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The  two  sides  of  social  media  
friendship
Positive  and  negative  outcomes  of  
making  ‘friends‘  in  social  networks
C.  Bosau &  A.K.  Bosch
2
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Nowadays ....
3
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Recently ....
4
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Quelle:   https://timenerdworld.files. wor dpress.com/2013/08/phubbing.jpg?w=600
Quelle:   http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/ dok soft_uploader/us erfiles/ phubbing.jpeg
Recently ....
5
Source:   http://ingo-­ronnebur g.com/1000-­ lik es-­ bei-­facebook
Source:   http://getfacebooklik ess. blogs pot.de
However ....
6
Source:   http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/30/fas hion/ 30FA CE BOOK.htm l?_r= 0
Source:   https://www.uni-­bam berg. de/k omm unik ation/ news/ wiss ensc haft/artikel/fac ebook_stress/
But  ....
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Two main research perspectives
7
Positive	
  effects Negative	
  effects
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Two main research perspectives
8
Purpose of the study:	
  Combiningboth research questions
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Former  results
9
What we already know:
• Number of friends in  social networks is associated with higher subjective well-­
being (Kim  &  Lee,  2011)    -­ however,  the underlying mechanism remains unclear
• Positive  feedback on  social networks lead to higher social self-­esteem and via  
that to more subjective well-­being (Valkenburg,  Peter  &  Schouten,  2006)  
• Likes can increase the self-­esteem and life satisfaction (Bosau &  Bosch,  2016)
Though:
• The  more people use social networks the more they think „others are happier
and having better lives than I  am“  (Chou  &  Edge,  2012)  
• More  friends in  social networks create higher stress  levels (Maier,  Laumer ,Eckhardt  &  
Weitzel,  2014)
Main  question:
Does ‚making friends‘  in  social networks finally lead to
higher or lower subjective well-­being?
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
The  study
10
Former  studies:
§ looked at  either the positive  
outcomes or the negative
outcomes
This  study:
§ combined both perspectives of positive  and
negative  outcomes of having a  huge
number of friends in  social networks
§ used an  SEM-­approach
Method:
• Online  questionnaire (posted via  Facebook,  mailing-­lists and personal  
emails,  partly snowball sampling)  in  2015
• N  =  143
• age:  <  18y  =  2,1%,  18-­23y  =  23,8%,  24-­28y  =  54,6%,  >  28y  =  19,6%  
• male  =  40%,  female =  60%
• Non-­student  =  66%,  student =  34%
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
The  scales
11
Number of friends
Self-­Esteem -­ scale
(german version of Rosenberg,  1965)  
Intensity of usage (hours per  week)
The  independent variable:
Perception of others‘  lives (PoOL)  -­ scale
(german version of Chou  &  Edge,  2012)  
The  mediating variables:
Satisfaction with life (SWL)  -­ scale
(german version of Diener,  Emmons,  Larsen  &  Griffin,  1985)  
The  dependent variable:
Likes got
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
The  SEM-­Model
12
SWL
Amount of
Likes
Usage
intensity
Self-­‐Esteem
Number
of friends
PoOL
the positive  effect
the negative  effect
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Friends &  usage intensity
13
Independent  variable:  friends
• „Wie  viele  Freunde  hast  Du  in  Deiner  
Facebook   Freundesliste?“
• Mean:  462  friends,  SD:  417
Mediating variable:  intensity
• “Wie  viele  Stunden  in  der  Woche  
verbringst  Du  Zeit  auf  Facebook?“
• Mean:  8,4  hours,  SD:  7,8
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
3,72
3,80
3,87
3,90
3,98
4,03
4,03
4,16
4,17
4,37
1 2 3 4 5
Ich$fühle$mich$von$Zeit$zu$Zeit$richtig$nutzlos$(reversed)
Ich$wünschte,$ich$könnte$vor$mir$selbst$Achtung$haben$(reversed)
