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Historical and Impact Analysis of API
Breaking Changes: A Large-Scale Study
Laerte Xavier, Aline Brito, André Hora, Marco Tulio Valente
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
SANER 2017
2
API
APIs are constantly
changing!
3
4
5
default Query<R> setHibernateFlushMode(FlushMode flushMode) {
setFlushMode( flushMode );
return this;
}
default org.hibernate.query.Query<R> setHibernateFlushMode(FlushMode
flushMode) {
setFlushMode( flushMode );
return (org.hibernate.query.Query) this;
}
hibernate/hibernate-orm
Version 5.2.0
6Version 5.2.0
default org.hibernate.query.Query<R> setHibernateFlushMode(FlushMode
flushMode) {
setFlushMode( flushMode );
return (org.hibernate.query.Query) this;
}
7
Breaking Changes
Elements removal
Method signature changes
Non-Breaking
Changes
Changes in deprecated elements
Elements addition
Elements deprecationField changes
(Dig and Johnson, ICSM, 2006)
8
Related Work
Hora and Valente, ICSME, 2015
Hora et al., CSMR, 2014
Henkel and Diwan, ICSE, 2005
Raemaekers et al., ICSM, 2012
API Evolution Change Impact
Brito et al., SANER, 2016
McDonnel et al., ICSE, 2013
Trabalhos Relacionados
Hora and Valente, 2015;
Hora et al., 2014;
Henkel and Diwan, 2005.
Raemaekers et al., 2012;
Evolução de APIs Impacto de Mudanças
Brito et al., 2016;
McDonnel et al., 2013.
Open Questions
9
To what extent are clients affected by
API breaking changes?
Trabalhos Relacionados
Hora and Valente, 2015;
Hora et al., 2014;
Henkel and Diwan, 2005.
Raemaekers et al., 2012;
Evolução de APIs Impacto de Mudanças
Brito et al., 2016;
McDonnel et al., 2013.
To what extent are clients affected by
API breaking changes?
Open Questions
10
Is this a problem only faced by newer
libraries?
11
RQ1: What is the frequency of API breaking changes?
RQ2: How do API breaking changes evolve over time?
RQ3: What is the impact of API breaking changes in
client applications?
RQ4: What are the characteristics of libraries with high
and low frequency of breaking changes?
12
TOP-317
GITHUB JAVA LIBRARIES
13
TOP-317
1,792
STARS
GITHUB JAVA LIBRARIES
14
TOP-317
1,792
STARS
15
RELEASES
GITHUB JAVA LIBRARIES
15
TOP-317
1,792
STARS
15
RELEASES
3.4
YEARS
GITHUB JAVA LIBRARIES
16
RQ1: What is the frequency of API breaking changes?
RQ2: How do API breaking changes evolve over time?
RQ3: What is the impact of API breaking changes in
client applications?
RQ4: What are the characteristics of libraries with high
and low frequency of breaking changes?
17
...
1 2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
18
...
1 2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
DIFF
19
501,645
LIBRARY
CHANGES
28%
BREAKING
CHANGES
20
501,645
LIBRARY
CHANGES
28%
BREAKING
CHANGES
21
501,645
LIBRARY
CHANGES
28%
BREAKING
CHANGES
22
Libraries often break
backward compatibility!
23
RQ1: What is the frequency of API breaking changes?
RQ2: How do API breaking changes evolve over time?
RQ3: What is the impact of API breaking changes in
client applications?
RQ4: What are the characteristics of libraries with high
and low frequency of breaking changes?
24
...
1 2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
25
...
1 2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
DIFF
DIFF
26
...
1 2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
DIFF
DIFFDIFF
27
...
1 2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
DIFF
DIFFDIFFDIFFDIFFDIFFDIFF
28
1
...
2 NN-1
Design
3 N-2
First
Commit
August
2016
DIFF
29
9,329
RELEASES
5
YEARS
30
9,329
RELEASES YEARS
20%
5
31
Breaking changes frequency
increases over time!
32
RQ1: What is the frequency of API breaking changes?
RQ2: How do API breaking changes evolve over time?
RQ3: What is the impact of API breaking changes in
client applications?
RQ4: What are the characteristics of libraries with high
and low frequency of breaking changes?
DIFF
33
NN-1
Design
JAVALI
263,425 Projects
16,386,193
Files
http://java.labsoft.dcc.ufmg.br/javali
Boa
34
140,460
BREAKING CHANGES
16,291
CHANGED TYPES
1,290TYPES WITH
POSSIBLE IMPACT
35
140,460
BREAKING CHANGES
16,291
CHANGED TYPES
1,290TYPES WITH
POSSIBLE IMPACT
36
Most breaking changes
do not have a massive
impact on clients!
37
RQ1: What is the frequency of API breaking changes?
RQ2: How do API breaking changes evolve over time?
RQ3: What is the impact of API breaking changes in
client applications?
RQ4: What are the characteristics of libraries with high
and low frequency of breaking changes?
Design
38
Design
Top (58)
Bottom (58)
0% BC
100%
BC
39
Design
Top (58)
Bottom (58)
0% BC
100%
BC
(Mann-Whitney U
Test & Cliff’s Delta)
40
Bold: p-value < 0.05 (statistically significant different) and
d > 0.147 (at least small size effect)
41
Bold: p-value < 0.05 (statistically significant different) and
d > 0.147 (at least small size effect)
42
43
Development and social
coding measures are
associated with API
breaking changes!
Trabalhos Relacionados
Hora and Valente, 2015;
Hora et al., 2014;
Henkel and Diwan, 2005.
Raemaekers et al., 2012;
Evolução de APIs Impacto de Mudanças
Brito et al., 2016;
McDonnel et al., 2013.
To what extent are clients affected by
API breaking changes?
Open Questions
44
Is this a problem only faced by newer
libraries?
45
Libraries often break backward compatibility
46
Libraries often break backward compatibility
Breaking changes frequency increases over time
47
Libraries often break backward compatibility
Breaking changes frequency increases over time
Most breaking changes do not have a massive
impact on clients
48
Libraries often break backward compatibility
Breaking changes frequency increases over time
Most breaking changes do not have a massive
impact on clients
Development and social coding measures
are associated with API breaking changes
49
Would you need tools to
measure the impact of
breaking changes?
As an API developer...
50
Would you use stability
metrics to choose an API?
Would you need tools to
measure the impact of
breaking changes?
As an API developer...
As an API client...
Historical and Impact Analysis of API
Breaking Changes: A Large-Scale Study
Laerte Xavier, Aline Brito, André Hora, Marco Tulio Valente
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
SANER 2017

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