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How to explain “phubbing”  
Can  “Fear  of Missing Out”  predict the
compulsive use of mobile  phones in  
social situations?  
C.  Bosau &  M.  Kühn
2
Quelle:   http://www.ithinkonpaper.com/fom o/
3
Quelle:   http://healthmeup.com/phot ogallery-­ healt hy-­liv ing/could-­y ou-­be-­s uffer ing-­from-­fear-­ of-­m issing-­out-­fomo/ 32443/3
4
Quelle:   http://www.examiner.c om/ artic le/c hecking-­fac ebook-­ and-­twitter-­ all-­ day -­scientists-­s ay-­ you-­m ay-­ have-­f om o  
5
Quelle:     http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/doks oft_uploader/ us erfiles/phubbing2.jpg
Quelle:   https://timenerdworld.files. wor dpress.com/2013/08/phubbing.jpg?w=600
Quelle:   http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/ dok soft_uploader/us erfiles/ phubbing.jpeg
6
Quelle:   http://blog.vodafone.de/wp-­c ont ent/uploads/ 2014/12/stop-­phubbing-­ campaign.jpg
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 7
Quelle:  http://www.jwtintelligence.com
Only recently,  the discussion about
this new phenomenon started
(JWT,  2011  &  2012;;  Przybylski,  
Murayama,  DeHaan &  Gladwell,  
2013):
Fear  of Missing Out  (FoMO)
„the uneasy and sometimes all-­
consuming feeling that you’re
missing out  — that your peers are
doing,  in  the know about or in  
possession of more or something
better than you.”  (JWT,  2011,  S.  4)
FoMO:  a  new phenomenon?
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Former  results
8
What we already know:
• Mobile  phones are potential  addiction sources (Carbonell,  Oberst  &  Beranuy,  2013)  
• FoMO correlates highly with social media engagementin  general (Przybylski,  Murayama,  
DeHaan,  &  Gladwell,  2013) and  Facebook  usage in  particular (Bosau,  Aelker &  Amaadachou,  2014)
• FoMO correlates with problematic mobile  phone use (PMPU)  and habitual
checking behaviour (Collins,  2013)
Main  questions:
Do  people check  their mobile  phones in  company as much as if they are
alone?
Is FoMO the main predictor of this behaviour or do  social norms play a  
role,  too?
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
The  study
9
Former  studies:
§ many looked at PMPU  only
§ only one study measured the
influence of FoMO – but  in
general
This  study:
§ integrated FoMO and several
measures for compulsive mobile  
phone use
§ compared social situations (i.e.  
being in  company)  vs.  personal  
situations (i.e.  being alone)
Method:
• Online  questionnaire (posted via  Facebook,  mailing-­lists and personal  
emails,  partly snowball sampling)  in  2014
• N  =  101
• age:  <  18y  =  16%,  18-­23y  =  50%,  24-­30y  =  29%,  >  30y  =  5%  
• male  =  46%,  female =  54%
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
The  scales
10
Fear  of Missing Out  -­ FoMO
(Przybylski,  Murayama,  DeHaan,  &  Gladwell,  2013)
Frequency of checking -­ FoC
(Collins,  2013)  
Habitual checking behaviour -­ HCB
(Bayer  &  Campbell,  2012)  
The  independent variable:
Problematic mobile  phone use -­ PMPU
(Güzeller &  Cosguner,  2012)  
The  dependent variables:
Gender
The  moderator:
Measured twice:
a) While being alone
b) While being in	
  company
Measured twice:
a) While being alone
b) While being in	
  company
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
2,79%
2,80%
2,90%
2,90%
2,96%
3,11%
3,21%
3,34%
3,40%
3,89%
1% 2% 3% 4% 5%
Ich$bekomme$Angst,$wenn$ich$nicht$weiß,$was$meine$Freunde$tun$
Wenn$ich$eine$gute$Zeit$habe$ist$es$wich:g$für$mich,$die$Details$online$zu$teilen$
(z.B.$Facebook$Status)$
Manchmal$frage$ich$mich,$ob$ich$zu$viel$Zeit$damit$verbringe$auf$dem$Laufenden$
zu$bleiben$was$momentan$vor$s...$
Wenn$ich$im$Urlaub$bin,$beobachte$ich$weiterhin,$was$meine$Freunde$machen$
Ich$habe$Angst,$dass$mir$nicht$nahestehende$Bekannte$tollere$Erlebnisse$
erfahren$
Ich$habe$Angst,$dass$meine$Freunde$tollere$Erlebnisse$erfahren$
Es$beunruhigt$mich,$wenn$ich$herausfinde,$dass$meine$Freunde$ohne$mich$Spaß$
haben$
Es$ist$wich:g,$dass$ich$die$"InsiderMJokes"$meiner$Freunde$verstehe$
Es$stört$mich,$wenn$ich$eine$Möglichkeit$verpasse$mich$mit$meinen$Freunden$zu$
treffen$
Es$stört$mich,$wenn$ich$ein$geplantes$Treffen$verpasse$
FoMO – Fear  of Missing Out
11
Independent  variable
• scale of Przybylski,  Murayama,  DeHaan,  &  Gladwell (2013)
• scale:  1 =  „gilt  überhaupt  nicht  für  mich“          vs.          5  =  „gilt  komplett  für  mich“
• Cronbach’s α  =  .89
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Problematic mobile  phone use
12
Dependent variable
• scale of Güzeller &  Cosguner (2012)
• scale:  
1  =  „stimme  überhaupt  nicht  zu“
vs.  
