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NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Harbor-Wide
Water Quality Monitoring Report
for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary
2011 Edition
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Recreational boating has become very popular in the Estuary, as shown here in the East River (cover).
Photo courtesy of Rob Buchanan.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Harbor-Wide
Water Quality Monitoring Report
for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary
June 2011
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 3
Survey Regions and Station Sites................................................................................................................ 4
Measured Water Quality Parameters ........................................................................................................... 5
Current Waterbody Classifications and Criteria in New York Waters ......................................................... 6
Current Waterbody Classifications and Criteria in New Jersey Waters....................................................... 7
Factors that Affect Water Quality in the Harbor.......................................................................................... 9
A Program to Evaluate and Improve Water Quality in the Harbor............................................................ 12
Harbor-Wide Water Quality Trends.......................................................................................................... 13
Harbor-Wide Bacteria................................................................................................................................ 13
Harbor-Wide Water Dissolved Oxygen ..................................................................................................... 16
2009 Regional Summaries........................................................................................................................... 19
Jamaica Bay............................................................................................................................................... 19
East River – Western Long Island Sound .................................................................................................. 23
Raritan River and Bay – Lower New York Bay ........................................................................................ 27
Hudson River – Upper New York Bay ..................................................................................................... 31
Newark Bay and Tributaries ...................................................................................................................... 35
Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull..................................................................................................................... 39
Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................................... 43
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
This report was developed under the auspices of the New
York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP), and
is the collaborative effort of many partners. This is the
second report in what HEP envisions to be a series of
water quality trend assessments for the New York-New
Jersey Harbor Estuary.
The data analyzed for this report include fecal coliform,
Enterococcus, and dissolved oxygen, and focus on the
data collected in 2007-2009, similar to the last Harbor-
wide Water Quality Report which reported data from
years 2004-2006.
Long term monitoring programs, such as that of the City
of New York, have documented dramatic improvements
in water quality since implementation of the Clean
Water Act began in the 1970s. With significant new
investments in wastewater treatment and combined sewer
infrastructure, HEP believes it is prudent to monitor the
influence of these projects on ambient water quality, and
to expand the monitoring to include all of the Harbor
waters.
In conjunction with the monitoring and reporting
contained within these pages, an assessment of pollutant
load reductions that may be needed to further improve
water quality in areas of the Harbor is also being
undertaken under the auspices of HEP.
This Water Quality Report combines and analyzes
data from New York (collected by the New York City
Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP))
and the data from New Jersey (collected by the New
Jersey Harbor Dischargers Group (NJHDG)). A
continued collaboration over time will offer broader
insights of the quality of the water in the NY/NJ Harbor.
The total number of sampling sites in this combined
Harbor region is sixty-eight (see Figure 1).
Fecal coliform bacteria are indicators of human and other
warm blooded animal wastes in surface waters, and of
the possible presence of pathogenic bacteria. The fecal
coliform levels based on summer geometric means in
the Harbor between 2006 and 2009 have shown some
improvement (decrease in fecal coliform) in eighteen of
the sample sites. Eight of the sample sites have shown
an increase in fecal coliform during this timeframe. As
expected, the fecal coliform levels in the New Jersey area
(western) waters of the Harbor are generally higher than
in the New York (eastern) waters, due to the influence of
the heavily-urbanized tributaries. (See 2006 and 2009
Harbor-wide fecal coliform maps on page 14.)
Note that fecal coliform Water Quality Standards are
based on a 30 day geometric mean of five or more
samples, rather than seasonal geometric means (as
presented in this report), and on a percentage of the
data as compared to a target value. For all parameters
presented in this report, data were collected, at most,
weekly in the Harbor regions. Therefore, direct
comparisons to the actual standards are not possible.
Seasonal geometric means are used in this report as a
basis for understanding long term trends (consistent with
the 2004-2006 Harbor report).
Enterococcus bacteria are also indicators of pathogenic
organisms from untreated human and animal wastes. The
Harbor-wide map of the 2009 Enterococcus data (see
page 13) shows a similar pattern to the fecal coliform
map. The Enterococcus levels in the New Jersey area
(western) waters of the Harbor are generally higher
than in the New York (eastern) waters, again due to the
influence of the tributaries. The trends for the summer
geometric means for Enterococcus in the Harbor show
that Enterococcus bacteria numbers continue to be low
and stable. Improvement is shown in some regions
where individual sampling site maximum values have
decreased between the years 2007 and 2009. Note that
Enterococcus values were generated only by NYCDEP
through 2006. NJHDG initiated Enterococcus sampling in
2007, and so 2007-2009 is the only period of combined
(NJHDG and NYCDEP) Enterococcus data. As with
fecal coliform standards, Enterococcus Water Quality
Standards are based on a 30 day geometric mean of five
or more samples; and also on a single sample maximum.
