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Social ratings as the new currency of
marketeers?
– A comparison of influences from Likes
and test seals on product ratings –
C. Bosau, L. Pöppel & U. Rieger
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Practical background:
§  Online purchases are steadily increasing
§  However, the purchase experience in online settings is different to
offline settings
Purpose of the study
2
§  Rating information becomes more important since personal testing is
not possible
Theoretical background:
§  Customers like to buy “socially proofed“ products
Ø  In new, unclear and ambigous (buying) situations people like to
follow others due to informational as well as normative social
influence (Stürmer & Siem, 2013; Mente & Sieg, 2013)
§  Several market research studies show the high influence of social
media on online purchases (e.g. Schengber, 2011).
§  Online ratings (e.g. stars) seem to have an influence on purchase
decisions (Chevalier & Mayzlin, 2006).
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Research questions
§  Are customers influenced by ratings of social media,
i.e. “Likes”?
§  Is this influence higher than the influence of test seals
like “Stiftung Warentest“?
§  Is there a difference between Convenience- und
Shopping-Goods?
Study goals
3
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Study-Design
IV1
Seal „Stiftung
Warentest“
(objective
rating)
IV2
Social rating
(subjective
rating)
DV
product rating
Moderator
product type
(Convenience-
vs. Shopping-
Goods)
4
Moderator
§  FB-Account
§  product need
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Operationalisation
5
IV1
Seal „Stiftung
Warentest“
(objective rating)
Test seal of „Stiftung Warentest“ with:
•  „sehr gut“
•  „ausreichend“
IV2
Social rating
(subjective rating)
Number of likes:
•  low (5-10 Likes)
•  medium (ca. 500 Likes)
•  high (ca. 5000 Likes)
DV
product rating
Scale of 3 items (α	
  =	
  .841	
  -­‐	
  α	
  =	
  .919	
  depending	
  on	
  product)
•  Quality rating: „Dieses Produkt besitzt eine gute Qualität“
•  Purchasing intention: „Ich könnte mir gut vorstellen, dieses Produkt zu kaufen“
•  Customer recommendation: „Ich würde dieses Produkt meinen Bekannten
weiterempfehlen“
Moderator
product type
(Convenience- vs.
Shopping-Goods)
Two products for each category:
•  SG: Laptop, TV
•  CG: water, cholocate
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Experimental design
	
  
S#$ung	
  Warentest	
  (IV	
  1)
	
  
	
   nega&ve posi&ve
Number	
  of	
  Likes	
  	
  
(IV	
  2)
Low N = 176 N = 204
Medium N = 196 N = 207
High N = 180 N = 207
6
Repeated measurement:
§  4 different products (within the same category of the experimental design)
Method:
•  online questionnaire in 2014
•  N = 1170, drawn via a panel-database by MW Research
•  age: mean = 48,1y, SD = 23,8y
•  male = 47,7%, female = 52,3%
•  representative for German population (regarding age, gender, country)
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Stimulus material
7
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Stimulus material
8
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
ü  Small/medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“:
F(1)=45.43, p < .00, η2 = .04
-  NO effect of von FB-Likes:
F(2)=.97, p = .38, η2 = .002
-  NO interaction:
F(2)=.24, p = .79, η2 = .000
Results: Total sample
9
3,38	
   3,38	
  
3,26	
  
2,97	
  
2,92	
   2,89	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
3,2	
  
3,4	
  
3,6	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
SW	
  posi&ve	
   SW	
  nega&ve	
  
Product rating TV:
3,21	
  
3,39	
  
3,25	
  
2,72	
   2,69	
   2,65	
  
2,4	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
3,2	
  
3,4	
  
3,6	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
SW	
  posi&ve	
   SW	
  nega&ve	
  