5  =  „stimme  vollkommen  zu“
• Originally:   ONE  factor scale;;  
Cronbach’s α  =  .88
• Should be divided into two factors
(based on  PCA,  Varimax-­rotation)
a) reachability (α  =  .92)
b) addiction (α  =  .76)
2,29$
2,42$
2,44$
2,50$
2,51$
2,54$
2,59$
2,66$
2,72$
2,77$
2,81$
2,85$
2,79$
2,97$
3,25$
3,55$
3,70$
3,73$
1$ 2$ 3$ 4$ 5$
Ich$habe$Schmerzen$in$Kopf,$Daumen$und$Hand$aufgrund$der$
Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$
Die$Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$hat$einen$Rückgang$meiner$
schulischen$Leistung$zur$Folge$
Ich$komme$oA$zu$spät$zu$Verabredungen,$weil$ich$mit$meinem$
Smartphone$beschäAigt$bin,$wenn$ich$es$eigentlich$nicht$sollte$
Ich$sage$immer$zu$mir$selbst$"nur$noch$ein$paar$Minuten",$
während$ich$mein$Smartphone$benutze$
Ich$glaube$ein$Leben$ohne$Smartphones$ist$langweilig$und$
sinnlos$
Andere$beschweren$sich$darüber,$dass$ich$mein$Smartphone$zu$
oA$benutze$
Ich$habe$versucht$die$Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$zu$
verringern,$bin$aber$daran$gescheitert$
Ich$schaffe$es$nicht,$zu$lernen$oder$meine$Hausaufgaben$zu$
machen$aufgrund$der$Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$
Wenn$ich$mein$Smartphone$nicht$nutzen$kann,$bin$ich$genervt$
Ich$kann$mich$nicht$auf$das$Lernen$konzentrieren,$weil$ich$
Nachrichten$verschicke$und$empfange$oder$Spiele$auf$meinem$
Smartphone$spiele$
Es$gibt$Momente,$in$denen$ich$lieber$mein$Smartphone$nutzen$
würde,$als$mich$um$dringlichere$Angelegenheiten$zu$kümmern$
Ich$bemerke,$dass$ich$mit$meinem$Smartphone$beschäAigt$bin,$
obwohl$ich$eigentlich$gerade$andere$Dinge$tun$sollte$und$
dadurch$Probleme$entstehen$
Ich$nutze$mein$Smartphone$so$oA$ich$kann$
Ich$gehe$sofort$an$mein$Smartphone,$wenn$es$klingelt$und$
schreibe$auch$direkt$zurück$beim$Empfang$einer$Nachricht$
Ich$bin$besorgt$über$die$Akkuladung$von$meinem$Smartphone$
Ich$kontrolliere$regelmäßig$meine$verpassten$Anrufe$und$
empfangenen$Nachrichten$
Ich$mache$tagsüber$mein$Smartphone$nie$aus$
Ich$habe$mein$Smartphone$immer$dabei$
reachabilityaddiction
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
1,88$
2,19$
2,69$
3,25$
1$ 2$ 3$ 4$ 5$
Frequency of checking
13
Dependent variable
• scale of Collins  (2013)  
• scale:  
1  =  „niemals“
vs.  