Therefore, comparison against the actual standards is
not possible, but seasonal geometric means reflect long
term trends and therefore can be used for comparison
purposes. Enterococci are thought to have a greater
correlation with swimming-associated gastrointestinal
illness in both marine and fresh waters than other
bacterial indicator organisms, and are more likely to
survive for longer periods of time in saltwater.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Kayakers off Manhattan with Jersey City in the background. Photo courtesy of Stephen Stanne.
2
Bacterial trend data for years 2007-2009 for all regions
remain below the best use primary contact standards,
except for the fecal coliform average for the Newark Bay
& Tributaries region for 2007. Note that there are only six
years of data for the Newark Bay and Tributaries region,
as compared to 35-50 years of data for all other regions.
Therefore, evaluating trends for this region is not yet
possible.
Dissolved oxygen is essential for all forms of aquatic
life. The amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water
column dictates both the abundance and types of aquatic
life that can survive and reproduce in a water body.
Dissolved oxygen levels throughout the Harbor continued
an upward trend from 1970 to 2009. Based on seasonal
averages, the Harbor generally is well oxygenated.
Surface DO seasonal averages for sampling sites in
2009 were very similar to the 2006 values. Bottom DO
seasonal averages improved at five of the sites (and
decreased at two). The lowest DO seasonal summer
averages (both surface and bottom values) continue to
be from sites in the Hackensack River, the Western Long
Island Sound and in Grassy Bay within Jamaica Bay.
Note that dissolved oxygen Water Quality Standards are
based either on daily averages or individual sampling
events, rather than seasonal averages. Seasonal averages
are used in this report as the basis for illustrating long
term trends.
The water quality standard values for these parameters
vary between the NY and NJ State standards and also
between waterbody classifications. Additionally, there
have been changes to the standards over time. For the
sake of consistency we compared all of the data to “Best
Use” Standards. These classifications and standards are
for reference use only, and are not intended to indicate
compliance status or to set policy. (See Tables 1 and 2;
and Figures 2 and 8.)
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
INTRODUCTION
3
The NY-NJ Harbor Estuary is a bi-state water-body of
great importance to the well-being and economy of the
14 million people that live in close proximity to the
Harbor. As the population of the region grew over the
past two hundred years, the water quality of the estuary
which surrounds the region began to suffer. Though great
improvements in water quality resulted from the passage
and implementation of the federal Clean Water Act in
the 1970s, documentation of water quality trends were
lacking for portions of the Harbor.
Fortunately, the City of New York has been collecting
water quality information for the New York portion of
the New York/New Jersey Harbor (the Harbor) for nearly
100 years. Over that time period the monitoring program
in New York has been expanded and refined to reflect
the City’s commitment to monitoring and improving
water quality in the Harbor and the associated tributaries.
In 1992 the New Jersey Harbor Dischargers Group
(NJHDG) was formed by the sewerage authorities which
are responsible for the Publicly Owned Treatment Works
(POTWs) discharging into the New Jersey portion of the
Harbor and tributaries to the Harbor. NJHDG was formed
to provide a unified voice from the POTW community in
the arena of water quality improvement and regulatory
development for the New Jersey portion of the Harbor.
After a series of meetings coordinated by HEP and
the IEC, NJHDG developed a long-term water quality
monitoring program in 2003 for the New Jersey waters of
the Harbor. The goal was for the new sampling program
to be consistent with the City of New York’s monitoring
approach. Sampling was initiated in late 2003, and
NJHDG plans to continue the program for the foreseeable
future.