ü  medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“:
F(1)=87.49, p < .00, η2 = .07
-  NO effect of von FB-Likes:
F(2)=.77, p = .46, η2 = .001
-  NO interaction:
F(2)=.81, p = .45, η2 = .001
Product rating Laptop:
Also	
  controlled	
  for:	
  	
  
age,	
  gender,	
  income	
  &	
  rela&onship	
  status	
  
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
ü  Small/medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“:
F(1)=65.19, p < .00, η2 = .05
-  NO effect of von FB-Likes:
F(2)=.96, p = .38, η2 = .002
ü  Small marginal interaction:
F(2)=2.37, p <.10, η2 = .004
Results: Total sample
10
2,86	
  
2,94	
  
2,9	
  
2,45	
  
2,15	
  
2,37	
  
2	
  
2,2	
  
2,4	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
SW	
  posi&ve	
   SW	
  nega&ve	
  
Product rating water:
2,8	
  
2,96	
  
2,91	
  
2,51	
  
2,24	
   2,27	
  
2	
  
2,2	
  
2,4	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
3,2	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
SW	
  posi&ve	
   SW	
  nega&ve	
  
ü  Small/medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“:
F(1)=63.71, p < .00, η2 = .05
-  NO effect of von FB-Likes:
F(2)=.34, p = .71, η2 = .001
ü  Small interaction:
F(2)=3.56, p < .05, η2 = .006
Product rating chocolate:
Controlled	
  for:	
  	
  
age,	
  gender,	
  income	
  &	
  rela&onship	
  status	
  
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Conclusion: Total sample
11
Ø  The test seal of „Stiftung Warentest“ does have a clear
positive effect on the product rating
Ø  Likes have no effect on the product rating at all
Ø  There is no difference between shopping and convenience
goods
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Results: only people with product need
ü  Medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“:
F(1)=24.28, p < .00, η2 = .07
-  NO effect of von FB-Likes:
F(2)=1.98, p = .14, η2 = .012
ü  Small interaction:
F(2)=3.36, p < .05, η2 = .020
12
3,55	
  
3,64	
   3,61	
  
3,4	
  
2,81	
  
2,88	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
3,2	
  
3,4	
  
3,6	
  
3,8	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
SW	
  posi&ve	
   SW	
  nega&ve	
  
Product rating TV:
3,28	
  
3,57	
  
3,63	
  
2,99	
  
2,77	
   2,73	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
3,2	
  
3,4	
  
3,6	
  
3,8	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
SW	
  posi&ve	
   SW	
  nega&ve	
  
ü  Medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“:
F(1)=29.13, p < .00, η2 = .08
-  NO effect of von FB-Likes:
F(2)=.04, p = .96, η2 = .000
ü  Small interaction:
F(2)=2.42, p < .10, η2 = .014
Product rating Laptop:
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? 13
Ø  The test seal of „Stiftung Warentest“ does have a clear positive effect on
the product rating
Ø  For people with a definite product need, the effect of Likes depends on the
test seal rating
v  More Likes combined with a negative test rating do have a
counterproductive effect
à the product rating of shopping goods gets even worse
Conclusion: only people with product need
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
ü  Small interaction:
F(2)=3.27, p < .05, η2 = .012
-  NO effect of Likes
-  NO effect of FB-Account
Results: Comparison FB-account (total sample)
- only for negative test seal „Stiftung Warentest“ -
14
3,15	
  
2,94	
  
2,84	
  
2,68	
  
2,89	
  
2,97	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
3,2	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
FB-­‐Account	
  yes	
   FB-­‐Account	
  no	
  
Product rating TV:
2,83	
  
2,77	
  
2,63	
  
2,52	
  
2,6	
  
2,68	
  
2,4	
  
2,6	
  
2,8	
  
3	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
low	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
medium	
  