5  =  „mehr  als  7  mal“
• „In  welcher  Häufigkeit kontrollieren  
Sie  die  folgenden  Applikationen   auf  
ihrem  Smartphone   pro  Tag?“
• Cronbach’s α  =  .63  (being alone)
Cronbach’s α  =  .80  (being in  company)
2,97%
3,37%
3,83%
4,38%
1% 2% 3% 4% 5%
News%
E'Mail%
Social'Media%(Facebook,%
Twi6er%etc.)%
Anrufe%und%Nachrichten%
(Skype,%SMS,%WhatsApp%
etc.)%
13
alone in	
  company
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
2,31%
2,35%
2,28%
2,37%
2,32%
2,39%
2,34%
2,48%
2,69%
2,45%
1% 2% 3% 4% 5%
3,05%
3,07%
3,18%
3,25%
3,41%
3,50%
3,59%
3,62%
3,69%
3,76%
1% 2% 3% 4% 5%
..."mir"schwer"fällt,"es"zu"
unterlassen"
..."mir"Mühe"bereiten"
würde,"es"nicht"zu"tun"
..."für"mich"sehr"typisch"ist"
..."ich"erst"realisiere,"
nachdem"ich"damit"
begonnen"habe"
..."mir"nicht"das"Bedürfnis"
gibt"darüber"
nachzudenken"
..."ich"tue"ohne"dabei"
nachzudenken"
..."ich"auch"ohne"Grund"
dazu"tue"
..."ich"tue,"ohne"mich"
bewusst"daran"erinnern"zu"
müssen"
..."zu"meiner"täglichen"
Rou@ne"gehört"
..."ich"automa@sch"tue"
Habitual checking behaviour
14
Dependent variable
• scale of Bayer  &  Campbell  (2012)
• scale:  
1  =  „stimme  überhaupt  nicht  zu“
vs.  
5  =  „stimme  vollkommen  zu“
• „Das  Kontrollieren  von  meinem  
Smartphone   ist  etwas,  dass  ...“
• Cronbach’s α  =  .90  (being alone)
Cronbach’s α  =  .89  (being in  company)
alone in	
  company
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Influence of FoMO on  PMPU  total
15
Regression  analysis
• corr.  R2 =  66,2  %
• NO  main effect of gender
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .91***
b) female:   β  =  .66***
• Interaction  effect:   β  =  .17*
2
2,5
3
3,5
Low FoMO High FoMO
ProblematicMobilePhoneUse
Men Women
FoMO is a  very strong  predictor and leads to more problematic
mobile  phone use.
This  influence,  however,  is slightly higher for males than for females.
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Influence of FoMO on  PMPU:
addiction &  reachability
16
Regression  analyses
• corr.  R2 =  66,7  %
• NO  main effect of gender
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .86***
b) female:   β  =  .78***
• NO  interaction effect
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
Low FoMO High FoMO
PMPU-addiction
Men Women
• corr.  R2 =  6,9  %
• NO  main effect of gender
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .52***
b) female:   β  =  .19
• Interaction  effect: β  =  -­.32**
2,5
3
3,5
4
Low FoMO High FoMO
PMPU-reachability
Men Women
FoMO is a  strong  predictor,  
equally for males and females
FoMO is only a  predictor for
males
addiction reachability
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Differences of checking behaviour
17
1
2
3
4
5
HCB	
  -­‐alone HCB	
  -­‐in	
  
company
FoC	
  -­‐alone FoC	
  -­‐in	
  
company
MeanPaired t-­Test
• Comparison of
a) habitual checking behaviour
alone vs.  in  company
b) frequency of checking
alone vs.  in  company
• sign.  difference between the two situations
a) habitual checking behaviour
t  (100)  =  14,18,  p  <  .00
b) frequency of checking
t  (100)  =  13,56,  p  <  .00
Habitual checking tendency and frequency of checking are much
smaller in  social situations.
Therefore,  the situation and its norms do  play an  important role.
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Influence of FoMO:  comparison of alone vs.  in  
company
18
Bootstrap  analyses
• Regression  analysis (controlled for gender)
alone in	
  company
FoMO à HCB β	
  =	
  .72***	
  (95%	
  CI:	
  .59	
  -­‐ .85) β	
  =	
  .36***	
  (95%	
  CI:	
  .19	
  -­‐ .44)
FoMO à FoC β	
  =	
  .60***	
  (95%	
  CI:	
  .43	
  -­‐ .69) β	
  =	
  .23***	
  (95%	
  CI:	
  .06	
  -­‐ .40)
FoMO is a  very strong  predictor for habitual checking tendencies and
checking frequency.
FoMO is still  a  significant predictor in  social situations,  although its
influence is significantly lower.