The parameters that are being monitored by New York
City and NJHDG include fecal coliform bacteria,
Enterococcus bacteria, dissolved oxygen (DO),
temperature, salinity, pH, total suspended solids (TSS),
carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD),
dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and
phosphorus compounds, transparency (Secchi depth) and
chlorophyll-a. All of these parameters have important
implications regarding the overall water quality of the
Harbor and the associated tributaries. This report is
focused on three of those parameters: fecal coliform
bacteria, Enterococcus bacteria and DO. These parameters
are being featured in this report (as they were in the
2004-2006 report) because the bacterial indicators have
the most direct impact on the recreational uses of the
Harbor waters, and because adequate DO is critical to
the survival, growth and reproduction of fish and other
aquatic life.
The purpose of this report is to present the bacterial
and DO information for the Harbor as a whole, and for
the principal geographic regions of the Harbor. It is the
intention of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary
Program (HEP) Office, and all its partners that a series
of integrated (New York and New Jersey) water quality
reports for the Harbor and its tributaries will be produced.
Because this is the second of a series of anticipated
reports involving data generated by NJHDG, there are
limited trend data to report in certain areas of the Harbor.
However, as more data are accumulated, it will be
possible to evaluate and report on water quality trends
over multi-year time frames throughout the Harbor.
The water use classifications and standards for interstate
and shared waters vary. To provide a standardized view
of the water quality data, comparisons are made to the
highest potential use across the regions (on regional trend
graphs) and to each of the standards (in the text).
The water quality standard values for these parameters
vary between the NY and NJ state standards and also
between waterbody classifications. Additionally, there
have been changes to the standards over time. Prior to
October 2006, waters classified as SE1 and FW2 were
based on, in part, fecal coliform concentrations. The
current standards for these waterbody classes are based
on different bacteria as indicator organisms (Enterococcus
for SE1 waters, and E. coli for FW2 waters). E. coli
testing is being implemented for freshwater sites in 2011
by the NJHDG. For the sake of consistency, all of the
data were compared to the “Best Use” Standards (fecal
coliform: 30-day geometric mean ≤ 200 CFU/100mL;
Enterococci: 30-day geometric mean ≤ 35 CFU/100mL;
dissolved oxygen: DO ≥ 5.0 mg/L).
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
SURVEY REGIONS AND STATION SITES
E15
UNION
MIDDLESEX
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
HudsonRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
Jamaica Bay
24 K4
2322
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
K2
25
26
27
28
K5A
29
K6
30
N8
N9
N16
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A J8 J7
J12
J5
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
E2
33
32
N4
14
13
N1
E7
E6
E14
31
H3
E4
Atlantic Ocean
Long
Island
Sound
E8
E10
K5
1921
20
K3
N3B
Hudson River &
Upper New York Bay
East River &
Western Long Island Sound
Jamaica Bay
Raritan River & Bay;
Lower New York Bay
Newark Bay &
Tributaries
Arthur Kill & Kill van Kull
SAMPLING REGIONS
NJ Harbor Dischargers Group
2004 - present
NYCDEP Harbor Survey
1970 - present
Figure 1.
Locations of the sampling stations for the Harbor-wide survey and the geographic sampling regions
4
Sampling Station Locations
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
MEASURED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
5
While many water quality parameters are important to
accurately understand the overall condition of the Harbor
and associated biota, this report is focusing on a subset
of the parameters that are measured by the Harbor-wide
survey. These parameters (dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform
bacteria, and Enterococcus bacteria) are important to the
health of biota living in the estuary, as well as to human
use of the estuary for activities such as shellfishing and
swimming. Other programs, such as the Contaminant
Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) and the
Regional Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP)
have collected information on toxic contaminants, which is
presented elsewhere.
As noted in Figures 2 and 3, the specific water quality
standards vary throughout the Harbor according to how
the states classify those waters. For example, those areas
designated for shellfishing and bathing have the most
stringent standards, whereas areas designated for fish
survival have the least stringent. See Tables 1 and 2 for
more detail.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)—Dissolved oxygen is essential
for all forms of aquatic life. The amount of oxygen that is
dissolved in the water column dictates both the abundance
and types of aquatic life that can survive and reproduce
in a water body. It is important to recognize that in most
inshore marine waters (like the Harbor), the concentration
of DO varies according to the time of day, tidal cycle,
season and depth. Thus, each of these factors influence DO
concentrations and the presence (or absence) and abundance
of individual species. For the above reasons, the range of
DO concentrations in a water body is commonly considered
to be one of the key parameters that define the quality of a
waterbody, and the types of species that reside in, and pass
through, the waterbody.