Ich$besitze$die$gleichen$Fähigkeiten$wie$die$meisten$anderen$Menschen$auch
Alles$in$allem$bin$ich$mit$mir$selbst$zufrieden
Ich$habe$eine$positive$Einstellung$zu$mir$selbst$gefunden
Ich$besitze$eine$Reihe$guter$Eigenschaften
Ich$halte$mich$für$einen$wertvollen$Menschen,$jedenfalls$bin$ich$nicht$weniger$…
Ich$fürchte,$es$gibt$nicht$viel,$worauf$ich$stolz$sein$kann$(reversed)
Hin$und$wieder$denke$ich,$dass$ich$gar$nichts$tauge$(reversed)
Alles$in$allem$neige$ich$dazu,$mich$für$einen$Versager$zu$halten$(reversed)
Self-­Esteem
14
Mediating variable
• scale of Rosenberg   (1964),  German  version by Ferring &  Filipp  (1996)
• scale:  5 =  „trifft  völlig  zu“          vs.          1  =  „trifft  gar  nicht  zu“
• Cronbach’s α  =  .89
• Mean:  4,0,  SD:  0,63
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
1,99
2,08
2,96
1 2 3 4 5
Viele%meiner%Freunde%haben%
ein%besseres%Leben%als%ich
Viele%meiner%Freunde%sind%
glücklicher%als%ich
Das%Leben%ist%fair%(reversed)
Perception-­of-­Others‘-­Lives &  Likes
15
Mediating variable:  PoOL
• scale of Chou  &  Edge  (2012),  
translated into German
• scale:  5 =  „trifft  völlig  zu“          vs.          
1  =  „trifft  gar  nicht  zu“
• Cronbach’s α  =  .58  
(without Item  1:  α  =  .84)  
à low α  tolerated because of
heterogenity of the index
Mediating variable:  Likes
• “Wie  viele  Likes erhälst Du  in  der  
Regel  in  Bezug  auf  Deine  Aktivitäten  in  
Facebook?“
• scale:  5 =  „sehr  viele“          vs.          
1  =  „sehr  wenig“
13,00
28,00
82,00
20,00
0
25
50
75
100
sehr%wenig
wenig
mittelmäßig
viele
sehr%viele
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
3,24
3,26
3,52
3,55
3,69
1 2 3 4 5
In#den#meisten#Bereichen#entspricht#mein#Leben#meinen#Idealvorstellungen
Wenn#ich#mein#Leben#noch#einmal#leben#könnte,#würde#ich#kaum#etwas#ändern
Meine#Lebensbedingungen#sind#ausgezeichnet
Bisher#habe#ich#die#wesentlichen#Dinge#erreicht,#die#ich#mir#für#mein#Leben#wünsche
Ich#bin#mit#meinem#Leben#zufrieden
Satisfaction-­with-­life
16
Dependent variable
• scale of Diener,  Emmons,  Larsen  &  Griffin  (1985),  German  version by Glaesmer,  
Grande,  Braehler &  Roth  (2011)
• scale:  5 =  „trifft  völlig  zu“          vs.          1  =  „trifft  gar  nicht  zu“
• Cronbach’s α  =  .84
• Mean:  3,5,  SD:  0,70
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Descriptive results
Zero-­Order  correlations:
1 2 3 4 5
1)	
  Number of friends
2)	
  Amount of likes .29***
3)	
  Usage intensity .23*** .10
4)	
  Self-­‐esteem .04 .16* -­‐.07
5)	
  Perception of others‘	
  lives .06 -­‐.13 .06 -­‐.48***
6)	
  Satisfaction with life -­‐.01 .14* -­‐.12 .61*** -­‐.57***
Correlations already support the hypothesized model
to a  great extent
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Measurement-­Model
18
SWLS
Chi-­Quadrat  (132)  =  216.4,  p  <  .01;;  CFI  =  .920  ;;  RMSEA  =  .067  ;;  SRMR  =  .067    
Amount of
Likes
Usage
intensity
Self-­‐Esteem
.66 .74 .61 .56 .55 .60 .62 .78 .82 .81
.81
.64
.82
.70
.50
.97 .75 .15
Number
of friends
PoOL
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship
Finally:  The  SEM-­Model
19
SWLS
.66
Chi-­Quadrat  (186)  =  326.7,  p  <  .01;;  CFI  =  .873  ;;  RMSEA  =  .073  ;;  SRMR  =  .132    
Amount of
Likes
Usage
intensity
Self-­‐Esteem
.74 .61 .56 .55 .60 .62 .78 .82 .81
.81
.64
.82
.70
.50
.97 .75 .15
Number
of friends
PoOL
.29*** .18*** .57***
.23** .17** -­.37***
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 20
Ø Facebook  is a  kind of „double  edged sword“
• ‚making a  lot friends‘  increases the social support and the likelihood of likes
AND
• Likes increase the personal  self-­esteem and by that also  the life satisfaction
Though:
• More  friends need more attention and take more lifetime
AND
• Looking more at  friends‘  profiles make people feel worse and make them think that
others are better off  à and by that lower the life satisfaction
Conclusion
People  have to manage  the trade-­off  between joy and
depression when using Facebook.