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Influence of FoMO on  HCB:
alone vs.  in  company
19
Regression  analyses
• corr.  R2 =  54,1  %
• Main  effect of gender β  =  .22***
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .85***
b) female:   β  =  .58***
• Interaction  effect β  =  -­.19*
• corr.  R2 =  15,2  %
• Main  effect of gender β  =  .18*
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .52***
b) female:   β  =  .19
• Interaction  effect: β  =  -­.23*
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
Low FoMO High FoMO
Habitualcheckingbehaviour-
alone
Men Women
1,5
2
2,5
3
Low FoMO High FoMO
Habitualcheckingbehaviour-in
company
Men Women
19
FoMO is a  stronger predictor
for males than for females
FoMO is only a  predictor for males,  
since females have HCB  anyways
alone in	
  company
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing”
Influence of FoMO on  FoC:
alone vs.  in  company
20
Regression  analyses
• corr.  R2 =  34,9  %
• NO  main effect of gender
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .72***
b) female:   β  =  .48***
• NO  interaction effect
• corr.  R2 =  7,3  %
• NO  main effect of gender
• Main  effect of FoMO
a) male:   β  =  .41***
b) female:   β  =  .05
• Interaction  effect: β  =  -­.26*
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
Low FoMO High FoMO
frequencyofchecking-
alone
Men Women
1,5
2
2,5
3
Low FoMO High FoMO
frequencyofchecking
-incompany-
Men Women
FoMO is a  strong  predictor,  
equally for males and females
FoMO is only a  predictor for males,  
since females do  checking anyways
alone in	
  company
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 21
Ø FoMO is a  very strong  predictor of problematic mobile  phone use
• While it explains phone addiction for males and females equally,  it triggers
reachability only for males not  for females
Ø People  generally show more checking behaviour when they are alone,  in  social situations
the habitual checking tendency and the actual checking is lower
Ø FoMO is a  very strong  predictor of habitual checking tendencies and frequency of
checking
• Though,   the influence is lowered in  social situations maybe due  to social norms
• However,  the influence is higher for males
• But  females generally check  their phones more
Conclusion
FoMO can explain why people can’t stop to use their mobile  
phones,  even when they are in  social situations where they
meet other people in  person.  
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 22
• Bayer,  J.,  &  Campbell,  S.  (2012).  Texting While Driving On  Automatic:  Considering the Frequency-­Independent  Side  of
Habit.  Computers  in  Human  Behavior,  Vol.  28,  2083-­ 2090.  
• Bosau C.,  Aelker,  L.  &  Amaadachou,  H.  (2014).  Ich  darf  nichts  verpassen!  – Kann  “Fear  of Missing Out  (FoMO)”  
Suchtverhalten  in  Facebook  erklären?  49.  congress of Deutsche  Gesellschaft  für  Psychologie  (DGPs)  in  Bochum.
• Carbonell,  X.,  Oberst,  U.  &  Beranuy,  M.  (2013).  The Cell Phone in the Twenty-First Century: ARisk forAddictionora
Necessary Tool? Principles ofAddiction.Vol.1,pp.901-909.
• Collins.L.(2013).FoMOand Mobile Phones: ASurvey Study.Unpublished masterthesis.Tilburg University,Tilburg.
• Guzeller,  C.,  &  Cosguner,  T.  (2012).  Development  of a  Problematic Mobile  Phone  Use Scale for TurkishAdolescents.  
Cyberpsychology,  Behavior,  and Social Networking  ,  Vol.  15  (4),  205-­211.  
• JWT  (2011).  Fear  of Missing Out  (FOMO),  May  2011.  Retrieved from:  
http://www.jwtintelligence.com/production/FOMO_JWT_TrendReport_May2011.pdf  [01.09.2012].
• JWT  (2012).  Fear  of Missing Out  (FOMO),  March  2012.  Retrieved from:  http://www.jwtintelligence.com/wp-­
content/uploads/2012/03/F  _JWT_FOMO-­ update_3.21.12.pdf  [01.09.2012].
• Przybylski,  A.K.,  Murayama,  K.,  DeHaan,  C.R.  &  Gladwell,  V.  (2013).  Motivational,  emotional,  and  behavioural
correlates  of  fear  of  missing  out.  Computers  in  Human  Behavior,  Vol.  29,  pp.  1841-­1848.
Literature
Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 23
Thank you very much for your
attention!