Fecal Coliform Bacteria—Fecal coliform bacteria are
indicators of human and other animal fecal wastes in
surface waters, and of the possible presence of pathogenic
(disease-producing) bacteria.
Enterococcus Bacteria—Enterococcus bacteria are also
indicators of pathogenic organisms from untreated sewage.
Enterococcus bacteria are commonly found in the feces of
humans and other warm-blooded animals. Although some
strains are ubiquitous and not pathogenic, their presence
in water is an indication of fecal pollution and the possible
presence of enteric pathogens. Enterococcus bacteria are
much like coliform bacteria, but are thought to have a
greater correlation with swimming-associated illnesses,
and are more likely to survive in highly saline waters. The
Enterococcus bacteria data in this report reflect only data
gathered by NYCDEP until the year 2006. NJHDG began
certified testing of Enterococcus samples in 2007, and those
data are included in this report for years 2007-2009.
Sampling—Sampling locations were identified using
latitude and longitude coordinates. Grab samples were
collected approximately once per week during the summer
season. Bacterial standards used for regulatory purposes
are based on five samples in a 30 day period. One sample
weekly, as is the case here, is not sufficient to make true
comparisons between the data and the standards. These
parameters may be variable throughout the water column.
Shallow/flowing waters are usually well mixed, whereas
still/deep waters usually have poorly mixed layers. For
this reason samples were taken at both surface and bottom
levels in the deeper regions, and at mid-depth in shallower
waters. Deep water sites were accessed by boat, and water
samples were collected one meter from the substrate
(bottom samples) and one meter below the surface (surface
samples). Shallow-water sites were sampled at mid-depth
from the middle of the river channel and were accessed
from bridges. Tidal conditions were not noted during
sampling. For further details, reference the NJHDG Quality
Assurance Project Plan (QAPP).
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Staten
Island
Queens
AN BAY
LOWER
NEW YORK
BAY
ATLTT ALL
NTNN
ITT CII OCECC AEE N
0 2 64
CURRENT WATERBODY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CRITERIA
IN NEW YORK WATERS
Figure 2.
Waterbody classifications in New York waters
The best use of Class SA waters are shellfishing for market
purposes, primary and secondary contact recreation and fishing.
These waters must be suitable for fish propagation and survival.
The best use of Class SD waters is fishing. These waters must
be suitable for fish survival. This classification may be given to
those waters that (because of natural or man-made conditions),
cannot meet the requirements for primary and secondary contact
recreation and fish propagation.
SD Fish Survival
The best use of Class I waters are secondary contact recreation
and fishing. These waters must be suitable for fish propagation
and survival.
I Boating/Fishing
The best use of Class SC waters is fishing. These waters must be
suitable for fish propagation and survival. The water quality must
be suitable for primary and secondary contact recreation, although
other factors may limit the use of these purposes.
SC Bathing/Fishing
SB Bathing
The best use of Class SB waters are primary and secondary
contact recreation and fishing. The waters must be suitable for fish
propagation and survival.
SA Shellfish
New York State Saline Surface Water Quality Criteria
(from NYDEC Surface and Groundwater Quality Standards, 6NYCRR Part 703, unless otherwise noted)
Water Class Use Fecal Coliform
Bacteria5
CFUs/100mL
Enterococcus DO mg/L
(2004-2005)
DO mg/L
(Proposed 2006; adopted 2008)
SA – Shellfish
Site 30
Geomean*2
≤14;
90%≤491
Geomean*3
≤88;
90%≤3001
Geomean* ≤354
;
Never ˃1047
Not less than
5.0 at any time
Not less than a daily average of 4.8,
with excursions between 4.8 and
3.0 allowed for a period of time6
SB – Bathing
Sites J1-J5, J7, J8, J9A, J11, J12, E7,
E8, E10, N1, K5A, K6, N9, and N16
Geomean*3
≤200 Geomean*≤354