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 21
• Bosau,  C.  &  Bosch,  A.K.  (2016).  Kann  Facebook-­Nutzung  glücklich  machen?  – Die  Bedeutung  von  Likes für  das  
eigene  Wohlbefinden  und  den  Selbstwert,  20th  congress of GWPs  (Gesellschaft  für  Wirtschaftspsychologie)  in  
Hamburg.  
• Chou,  H.T.  &  Edge,  N.  (2012).  “They  Are  Happier  and  Having  Better  Lives  than  I  Am”:  The  Impact  of  Using  Facebook  
on  Perceptions  of  Others’  Lives.  Cyberpsychology,  Behavior,  and  Social  Networking,  Vol.  15  (2),  117-­121.
• Diener,  E.D.,  Emmons,  R.A.,  Larsen,  R.J.  &  Griffin,  S.  (1985).  The  satisfaction  with  life  scale.  Journal  of  personality  
assessment,  Vol.  49  (1),  71-­75.  
• Ferring,  D.  &  Filipp,  S.-­H.  (1996).  Messung des  Selbstwertgefü̈hls:  Befunde zu Reliabilitä̈t,  Validitä̈t und  Stabilitä̈t der  
Rosenberg-­Skala.  Diagnostica,  Vol.  42,  284-­292.  
• Glaesmer,  H.,  Grande,  G.,  Braehler,  E.  &  Roth,  M.  (2011).  The  German  version  of  the  satisfaction  with  life  scale  
(SWLS).  European  Journal  of  Psychological  Assessment,  Vol.  27  (2),  127-­132.  
• Kim,  J.K.  &  Lee,  J.R.  (2011).  The  Facebook  Paths  to  Happiness:  Effects  of  the  Number  of  Facebook  Friends  and  Self-­
Presentation  on  Subjective  Well-­Being.  Cyberpsychology,  Behavior,  and  Social  Networking,  Vol.  14  (6),  359-­364.
• Maier,  ,  Laumer,  S.,  Eckhardt,  A.  &  Weitzel,  T.  (2015).  Giving  too  much  social  support:  social  overload  on  social  
networking  sites.  European  Journal  of  Information  Systems,  Vol.  24  (5),  447-­464.  
• Rosenberg,  M.  (1965).  Society  and  the  adolescent  self-­image.  Princeton,  NJ:  Princeton  University  Press.  
• Valkenburg,  P.M.,  Peter.  J.  &  Schouten,  A.P.  (2006).  Friend  Networking  Sites  and  Their  Relationship  to  Adolescents’  
Well-­Being  and  Social  Self-­Esteem.  Cyberpsychology &  Behavior,  Vol.  9 (5),  584-­590.
Literature
GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 22
Thank you very much for your
attention!
Contact details:
Rheinische  Fachhochschule  Köln
Prof.  Dr.  Christian  Bosau,  Dipl.-­Psych.  &  Master  of HRM  &  IR
Schaevenstraße 1a/b
50676  Köln
Tel.:  +49  221  20302-­0
e-­mail:  christian.bosau@rfh-­koeln.de
Slideshare:  cbosau
Twitter:  cribocologne

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The two sides of social media friendship - Presentation at GOR 2016

  • 1. The  two  sides  of  social  media   friendship Positive  and  negative  outcomes  of   making  ‘friends‘  in  social  networks C.  Bosau &  A.K.  Bosch
  • 2. 2 Quelle:   http://healthmeup.com/phot ogallery-­ healt hy-­liv ing/could-­y ou-­be-­s uffer ing-­from-­fear-­ of-­m issing-­out-­fomo/ 32443/3 Nowadays ....