Contact details:
Rheinische  Fachhochschule  Köln
Prof.  Dr.  Christian  Bosau,  Dipl.-­Psych.  &  Master  of HRM  &  IR
Schaevenstraße 1a/b
50676  Köln
Tel.:  +49  221  20302-­0
e-­mail:  christian.bosau@rfh-­koeln.de
Slideshare:  cbosau
Twitter:  cribocologne

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How to explain phubbing - Presentation Media Psychology Conference 2015

  • 1. How to explain “phubbing”   Can  “Fear  of Missing Out”  predict the compulsive use of mobile  phones in   social situations?   C.  Bosau &  M.  Kühn
  • 3. 3 Quelle:   http://healthmeup.com/phot ogallery-­ healt hy-­liv ing/could-­y ou-­be-­s uffer ing-­from-­fear-­ of-­m issing-­out-­fomo/ 32443/3
  • 4. 4 Quelle:   http://www.examiner.c om/ artic le/c hecking-­fac ebook-­ and-­twitter-­ all-­ day -­scientists-­s ay-­ you-­m ay-­ have-­f om o  
  • 5. 5 Quelle:    http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/doks oft_uploader/ us erfiles/phubbing2.jpg Quelle:   https://timenerdworld.files. wor dpress.com/2013/08/phubbing.jpg?w=600 Quelle:   http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/ dok soft_uploader/us erfiles/ phubbing.jpeg
  • 6. 6 Quelle:   http://blog.vodafone.de/wp-­c ont ent/uploads/ 2014/12/stop-­phubbing-­ campaign.jpg
  • 7. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 7 Quelle:  http://www.jwtintelligence.com Only recently,  the discussion about this new phenomenon started (JWT,  2011  &  2012;;  Przybylski,   Murayama,  DeHaan &  Gladwell,   2013): Fear  of Missing Out  (FoMO) „the uneasy and sometimes all-­ consuming feeling that you’re missing out  — that your peers are doing,  in  the know about or in   possession of more or something better than you.”  (JWT,  2011,  S.  4) FoMO:  a  new phenomenon?
  • 8. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Former  results 8 What we already know: • Mobile  phones are potential  addiction sources (Carbonell,  Oberst  &  Beranuy,  2013)   • FoMO correlates highly with social media engagementin  general (Przybylski,  Murayama,   DeHaan,  &  Gladwell,  2013) and  Facebook  usage in  particular (Bosau,  Aelker &  Amaadachou,  2014) • FoMO correlates with problematic mobile  phone use (PMPU)  and habitual checking behaviour (Collins,  2013) Main  questions: Do  people check  their mobile  phones in  company as much as if they are alone? Is FoMO the main predictor of this behaviour or do  social norms play a   role,  too?
  • 9. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” The  study 9 Former  studies: § many looked at PMPU  only § only one study measured the influence of FoMO – but  in general This  study: § integrated FoMO and several measures for compulsive mobile   phone use § compared social situations (i.e.   being in  company)  vs.  personal   situations (i.e.  being alone) Method: • Online  questionnaire (posted via  Facebook,  mailing-­lists and personal   emails,  partly snowball sampling)  in  2014 • N  =  101 • age:  <  18y  =  16%,  18-­23y  =  50%,  24-­30y  =  29%,  >  30y  =  5%   • male  =  46%,  female =  54%
  • 10. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” The  scales 10 Fear  of Missing Out  -­ FoMO (Przybylski,  Murayama,  DeHaan,  &  Gladwell,  2013) Frequency of checking -­ FoC (Collins,  2013)   Habitual checking behaviour -­ HCB (Bayer  &  Campbell,  2012)   The  independent variable: Problematic mobile  phone use -­ PMPU (Güzeller &  Cosguner,  2012)   The  dependent variables: Gender The  moderator: Measured twice: a) While being alone b) While being in  company Measured twice: a) While being alone b) While being in  company