FB-­‐Likes	
  
high	
  
FB-­‐Account	
  yes	
   FB-­‐Account	
  no	
  
Product rating laptop:
ü  Tendency of interaction, NO sign. effect:
F(2)=1.11, p = .33, η2 = .004
-  NO effect of Likes
-  NO effect of FB-Account
Likes do buffer the effect of a negative test seal a bit, but only for non-
Facebook-User. For Facebook-Users, more Likes make it even worse.
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
Conclusion: comparison FB-account
15
Ø  Likes do buffer the effect of a negative test seal a bit, but only
for non-Facebook-User.
Ø  For Facebook-Users, more Likes make it even worse.
Ø  By the way:
NO interaction effects for a positive test seal
à a positive rating of „Stiftung Warentest“ works,
regardless of Likes and FB-membership
NO effects for convenience goods (water, chocolate)
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
§  The rating of “Stiftung Warentest” does generally have a
significant effect
Conclusion: Effect of “Stiftung Warentest”
16
§  A positive rating leads to a better product rating and
a higher purchasing intention
§  A negative rating leads to a noticeable lower
product rating and a smaller purchasing intention
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
§  The effect of Likes depends on a facebook membership, i.e.
whether customers can maybe understand the meaning of Likes
§  However: This effect can only be found, if …
u  the product has a negative objective rating
and
u  the product is a shopping-good
Conclusion: Effect of Likes - 1
17
§  For Facebook-Non-Users Likes buffer the negative,
objective rating.
§  For Facebook-Users having many Likes is
incomprehensible and probably creates dissonance.
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency?
§  Additionally, an effect of Likes can better be found for people
with an actual product need:
u  Only if people plan to buy a specific product a clear effect
of Likes can be found
18
§  Likes could – maybe – have a positive impact – for
shopping goods –, if there is an objective positive rating
too
§  Likes have a more negative impact – for shopping goods
–, if they are combined with an objective negative rating
Conclusion: Effect of Likes - 2
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? 19
•  Chevalier, J. A. & Mayzlin, D. (2006). The Effect of Word of Mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews. Journal of
Marketing Research, 3(43), pp. 345 - 354.
•  Mente, T. & Sieg, M. (2013). Kundennutzen: die Basis für den Verkauf - So verwandeln Sie Leistungen in messbaren
Mehrwert. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler .
•  Schengber, R. (2011). Social Media Einfluss auf das Kaufverhalten im Internet - Eine Studie. Münster: DASF GmbH.
•  Stürmer, S. & Siem, B. (2013). Sozialpsychologie der Gruppe. München: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag.
Literature
GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? 20
Thank you very much for your
attention!
Contact details:
Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln
Prof. Dr. Christian Bosau, Dipl.-Psych. & Master of HRM & IR
Schaevenstraße 1a/b
50676 Köln
Tel.: +49 221 20302-0
e-mail: christian.bosau@rfh-koeln.de
Slideshare: cbosau
Twitter: cribocologne

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Social ratings as the new currency of marketeers? - Presentation GOR 2015