;
Never ˃1047
Not less than
5.0 at any time
Not less than a daily average of 4.8,
with excursions between 4.8 and
3.0 allowed for a period of time6
I – Fishing
Sites E2, E4, E6, E14, E15, H3, K5,
N3B, N4-N7, K1, N8, and 31-33
Geomean* ≤2000 -- Not less than
4.0 at any time
Not less than 4.0 at any time
SD – Fish Survival
Sites G2, K2-K4, 19, 21, 23, and 24
-- -- Not less than
3.0 at any time
Not less than 3.0 at any time
* Geomean - Monthly geometric means based on a 30-day geometric mean of 5 or more samples
1
Based on total number of samples in a 30-day period: 100 mL sample
2
Based on National Shellfish Sanitation Program standards for shellfish water, direct harvest
3
Based on National Shellfish Sanitation Program standards for shellfish waters, depuration
4
Federal Register, 40 CFR 131, Water Quality Standards for Coastal and Great Lakes Recreational Waters; Final Rule. Nov. 16, 2004
5
When disinfection is required or when determined necessary to protect human health
6
See Amendment to 6 NYCRR Part 703 for DO limited period of time formula
7
For beach notification purposes only
Note: There are currently no NJHDG or NYDEP SC sites
Table 1. New York Water Quality Standards
6
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
NewJerseyStateSurfaceWaterQualityCriteria
(fromNJDEPSurfaceWaterQualityStandards,N.J.A.C.7:9B,unlessotherwisenoted)
WaterClassUseBacteriaCFUs/100mL
8/2004and6/2005
BacteriaCFUs/100mL
(10/2006)
DOmg/L
FW2-NT
(Non-troutFishing/
Propagation/Bathing)
Sites1-9,25
Fecal
coliform
Geomean*≤200;
90%˂4001
----24hrAve≥5.04
;
Never˂4.0
EnterococciGeomean*≤33;
Never˃61
----
----E.coliGeomean*≤126;
Never˃2355
SE1
(Shellfish/Bathing)
Sites13,26-27
Fecal
coliform
Geomean*≤200;
90%˂4001
----24hrAve≥5.04
;
Never˂4.0
EnterococciGeomean*≤35;
Never˃104
EnterococciGeomean*≤35;
Never˃1045
SE2
(Fishing/Fish
Propagation)
Sites14,15,31-33,K1,
K5,N3B,N4-N6
Fecal
coliform
Geomean*≤770Fecal
coliform
Geomean*≤770;Never˂4.0
SE3
(Fishing/Fish
Migration)
Sites10-12,16-24,
K2-K4
Fecal
coliform
Geomean*≤1500Fecal
coliform
Geomean*≤1500;Never˂3.0
SE1
(Shellfish/Bathing)
Sites28-29,K5A
Fecal2
coliform
Geomean*≤14;
90%≤491
Fecal2
coliform
Geomean*≤14;
90%≤491
24hrAve≥5.04
Never˂4.0
Fecal3
coliform
Geomean*≤88;
90%≤3001
Fecal3
coliform
Geomean*≤88;
90%≤3001
EnterococciGeomean*≤35;
Never˃104
EnterococciGeomean*≤35;
Never˃1045
*Geomean-Monthlygeometricmeansbasedona30-daygeometricmeanof5ormoresamples
1
Basedontotalnumberofsamplesina30-dayperiod:100mLsample
2
BasedonNationalShellfishSanitationProgramstandardsforshellfishwater,directharvest
3
BasedonNationalShellfishSanitationProgramstandardsforshellfishwaters,depuration
4
SupersaturatedDOvaluesmustbeexpressedastheircorresponding100%saturationvaluesforpurposesofcalculating24-hr.averages
5
Forbeachnotificationpurposesonly
Note:TherearecurrentlynoNJHDGorNYDEPSCsites
CURRENT WATERBODY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CRITERIA
IN NEW JERSEY WATERS
Table 2. New Jersey Water Quality Standards
7
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
CURRENT WATERBODY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CRITERIA
IN NEW JERSEY WATERS
Figure 3.
Waterbody classifications in New Jersey waters
Shellfish harvesting; maintenance, migration,and propagation of
the natural and established biota; primary and secondary contact
recreation; and any other reasonable uses.
SE1 Shellfish/Bathing
Maintenance; migration and propagation of the natural and
established biota; migration of diadromous fish; maintenance of
wildlife; secondary contact recreation; and any other reasonable uses.
SE2 Fishing/Fish Propagation
Maintenance; migration and propagation of the natural and
established biota; primary and secondary contact recreation;
industrial and agricultural water supply; public potable water supply
after conventional filtration treatment and disinfection; and any other
reasonable uses.
FW2-NT Fishing/Fish Propagation/Bathing
Secondary contact recreation; maintenance and migration of fish
populations; migration of diadromous fish; maintenance of wildlife; any
other reasonable uses.