  • 11. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 2,79% 2,80% 2,90% 2,90% 2,96% 3,11% 3,21% 3,34% 3,40% 3,89% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% Ich$bekomme$Angst,$wenn$ich$nicht$weiß,$was$meine$Freunde$tun$ Wenn$ich$eine$gute$Zeit$habe$ist$es$wich:g$für$mich,$die$Details$online$zu$teilen$ (z.B.$Facebook$Status)$ Manchmal$frage$ich$mich,$ob$ich$zu$viel$Zeit$damit$verbringe$auf$dem$Laufenden$ zu$bleiben$was$momentan$vor$s...$ Wenn$ich$im$Urlaub$bin,$beobachte$ich$weiterhin,$was$meine$Freunde$machen$ Ich$habe$Angst,$dass$mir$nicht$nahestehende$Bekannte$tollere$Erlebnisse$ erfahren$ Ich$habe$Angst,$dass$meine$Freunde$tollere$Erlebnisse$erfahren$ Es$beunruhigt$mich,$wenn$ich$herausfinde,$dass$meine$Freunde$ohne$mich$Spaß$ haben$ Es$ist$wich:g,$dass$ich$die$"InsiderMJokes"$meiner$Freunde$verstehe$ Es$stört$mich,$wenn$ich$eine$Möglichkeit$verpasse$mich$mit$meinen$Freunden$zu$ treffen$ Es$stört$mich,$wenn$ich$ein$geplantes$Treffen$verpasse$ FoMO – Fear  of Missing Out 11 Independent  variable • scale of Przybylski,  Murayama,  DeHaan,  &  Gladwell (2013) • scale:  1 =  „gilt  überhaupt  nicht  für  mich“          vs.          5  =  „gilt  komplett  für  mich“ • Cronbach’s α  =  .89
  • 12. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Problematic mobile  phone use 12 Dependent variable • scale of Güzeller &  Cosguner (2012) • scale:   1  =  „stimme  überhaupt  nicht  zu“ vs.   5  =  „stimme  vollkommen  zu“ • Originally:   ONE  factor scale;;   Cronbach’s α  =  .88 • Should be divided into two factors (based on  PCA,  Varimax-­rotation) a) reachability (α  =  .92) b) addiction (α  =  .76) 2,29$ 2,42$ 2,44$ 2,50$ 2,51$ 2,54$ 2,59$ 2,66$ 2,72$ 2,77$ 2,81$ 2,85$ 2,79$ 2,97$ 3,25$ 3,55$ 3,70$ 3,73$ 1$ 2$ 3$ 4$ 5$ Ich$habe$Schmerzen$in$Kopf,$Daumen$und$Hand$aufgrund$der$ Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$ Die$Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$hat$einen$Rückgang$meiner$ schulischen$Leistung$zur$Folge$ Ich$komme$oA$zu$spät$zu$Verabredungen,$weil$ich$mit$meinem$ Smartphone$beschäAigt$bin,$wenn$ich$es$eigentlich$nicht$sollte$ Ich$sage$immer$zu$mir$selbst$"nur$noch$ein$paar$Minuten",$ während$ich$mein$Smartphone$benutze$ Ich$glaube$ein$Leben$ohne$Smartphones$ist$langweilig$und$ sinnlos$ Andere$beschweren$sich$darüber,$dass$ich$mein$Smartphone$zu$ oA$benutze$ Ich$habe$versucht$die$Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$zu$ verringern,$bin$aber$daran$gescheitert$ Ich$schaffe$es$nicht,$zu$lernen$oder$meine$Hausaufgaben$zu$ machen$aufgrund$der$Nutzung$meines$Smartphones$ Wenn$ich$mein$Smartphone$nicht$nutzen$kann,$bin$ich$genervt$ Ich$kann$mich$nicht$auf$das$Lernen$konzentrieren,$weil$ich$ Nachrichten$verschicke$und$empfange$oder$Spiele$auf$meinem$ Smartphone$spiele$ Es$gibt$Momente,$in$denen$ich$lieber$mein$Smartphone$nutzen$ würde,$als$mich$um$dringlichere$Angelegenheiten$zu$kümmern$ Ich$bemerke,$dass$ich$mit$meinem$Smartphone$beschäAigt$bin,$ obwohl$ich$eigentlich$gerade$andere$Dinge$tun$sollte$und$ dadurch$Probleme$entstehen$ Ich$nutze$mein$Smartphone$so$oA$ich$kann$ Ich$gehe$sofort$an$mein$Smartphone,$wenn$es$klingelt$und$ schreibe$auch$direkt$zurück$beim$Empfang$einer$Nachricht$ Ich$bin$besorgt$über$die$Akkuladung$von$meinem$Smartphone$ Ich$kontrolliere$regelmäßig$meine$verpassten$Anrufe$und$ empfangenen$Nachrichten$ Ich$mache$tagsüber$mein$Smartphone$nie$aus$ Ich$habe$mein$Smartphone$immer$dabei$ reachabilityaddiction
  • 13. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 1,88$ 2,19$ 2,69$ 3,25$ 1$ 2$ 3$ 4$ 5$ Frequency of checking 13 Dependent variable • scale of Collins  (2013)   • scale:   1  =  „niemals“ vs.   5  =  „mehr  als  7  mal“ • „In  welcher  Häufigkeit kontrollieren   Sie  die  folgenden  Applikationen   auf   ihrem  Smartphone   pro  Tag?“ • Cronbach’s α  =  .63  (being alone) Cronbach’s α  =  .80  (being in  company) 2,97% 3,37% 3,83% 4,38% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% News% E'Mail% Social'Media%(Facebook,% Twi6er%etc.)% Anrufe%und%Nachrichten% (Skype,%SMS,%WhatsApp% etc.)% 13 alone in  company