  • 3. 3 Quelle:   http://prevenblog.c om/ wp-­c ontent/uploads/bigst ock-­T een-­G irls -­Text-­ Mes saging-­37136302. jpg Recently ....
  • 4. 4 Quelle:    http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/doks oft_uploader/ us erfiles/phubbing2.jpg Quelle:   https://timenerdworld.files. wor dpress.com/2013/08/phubbing.jpg?w=600 Quelle:   http://www.buzzly.fr/jq/ckedit or/plugins/ dok soft_uploader/us erfiles/ phubbing.jpeg Recently ....
  • 5. 5 Source:   http://ingo-­ronnebur g.com/1000-­ lik es-­ bei-­facebook Source:   http://getfacebooklik ess. blogs pot.de However ....
  • 6. 6 Source:   http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/30/fas hion/ 30FA CE BOOK.htm l?_r= 0 Source:   https://www.uni-­bam berg. de/k omm unik ation/ news/ wiss ensc haft/artikel/fac ebook_stress/ But  ....
  • 7. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Two main research perspectives 7 Positive  effects Negative  effects
  • 8. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Two main research perspectives 8 Purpose of the study:  Combiningboth research questions
  • 9. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Former  results 9 What we already know: • Number of friends in  social networks is associated with higher subjective well-­ being (Kim  &  Lee,  2011)    -­ however,  the underlying mechanism remains unclear • Positive  feedback on  social networks lead to higher social self-­esteem and via   that to more subjective well-­being (Valkenburg,  Peter  &  Schouten,  2006)   • Likes can increase the self-­esteem and life satisfaction (Bosau &  Bosch,  2016) Though: • The  more people use social networks the more they think „others are happier and having better lives than I  am“  (Chou  &  Edge,  2012)   • More  friends in  social networks create higher stress  levels (Maier,  Laumer ,Eckhardt  &   Weitzel,  2014) Main  question: Does ‚making friends‘  in  social networks finally lead to higher or lower subjective well-­being?
  • 10. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship The  study 10 Former  studies: § looked at  either the positive   outcomes or the negative outcomes This  study: § combined both perspectives of positive  and negative  outcomes of having a  huge number of friends in  social networks § used an  SEM-­approach Method: • Online  questionnaire (posted via  Facebook,  mailing-­lists and personal   emails,  partly snowball sampling)  in  2015 • N  =  143 • age:  <  18y  =  2,1%,  18-­23y  =  23,8%,  24-­28y  =  54,6%,  >  28y  =  19,6%   • male  =  40%,  female =  60% • Non-­student  =  66%,  student =  34%
  • 11. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship The  scales 11 Number of friends Self-­Esteem -­ scale (german version of Rosenberg,  1965)   Intensity of usage (hours per  week) The  independent variable: Perception of others‘  lives (PoOL)  -­ scale (german version of Chou  &  Edge,  2012)   The  mediating variables: Satisfaction with life (SWL)  -­ scale (german version of Diener,  Emmons,  Larsen  &  Griffin,  1985)   The  dependent variable: Likes got
  • 12. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship The  SEM-­Model 12 SWL Amount of Likes Usage intensity Self-­‐Esteem Number of friends PoOL the positive  effect the negative  effect
  • 13. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Friends &  usage intensity 13 Independent  variable:  friends • „Wie  viele  Freunde  hast  Du  in  Deiner   Facebook   Freundesliste?“ • Mean:  462  friends,  SD:  417 Mediating variable:  intensity • “Wie  viele  Stunden  in  der  Woche   verbringst  Du  Zeit  auf  Facebook?“ • Mean:  8,4  hours,  SD:  7,8
