KnowiXML: A Knowledge-Based System Generating Multiple Abstract User Interfaces in UsiXML

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This research presents a multidisciplinary approach aimed at generating multiple Abstract User Interfaces (AUIs), which are adaptable for different kinds of users, performing different tasks, using specific devices in various physical environments. The user interface generation framework, called IKnowU, is based on a unified process for interactive system design, which integrates Software Engineering (SE), and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) best practices. This framework is supported by KnowiXML, a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) that facilitates the application of models and the allocation of appropriate visual elements during the generation of AUIs. These AUIs are generated by using problem solving methods studied in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Design knowledge encoded in KnowiXML uniformly manipulates models and UI specifications through the use of USIXML, a User Interface Description Language (UIDL).

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KnowiXML: A Knowledge-Based System Generating Multiple Abstract User Interfaces in UsiXML

  1. 1. KnowiXML: A Knowledge-Based System GeneratingMultiple Abstract User Interfaces in USIXML Elizabeth Furtado, Vasco Furtado, Kênia Sousa, Jean Vanderdonckt, Quentin Limbourg
  2. 2. Presentation Plan Hypothesis Problematic Objectives Solution USIXML UPi IKnowU Conclusion
  3. 3. Hypothesis Many SW organizations apply or intend to apply the Rational Unified Process (RUP) ; Businesses in many organizations demand the use of systems in different contexts of use; The generation of UIs for multiple contexts of use needs the integration of SE models, practices, and techniques (functionality adequate to requirements) and HCI ones (usability); SE and HCI professionals need the integration of concepts from these areas to facilitate the communication among them during the application of usability techniques.
  4. 4. Problematic The RUP does not use HCI models and techniques; Difficulty in designing UIs considering various parameters; Lack of tools that:  Automate UI design;  Integrate HCI and SE concepts;
  5. 5. Objectives Define a process that facilitates the integration of SE and HCI models and techniques for the generation of UIs for multiple contexts of use; Define a tool that facilitates the generation of UIs for multiple contexts of use with the application of SE and HCI integrated concepts.
  6. 6. Solution UPi, Unified Process for interactive systems that integrates SE and HCI models, techniques, and professionals, considering different contexts of use (Sousa and Furtado, 2004); IKnowU, software for requirements elicitation, analysis, design, and generation of UIs for multiple contexts of using USIXML.
  7. 7. USIXMLLimbourg et al., 2004
  8. 8. Abstract x Concrete x Final UI
  9. 9. IKnowU Functionality
  10. 10. IKnowU Components The ontologies for each conceptual model are defined using an ontology editor (Protégé). The conceptual models can be instantiated using Protégé or any other modeling tool (such as ROSE, CTTE). The KBS implements a Problem-Solving Method (PSM) used to generate AUIs based on information from the conceptual models.
  11. 11. IKnowU Components
  12. 12. Automation of UIs Generation
  13. 13. Automation of UIs Generation
  14. 14. Knowledge Base Creation Definition f the ontology of the models; Creation of the usability requirements knowledge base; Creation of the usability patterns knowledge base; Creation of the architectural patterns knowledge base; Creation of the transformation rules knowledge base; Creation of the mappings among models knowledge base.
  15. 15. Ontology of the UI Models Constraint 1..n DomainModelContextModel UseCaseModel T askModel Rule 1..n 1..n 1..n 1..n 1 1 1..n 1..n 1..n n 1 1 1 1 1 1 UsabilityRequirement 1 AuiModel CuiModel FuiModel 1..n 1 1 1..n 1 1..n 1 1 1..n 1..n UsabilityPattern ArchitecturalPattern
  16. 16. Mapping of Patterns Abstract UI Concrete UI Final UIPatterns Usability Usability Architectural Requirements Patterns PatternsExample 1 Feedback Progress Feedbacker.class IndicatorExample 2 User Explicit Undo Undoer.class Control
  17. 17. Transformation Rules If the type of the task is ‘interactive’ and the domain model associated to this task has attributes that are mandatory, then use the ‘output’ abstract individual component. If the binary relationship of a task is ‘enabling’, then use the ‘navigation’ abstract individual component. If the type of the task is ‘interactive’ and the domain model associated to this task has methods, then use the ‘control’ abstract individual component.
  18. 18. Automation of UIs Generation
  19. 19. When the analyst is experienced in SE, he/she can prepare the flow ofevents, when experienced in HCI, he/she can prepare the task modelusing Protégé. Afterwards, he/she can define the usabilityrequirements and the context of use model with the end-user usingProtégé. All of these models are input for the generation of the AUI.
  20. 20. Usability Requirements Definition of Usability Requirements • Preferences: Provide help; • Constraints: Provide help only when requested. • Fix: Change automatic help to requested help.
  21. 21. Flow of Events
  22. 22. Task Model
  23. 23. Task Model
  24. 24. Context of Use Model
  25. 25. Domain Model
  26. 26. Automation of UIs Generation
  27. 27. Solution Creation of Constraints for the Abstract UI – Rule: If the type of the task is ‘interactive’ and the domain model associated to this task has attributes that are mandatory, then use the ‘output’ abstract individual component. . – Constraint: The AUI must have 3 ‘output’ abstract individual components. Rules Constraints-Abstract UI ANALYSISContext Abstract Component Task Object Instanciated ContainerDomain Models
  28. 28. Solution Generation of the Abstract UI Constraints-Abstract UI Requirements Component Preferences Fixes Container Constraints
  29. 29. Abstract UI
  30. 30. Automation of UIs Generation
  31. 31. Solution Generation of the Concrete and Final UI Concrete UI Platform Abstract UI Component TransformiXML Final UI Container Prog. Language
  32. 32. Concrete UI
  33. 33. Conclusion Our goals are to: Save design and development time by automating the generation of UI models and assure consistency among different platforms with the application of such models; Provide an open-source tool, based on XML, that can be integrated with other tools (such as CTTE) to help in the integration of SE and HCI concepts and facilitate the communication among professionals from these two areas.
  34. 34. + Elizabeth Furtado, Vasco Furtado, Kênia Sousa, Jean Vanderdonckt, Quentin Limbourg

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