SE3 Fishing/Fish Migration
Shellfish harvesting; primary and secondary contact recreation;
maintenance, migration and propagation of the natural and
established biota; and any other reasonable uses.
SC Shellfish/Bathing/Fishing
8
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
FACTORS THAT AFFECT WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR
POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION
9
Publicly Owned Treatment Works
The most commonly recognized point source discharges
to the Harbor are the municipal wastewater treatment
plants or Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs),
14 of which are in New York City, and 11 of which are in
New Jersey. In addition to POTW point source discharges
to the Harbor, there are combined sewer overflow (CSO)
discharges and stormwater outfalls (SWOs) discharges
(discussed below). (See Figure 4.)
New York City’s 14 POTWs treat the industrial,
commercial and residential sewage from the City. The
infrastructure includes over 6,000 miles of collection
system pipes, 130,000 catch basins, and 5,000 seepage
basins. The total amount of sewage treated is over one
billion gallons per day (BGD). In contrast to New York
where there is a single municipal authority responsible for
the POTWs, there are 11 New Jersey POTWs discharging
to the Harbor, collectively treating 500 MGD of residential
and industrial/commercial sewage from 175 separate
communities in the vicinity of the Harbor.
All of the wastewater treated by each of these New
York and New Jersey POTWs receives both primary
and secondary treatment. Primary treatment refers to the
removal of coarse material by screening and settling, while
secondary treatment refers to the biological and chemical
removal of organic matter, followed by final clarification.
Finally the wastewater is disinfected with chlorine to
remove pathogenic bacteria before being discharged to the
Harbor.
Combined Sewer Overflows/Stormwater Outfalls
There are two basic types of sewer systems that are used
to accommodate wet weather flows: combined sewer
systems (CSOs) and separate sewer systems.
In the case of combined sewer systems, rainfall and/or
snowmelt combined with sanitary flows may exceed the
capacity of either the sewer pipes or the POTWs (or both).
In order to prevent flooding in streets and houses and
operational problems at the treatment plants, combined
sewer systems are designed to release the excess wet
weather flows to the Harbor waters through CSOs.
In contrast to combined sewer systems, separate sewer
systems are designed to address wet weather flows by
segregating the sanitary and wet weather flows. Thus,
when it is raining and/or snow is melting, the stormwater
flows are collected in a series of separate sewer lines
(which are the responsibility of the municipalities), and
discharged directly to the waters of the Harbor through
stormwater outfalls (SWO)s. Therefore, the sanitary
flows to the POTWs remain largely unaffected (except
for infiltration) during wet weather events. The entirely
separate sewer systems in New Jersey include Linden-
Roselle, Rahway Valley, Joint Meeting, North Hudson,
Edgewater, Secaucus and West New York.
CSO and SWO discharges contain stormwater, and
therefore can convey large quantities of floatable
materials into the Harbor waters. Floatable debris, which
can contribute to beach closures, can also interfere with
navigation, have a negative effect on the well being
of wildlife, and is aesthetically undesirable. All New
Jersey CSO permittees must capture and remove solids/
floatables which cannot pass through a one- half inch bar
screen. In the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary Complex, 83% of
New Jersey’s CSOs have long- term CSO solids/floatable
control measures constructed and operational. To help
measure the effectiveness of the multiple control programs
and to target improvements to priority waterbodies, New
York City is implementing a Harbor-wide floatables
monitoring program, which complements the City’s
longstanding street litter cleanliness rating system to track
landside debris. Finally, the City conducts multiple public
education programs and clean-up programs that address
floatables control.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
FACTORS THAT AFFECT WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR
*Open to commercial shellfish harvest for depuration
Figure 4.
NY-NJ Harbor areas CSOs, POTWs, bathing beaches and shellfishing regions
10
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
FACTORS THAT AFFECT WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR
Catch and release recreational fishing has become popular once
again in the Harbor. Photo courtesy of Ellen McCarthy.
NON-POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION
11
Both CSOs and SWOs contribute to increased pathogen concentrations in the Harbor during and after wet weather events.
The States of both New York and New Jersey have programs in place to decrease the impacts of CSOs on water quality
throughout the Harbor.
In both New York and New Jersey, programs are in place to reduce the abundance of floatable materials discharged
from CSOs. In New York City, 70-80 percent of the sewer system was built as a combined system. Among the NJHDG
members, the PVSC, BCUA, North Bergen and MCUA systems were designed as either entirely or partially combined
sewer systems.