  • 14. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 3,72 3,80 3,87 3,90 3,98 4,03 4,03 4,16 4,17 4,37 1 2 3 4 5 Ich$fühle$mich$von$Zeit$zu$Zeit$richtig$nutzlos$(reversed) Ich$wünschte,$ich$könnte$vor$mir$selbst$Achtung$haben$(reversed) Ich$besitze$die$gleichen$Fähigkeiten$wie$die$meisten$anderen$Menschen$auch Alles$in$allem$bin$ich$mit$mir$selbst$zufrieden Ich$habe$eine$positive$Einstellung$zu$mir$selbst$gefunden Ich$besitze$eine$Reihe$guter$Eigenschaften Ich$halte$mich$für$einen$wertvollen$Menschen,$jedenfalls$bin$ich$nicht$weniger$… Ich$fürchte,$es$gibt$nicht$viel,$worauf$ich$stolz$sein$kann$(reversed) Hin$und$wieder$denke$ich,$dass$ich$gar$nichts$tauge$(reversed) Alles$in$allem$neige$ich$dazu,$mich$für$einen$Versager$zu$halten$(reversed) Self-­Esteem 14 Mediating variable • scale of Rosenberg   (1964),  German  version by Ferring &  Filipp  (1996) • scale:  5 =  „trifft  völlig  zu“          vs.          1  =  „trifft  gar  nicht  zu“ • Cronbach’s α  =  .89 • Mean:  4,0,  SD:  0,63
  • 15. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 1,99 2,08 2,96 1 2 3 4 5 Viele%meiner%Freunde%haben% ein%besseres%Leben%als%ich Viele%meiner%Freunde%sind% glücklicher%als%ich Das%Leben%ist%fair%(reversed) Perception-­of-­Others‘-­Lives &  Likes 15 Mediating variable:  PoOL • scale of Chou  &  Edge  (2012),   translated into German • scale:  5 =  „trifft  völlig  zu“          vs.           1  =  „trifft  gar  nicht  zu“ • Cronbach’s α  =  .58   (without Item  1:  α  =  .84)   à low α  tolerated because of heterogenity of the index Mediating variable:  Likes • “Wie  viele  Likes erhälst Du  in  der   Regel  in  Bezug  auf  Deine  Aktivitäten  in   Facebook?“ • scale:  5 =  „sehr  viele“          vs.           1  =  „sehr  wenig“ 13,00 28,00 82,00 20,00 0 25 50 75 100 sehr%wenig wenig mittelmäßig viele sehr%viele
  • 16. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 3,24 3,26 3,52 3,55 3,69 1 2 3 4 5 In#den#meisten#Bereichen#entspricht#mein#Leben#meinen#Idealvorstellungen Wenn#ich#mein#Leben#noch#einmal#leben#könnte,#würde#ich#kaum#etwas#ändern Meine#Lebensbedingungen#sind#ausgezeichnet Bisher#habe#ich#die#wesentlichen#Dinge#erreicht,#die#ich#mir#für#mein#Leben#wünsche Ich#bin#mit#meinem#Leben#zufrieden Satisfaction-­with-­life 16 Dependent variable • scale of Diener,  Emmons,  Larsen  &  Griffin  (1985),  German  version by Glaesmer,   Grande,  Braehler &  Roth  (2011) • scale:  5 =  „trifft  völlig  zu“          vs.          1  =  „trifft  gar  nicht  zu“ • Cronbach’s α  =  .84 • Mean:  3,5,  SD:  0,70
  • 17. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Descriptive results Zero-­Order  correlations: 1 2 3 4 5 1)  Number of friends 2)  Amount of likes .29*** 3)  Usage intensity .23*** .10 4)  Self-­‐esteem .04 .16* -­‐.07 5)  Perception of others‘  lives .06 -­‐.13 .06 -­‐.48*** 6)  Satisfaction with life -­‐.01 .14* -­‐.12 .61*** -­‐.57*** Correlations already support the hypothesized model to a  great extent
  • 18. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Measurement-­Model 18 SWLS Chi-­Quadrat  (132)  =  216.4,  p  <  .01;;  CFI  =  .920  ;;  RMSEA  =  .067  ;;  SRMR  =  .067     Amount of Likes Usage intensity Self-­‐Esteem .66 .74 .61 .56 .55 .60 .62 .78 .82 .81 .81 .64 .82 .70 .50 .97 .75 .15 Number of friends PoOL
  • 19. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship Finally:  The  SEM-­Model 19 SWLS .66 Chi-­Quadrat  (186)  =  326.7,  p  <  .01;;  CFI  =  .873  ;;  RMSEA  =  .073  ;;  SRMR  =  .132     Amount of Likes Usage intensity Self-­‐Esteem .74 .61 .56 .55 .60 .62 .78 .82 .81 .81 .64 .82 .70 .50 .97 .75 .15 Number of friends PoOL .29*** .18*** .57*** .23** .17** -­.37***
  • 20. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 20 Ø Facebook  is a  kind of „double  edged sword“ • ‚making a  lot friends‘  increases the social support and the likelihood of likes AND • Likes increase the personal  self-­esteem and by that also  the life satisfaction Though: • More  friends need more attention and take more lifetime AND • Looking more at  friends‘  profiles make people feel worse and make them think that others are better off  à and by that lower the life satisfaction Conclusion People  have to manage  the trade-­off  between joy and depression when using Facebook.