  • 14. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 2,31% 2,35% 2,28% 2,37% 2,32% 2,39% 2,34% 2,48% 2,69% 2,45% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 3,05% 3,07% 3,18% 3,25% 3,41% 3,50% 3,59% 3,62% 3,69% 3,76% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% ..."mir"schwer"fällt,"es"zu" unterlassen" ..."mir"Mühe"bereiten" würde,"es"nicht"zu"tun" ..."für"mich"sehr"typisch"ist" ..."ich"erst"realisiere," nachdem"ich"damit" begonnen"habe" ..."mir"nicht"das"Bedürfnis" gibt"darüber" nachzudenken" ..."ich"tue"ohne"dabei" nachzudenken" ..."ich"auch"ohne"Grund" dazu"tue" ..."ich"tue,"ohne"mich" bewusst"daran"erinnern"zu" müssen" ..."zu"meiner"täglichen" Rou@ne"gehört" ..."ich"automa@sch"tue" Habitual checking behaviour 14 Dependent variable • scale of Bayer  &  Campbell  (2012) • scale:   1  =  „stimme  überhaupt  nicht  zu“ vs.   5  =  „stimme  vollkommen  zu“ • „Das  Kontrollieren  von  meinem   Smartphone   ist  etwas,  dass  ...“ • Cronbach’s α  =  .90  (being alone) Cronbach’s α  =  .89  (being in  company) alone in  company
  • 15. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Influence of FoMO on  PMPU  total 15 Regression  analysis • corr.  R2 =  66,2  % • NO  main effect of gender • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .91*** b) female:   β  =  .66*** • Interaction  effect:   β  =  .17* 2 2,5 3 3,5 Low FoMO High FoMO ProblematicMobilePhoneUse Men Women FoMO is a  very strong  predictor and leads to more problematic mobile  phone use. This  influence,  however,  is slightly higher for males than for females.
  • 16. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Influence of FoMO on  PMPU: addiction &  reachability 16 Regression  analyses • corr.  R2 =  66,7  % • NO  main effect of gender • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .86*** b) female:   β  =  .78*** • NO  interaction effect 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 Low FoMO High FoMO PMPU-addiction Men Women • corr.  R2 =  6,9  % • NO  main effect of gender • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .52*** b) female:   β  =  .19 • Interaction  effect: β  =  -­.32** 2,5 3 3,5 4 Low FoMO High FoMO PMPU-reachability Men Women FoMO is a  strong  predictor,   equally for males and females FoMO is only a  predictor for males addiction reachability
  • 17. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Differences of checking behaviour 17 1 2 3 4 5 HCB  -­‐alone HCB  -­‐in   company FoC  -­‐alone FoC  -­‐in   company MeanPaired t-­Test • Comparison of a) habitual checking behaviour alone vs.  in  company b) frequency of checking alone vs.  in  company • sign.  difference between the two situations a) habitual checking behaviour t  (100)  =  14,18,  p  <  .00 b) frequency of checking t  (100)  =  13,56,  p  <  .00 Habitual checking tendency and frequency of checking are much smaller in  social situations. Therefore,  the situation and its norms do  play an  important role.
  • 18. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Influence of FoMO:  comparison of alone vs.  in   company 18 Bootstrap  analyses • Regression  analysis (controlled for gender) alone in  company FoMO à HCB β  =  .72***  (95%  CI:  .59  -­‐ .85) β  =  .36***  (95%  CI:  .19  -­‐ .44) FoMO à FoC β  =  .60***  (95%  CI:  .43  -­‐ .69) β  =  .23***  (95%  CI:  .06  -­‐ .40) FoMO is a  very strong  predictor for habitual checking tendencies and checking frequency. FoMO is still  a  significant predictor in  social situations,  although its influence is significantly lower.
