools • Automated UI Testing and Generation • Accessibility and Internationalisation • Voice and Gesture Based Interfaces 15
  • 16. Model-based UI tools • ConcurTaskTrees Environment (CTTE),http://giove.isti.cnr.it/tools/ CTTE/home • Task/Design time/Java application • Model-based lAnguage foR Interactive Applications Environment (MARIAE), http://giove.isti.cnr.it/tools/MARIAE/home • Task, AUI, CUI, FUI/Design time/Java application • USICOMP: an extensible model-driven composer • http://www.usixml.org/en/garcia-frey-a-ce-ret-e-dupuy-chessa-s- calvary-g-gabillon-y-usicomp-an-extensible-model-driven- composer.html?IDC=465&IDD=2464
  • 17. Class Group Activity • Divide into groups of 2-3; • Consider a scenario (e.g. language learning, personal task organisation; work fl ow management. etc.); • Design a basic MBUI for the scenario chosen and identify the model it would use. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your design; 17
  • 18. Model-based Tools: Research Gaps • Model Integration • Model Evolution • P e r s o n a l i s a t i o n a n d Adaptation • Task Modelling • System Modelling • Cross Platform Consistency • User Modelling • Model Validation and Veri fi cation • Design and Development • Scalability and Performance • E x p l a i n a b i l i t y a n d Transparency • Multimodal Interaction
  • 19. Future of MBUIs I n t e g r a t i n g M a c h i n e Learning • Predictive User Modelling • Adaptive Interfaces • Automated UI Testing and Optimisation • N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e Processing for UI Design User-Centred Design • Participatory Design Tools • Accessibility and Inclusivity • Emotion Recognition and Response • Cross Platform Consistency • Sustainability and Ethical Design • Collaboration and Social Interaction