  • 1. Social ratings as the new currency of marketeers? – A comparison of influences from Likes and test seals on product ratings – C. Bosau, L. Pöppel & U. Rieger
  • 2. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Practical background: §  Online purchases are steadily increasing §  However, the purchase experience in online settings is different to offline settings Purpose of the study 2 §  Rating information becomes more important since personal testing is not possible Theoretical background: §  Customers like to buy “socially proofed“ products Ø  In new, unclear and ambigous (buying) situations people like to follow others due to informational as well as normative social influence (Stürmer & Siem, 2013; Mente & Sieg, 2013) §  Several market research studies show the high influence of social media on online purchases (e.g. Schengber, 2011). §  Online ratings (e.g. stars) seem to have an influence on purchase decisions (Chevalier & Mayzlin, 2006).
  • 3. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Research questions §  Are customers influenced by ratings of social media, i.e. “Likes”? §  Is this influence higher than the influence of test seals like “Stiftung Warentest“? §  Is there a difference between Convenience- und Shopping-Goods? Study goals 3
  • 4. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Study-Design IV1 Seal „Stiftung Warentest“ (objective rating) IV2 Social rating (subjective rating) DV product rating Moderator product type (Convenience- vs. Shopping- Goods) 4 Moderator §  FB-Account §  product need
  • 5. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Operationalisation 5 IV1 Seal „Stiftung Warentest“ (objective rating) Test seal of „Stiftung Warentest“ with: •  „sehr gut“ •  „ausreichend“ IV2 Social rating (subjective rating) Number of likes: •  low (5-10 Likes) •  medium (ca. 500 Likes) •  high (ca. 5000 Likes) DV product rating Scale of 3 items (α  =  .841  -­‐  α  =  .919  depending  on  product) •  Quality rating: „Dieses Produkt besitzt eine gute Qualität“ •  Purchasing intention: „Ich könnte mir gut vorstellen, dieses Produkt zu kaufen“ •  Customer recommendation: „Ich würde dieses Produkt meinen Bekannten weiterempfehlen“ Moderator product type (Convenience- vs. Shopping-Goods) Two products for each category: •  SG: Laptop, TV •  CG: water, cholocate
  • 6. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Experimental design   S#$ung  Warentest  (IV  1)     nega&ve posi&ve Number  of  Likes     (IV  2) Low N = 176 N = 204 Medium N = 196 N = 207 High N = 180 N = 207 6 Repeated measurement: §  4 different products (within the same category of the experimental design) Method: •  online questionnaire in 2014 •  N = 1170, drawn via a panel-database by MW Research •  age: mean = 48,1y, SD = 23,8y •  male = 47,7%, female = 52,3% •  representative for German population (regarding age, gender, country)
  • 7. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Stimulus material 7
  • 8. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Stimulus material 8
  • 9. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? ü  Small/medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“: F(1)=45.43, p < .00, η2 = .04 -  NO effect of von FB-Likes: F(2)=.97, p = .38, η2 = .002 -  NO interaction: F(2)=.24, p = .79, η2 = .000 Results: Total sample 9 3,38   3,38   3,26   2,97   2,92   2,89   2,6   2,8   3   3,2   3,4   3,6   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   SW  posi&ve   SW  nega&ve   Product rating TV: 3,21   3,39   3,25   2,72   2,69   2,65   2,4   2,6   2,8   3   3,2   3,4   3,6   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   SW  posi&ve   SW  nega&ve   ü  medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“: F(1)=87.49, p < .00, η2 = .07 -  NO effect of von FB-Likes: F(2)=.77, p = .46, η2 = .001 -  NO interaction: F(2)=.81, p = .45, η2 = .001 Product rating Laptop: Also  controlled  for:     age,  gender,  income  &  rela&onship  status  
  • 10. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? ü  Small/medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“: F(1)=65.19, p < .00, η2 = .05 -  NO effect of von FB-Likes: F(2)=.96, p = .38, η2 = .002 ü  Small marginal interaction: F(2)=2.37, p <.10, η2 = .004 Results: Total sample 10 2,86   2,94   2,9   2,45   2,15   2,37   2   2,2   2,4   2,6   2,8   3   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   SW  posi&ve   SW  nega&ve   Product rating water: 2,8   2,96   2,91   2,51   2,24   2,27   2   2,2   2,4   2,6   2,8   3   3,2   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   SW  posi&ve   SW  nega&ve   ü  Small/medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“: F(1)=63.71, p < .00, η2 = .05 -  NO effect of von FB-Likes: F(2)=.34, p = .71, η2 = .001 ü  Small interaction: F(2)=3.56, p < .05, η2 = .006 Product rating chocolate: Controlled  for:     age,  gender,  income  &  rela&onship  status  
  • 11. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Conclusion: Total sample 11 Ø  The test seal of „Stiftung Warentest“ does have a clear positive effect on the product rating Ø  Likes have no effect on the product rating at all Ø  There is no difference between shopping and convenience goods