  • 21. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 21 • Bosau,  C.  &  Bosch,  A.K.  (2016).  Kann  Facebook-­Nutzung  glücklich  machen?  – Die  Bedeutung  von  Likes für  das   eigene  Wohlbefinden  und  den  Selbstwert,  20th  congress of GWPs  (Gesellschaft  für  Wirtschaftspsychologie)  in   Hamburg.   • Chou,  H.T.  &  Edge,  N.  (2012).  “They  Are  Happier  and  Having  Better  Lives  than  I  Am”:  The  Impact  of  Using  Facebook   on  Perceptions  of  Others’  Lives.  Cyberpsychology,  Behavior,  and  Social  Networking,  Vol.  15  (2),  117-­121. • Diener,  E.D.,  Emmons,  R.A.,  Larsen,  R.J.  &  Griffin,  S.  (1985).  The  satisfaction  with  life  scale.  Journal  of  personality   assessment,  Vol.  49  (1),  71-­75.   • Ferring,  D.  &  Filipp,  S.-­H.  (1996).  Messung des  Selbstwertgefü̈hls:  Befunde zu Reliabilitä̈t,  Validitä̈t und  Stabilitä̈t der   Rosenberg-­Skala.  Diagnostica,  Vol.  42,  284-­292.   • Glaesmer,  H.,  Grande,  G.,  Braehler,  E.  &  Roth,  M.  (2011).  The  German  version  of  the  satisfaction  with  life  scale   (SWLS).  European  Journal  of  Psychological  Assessment,  Vol.  27  (2),  127-­132.   • Kim,  J.K.  &  Lee,  J.R.  (2011).  The  Facebook  Paths  to  Happiness:  Effects  of  the  Number  of  Facebook  Friends  and  Self-­ Presentation  on  Subjective  Well-­Being.  Cyberpsychology,  Behavior,  and  Social  Networking,  Vol.  14  (6),  359-­364. • Maier,  ,  Laumer,  S.,  Eckhardt,  A.  &  Weitzel,  T.  (2015).  Giving  too  much  social  support:  social  overload  on  social   networking  sites.  European  Journal  of  Information  Systems,  Vol.  24  (5),  447-­464.   • Rosenberg,  M.  (1965).  Society  and  the  adolescent  self-­image.  Princeton,  NJ:  Princeton  University  Press.   • Valkenburg,  P.M.,  Peter.  J.  &  Schouten,  A.P.  (2006).  Friend  Networking  Sites  and  Their  Relationship  to  Adolescents’   Well-­Being  and  Social  Self-­Esteem.  Cyberpsychology &  Behavior,  Vol.  9 (5),  584-­590. Literature
  • 22. GOR  2016Bosau &  Bosch:  two  sides  of  social  media  friendship 22 Thank you very much for your attention! Contact details: Rheinische  Fachhochschule  Köln Prof.  Dr.  Christian  Bosau,  Dipl.-­Psych.  &  Master  of HRM  &  IR Schaevenstraße 1a/b 50676  Köln Tel.:  +49  221  20302-­0 e-­mail:  christian.bosau@rfh-­koeln.de Slideshare:  cbosau Twitter:  cribocologne