  • 19. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Influence of FoMO on  HCB: alone vs.  in  company 19 Regression  analyses • corr.  R2 =  54,1  % • Main  effect of gender β  =  .22*** • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .85*** b) female:   β  =  .58*** • Interaction  effect β  =  -­.19* • corr.  R2 =  15,2  % • Main  effect of gender β  =  .18* • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .52*** b) female:   β  =  .19 • Interaction  effect: β  =  -­.23* 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Low FoMO High FoMO Habitualcheckingbehaviour- alone Men Women 1,5 2 2,5 3 Low FoMO High FoMO Habitualcheckingbehaviour-in company Men Women 19 FoMO is a  stronger predictor for males than for females FoMO is only a  predictor for males,   since females have HCB  anyways alone in  company
  • 20. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” Influence of FoMO on  FoC: alone vs.  in  company 20 Regression  analyses • corr.  R2 =  34,9  % • NO  main effect of gender • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .72*** b) female:   β  =  .48*** • NO  interaction effect • corr.  R2 =  7,3  % • NO  main effect of gender • Main  effect of FoMO a) male:   β  =  .41*** b) female:   β  =  .05 • Interaction  effect: β  =  -­.26* 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Low FoMO High FoMO frequencyofchecking- alone Men Women 1,5 2 2,5 3 Low FoMO High FoMO frequencyofchecking -incompany- Men Women FoMO is a  strong  predictor,   equally for males and females FoMO is only a  predictor for males,   since females do  checking anyways alone in  company
  • 21. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 21 Ø FoMO is a  very strong  predictor of problematic mobile  phone use • While it explains phone addiction for males and females equally,  it triggers reachability only for males not  for females Ø People  generally show more checking behaviour when they are alone,  in  social situations the habitual checking tendency and the actual checking is lower Ø FoMO is a  very strong  predictor of habitual checking tendencies and frequency of checking • Though,   the influence is lowered in  social situations maybe due  to social norms • However,  the influence is higher for males • But  females generally check  their phones more Conclusion FoMO can explain why people can’t stop to use their mobile   phones,  even when they are in  social situations where they meet other people in  person.  
  • 22. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 22 • Bayer,  J.,  &  Campbell,  S.  (2012).  Texting While Driving On  Automatic:  Considering the Frequency-­Independent  Side  of Habit.  Computers  in  Human  Behavior,  Vol.  28,  2083-­ 2090.   • Bosau C.,  Aelker,  L.  &  Amaadachou,  H.  (2014).  Ich  darf  nichts  verpassen!  – Kann  “Fear  of Missing Out  (FoMO)”   Suchtverhalten  in  Facebook  erklären?  49.  congress of Deutsche  Gesellschaft  für  Psychologie  (DGPs)  in  Bochum. • Carbonell,  X.,  Oberst,  U.  &  Beranuy,  M.  (2013).  The Cell Phone in the Twenty-First Century: ARisk forAddictionora Necessary Tool? Principles ofAddiction.Vol.1,pp.901-909. • Collins.L.(2013).FoMOand Mobile Phones: ASurvey Study.Unpublished masterthesis.Tilburg University,Tilburg. • Guzeller,  C.,  &  Cosguner,  T.  (2012).  Development  of a  Problematic Mobile  Phone  Use Scale for TurkishAdolescents.   Cyberpsychology,  Behavior,  and Social Networking  ,  Vol.  15  (4),  205-­211.   • JWT  (2011).  Fear  of Missing Out  (FOMO),  May  2011.  Retrieved from:   http://www.jwtintelligence.com/production/FOMO_JWT_TrendReport_May2011.pdf  [01.09.2012]. • JWT  (2012).  Fear  of Missing Out  (FOMO),  March  2012.  Retrieved from:  http://www.jwtintelligence.com/wp-­ content/uploads/2012/03/F  _JWT_FOMO-­ update_3.21.12.pdf  [01.09.2012]. • Przybylski,  A.K.,  Murayama,  K.,  DeHaan,  C.R.  &  Gladwell,  V.  (2013).  Motivational,  emotional,  and  behavioural correlates  of  fear  of  missing  out.  Computers  in  Human  Behavior,  Vol.  29,  pp.  1841-­1848. Literature
  • 23. Media  Psychology 2015Bosau &  Kühn:  How  to  explain  “phubbing” 23 Thank you very much for your attention! Contact details: Rheinische  Fachhochschule  Köln Prof.  Dr.  Christian  Bosau,  Dipl.-­Psych.  &  Master  of HRM  &  IR Schaevenstraße 1a/b 50676  Köln Tel.:  +49  221  20302-­0 e-­mail:  christian.bosau@rfh-­koeln.de Slideshare:  cbosau Twitter:  cribocologne