  • 12. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Results: only people with product need ü  Medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“: F(1)=24.28, p < .00, η2 = .07 -  NO effect of von FB-Likes: F(2)=1.98, p = .14, η2 = .012 ü  Small interaction: F(2)=3.36, p < .05, η2 = .020 12 3,55   3,64   3,61   3,4   2,81   2,88   2,6   2,8   3   3,2   3,4   3,6   3,8   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   SW  posi&ve   SW  nega&ve   Product rating TV: 3,28   3,57   3,63   2,99   2,77   2,73   2,6   2,8   3   3,2   3,4   3,6   3,8   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   SW  posi&ve   SW  nega&ve   ü  Medium effect of „Stiftung Warentest“: F(1)=29.13, p < .00, η2 = .08 -  NO effect of von FB-Likes: F(2)=.04, p = .96, η2 = .000 ü  Small interaction: F(2)=2.42, p < .10, η2 = .014 Product rating Laptop:
  • 13. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? 13 Ø  The test seal of „Stiftung Warentest“ does have a clear positive effect on the product rating Ø  For people with a definite product need, the effect of Likes depends on the test seal rating v  More Likes combined with a negative test rating do have a counterproductive effect à the product rating of shopping goods gets even worse Conclusion: only people with product need
  • 14. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? ü  Small interaction: F(2)=3.27, p < .05, η2 = .012 -  NO effect of Likes -  NO effect of FB-Account Results: Comparison FB-account (total sample) - only for negative test seal „Stiftung Warentest“ - 14 3,15   2,94   2,84   2,68   2,89   2,97   2,6   2,8   3   3,2   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   FB-­‐Account  yes   FB-­‐Account  no   Product rating TV: 2,83   2,77   2,63   2,52   2,6   2,68   2,4   2,6   2,8   3   FB-­‐Likes   low   FB-­‐Likes   medium   FB-­‐Likes   high   FB-­‐Account  yes   FB-­‐Account  no   Product rating laptop: ü  Tendency of interaction, NO sign. effect: F(2)=1.11, p = .33, η2 = .004 -  NO effect of Likes -  NO effect of FB-Account Likes do buffer the effect of a negative test seal a bit, but only for non- Facebook-User. For Facebook-Users, more Likes make it even worse.
  • 15. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? Conclusion: comparison FB-account 15 Ø  Likes do buffer the effect of a negative test seal a bit, but only for non-Facebook-User. Ø  For Facebook-Users, more Likes make it even worse. Ø  By the way: NO interaction effects for a positive test seal à a positive rating of „Stiftung Warentest“ works, regardless of Likes and FB-membership NO effects for convenience goods (water, chocolate)
  • 16. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? §  The rating of “Stiftung Warentest” does generally have a significant effect Conclusion: Effect of “Stiftung Warentest” 16 §  A positive rating leads to a better product rating and a higher purchasing intention §  A negative rating leads to a noticeable lower product rating and a smaller purchasing intention
  • 17. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? §  The effect of Likes depends on a facebook membership, i.e. whether customers can maybe understand the meaning of Likes §  However: This effect can only be found, if … u  the product has a negative objective rating and u  the product is a shopping-good Conclusion: Effect of Likes - 1 17 §  For Facebook-Non-Users Likes buffer the negative, objective rating. §  For Facebook-Users having many Likes is incomprehensible and probably creates dissonance.
  • 18. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? §  Additionally, an effect of Likes can better be found for people with an actual product need: u  Only if people plan to buy a specific product a clear effect of Likes can be found 18 §  Likes could – maybe – have a positive impact – for shopping goods –, if there is an objective positive rating too §  Likes have a more negative impact – for shopping goods –, if they are combined with an objective negative rating Conclusion: Effect of Likes - 2
  • 19. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? 19 •  Chevalier, J. A. & Mayzlin, D. (2006). The Effect of Word of Mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews. Journal of Marketing Research, 3(43), pp. 345 - 354. •  Mente, T. & Sieg, M. (2013). Kundennutzen: die Basis für den Verkauf - So verwandeln Sie Leistungen in messbaren Mehrwert. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler . •  Schengber, R. (2011). Social Media Einfluss auf das Kaufverhalten im Internet - Eine Studie. Münster: DASF GmbH. •  Stürmer, S. & Siem, B. (2013). Sozialpsychologie der Gruppe. München: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag. Literature
  • 20. GOR 2015Bosau, Pöppel & Rieger: social ratings = new currency? 20 Thank you very much for your attention! Contact details: Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln Prof. Dr. Christian Bosau, Dipl.-Psych. & Master of HRM & IR Schaevenstraße 1a/b 50676 Köln Tel.: +49 221 20302-0 e-mail: christian.bosau@rfh-koeln.de Slideshare: cbosau Twitter: cribocologne