Non-point source pollutants enter the Harbor via diffuse
sources (other than discharge pipes) during rainfall and
snowmelt events. Residential and commercial properties,
roadways and parking lots, agricultural operations, faulty
septic systems, construction sites and direct deposition
from the atmosphere are all examples of the broad source
category referred to as non-point source pollution. Fine
and coarse grained sediments, fertilizers, pathogens
(bacteria and viruses), salt, oils and grease, high molecular
weight organic compounds and heavy metals are widely-
recognized as non-point source pollutants.
Many of the pollutants that enter the Harbor as non-point
source pollutants originally are transported to the Harbor
watershed via atmospheric deposition (both wet and
dry). Some of these pollutants are from regional sources,
while others are deposited as a consequence of long-range
atmospheric transport.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
A PROGRAM TO EVALUATE AND IMPROVE WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR
With improved water quality, public access, such as at this site on the
Hackensack River, has become very popular. Photo courtesy of Hackensack
Riverkeeper.
12
The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP),
EPA Region II, and the States of New Jersey and New
York, are in the process of implementing a comprehensive
program to assess and improve water quality throughout the
Harbor. The program is a component of a national effort to
comply with the “fishable/swimmable” goal of the federal
Clean Water Act. In an effort to achieve that goal, EPA,
the states, dischargers and other stakeholders, under the
auspices of HEP, are in the process of developing “total
maximum daily loads” (TMDLs) for pathogens (bacteria),
oxygen-demanding substances (nutrients and organic
matter), and toxics. This process is being coordinated
through multi-stakeholder work groups for pathogens,
nutrients, and toxics. In order to develop the total maximum
daily loads for the various substances, a series of computer-
based water quality models has been developed. These
predictive water quality models, which are state-of-the-art
mathematical models, take into consideration the existing
water and sediment quality characteristics, as well as
the current and anticipated future point and non-point
source discharges to the Harbor to determine the types
and magnitudes of pollutant load reductions that will be
required to achieve state water quality standards.
Currently the Pathogens, Nutrients and Toxics Work Groups
are evaluating the model products, and will ultimately be
responsible for determining the pollutant load reduction
goals that will be implemented through the New York
and New Jersey National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permitting programs. Most of the water
quality modeling/projections have been completed, and HEP
and the States of New York and New Jersey are considering
implementation options.
The data provided in this report are not currently used in
modeling water quality. At this time, these data are only
being used to assess long-term water quality trends.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Figure 5.
Map of Harbor-wide Enterococcus 2009
HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
24
UNION
MIDDLESEX
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
HudsonRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
Long
Island
Sound
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
24 K4
2322
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
K2
25
26
27
28
K5A
29
K6
30
N8
N9
N16
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A J8 J7
J12
J5
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
E2
33
32
N4
14
13
N1
E7
E15
E6
E14
31
H3
E4
Atlantic Ocean
E8
E10
K5
1921
20
K3
N3B
Jamaica Bay
HARBOR-WIDE BACTERIA
13
2009
The fecal coliform levels based on the summer geometric
means in the Harbor between years 2006 and 2009 have
shown some improvement (decrease in fecal coliform) at 18
of the 68 sampling sites. Eight of the sample sites show an
increase in fecal coliform values during this timeframe. (See
2006 and 2009 Harbor-wide fecal coliform maps, Figures
6 and 7.) The Harbor-wide average fecal coliform value
decreased from 106 CFUs/100 mL in 2006 to 55 in 2009.
Long term trends show decreasing levels of fecal coliform in
all regions.
Enterococcus bacteria results for the Harbor based on
the summer geometric means have increased slightly
between years 2006 and 2009. The Harbor-wide average
Enterococcus value increased from 6 CFUs/100 mL in 2006
to 11 in 2009.
The regional long term trends show mostly steady or slightly
decreasing Enterococcus values across the Harbor, except
for the Raritan River – Raritan Bay and the Arthur Kill – Kill
Van Kull. These two regions show slightly increasing trends
from 2001 to 2009. Despite the increasing trends, the average
seasonal values for these regions remain well below the
Enterococcus Best Use Standard.
It is encouraging to note that the seasonal summer averages
for all but one region remain well below the Enterococcus
Best Use Standard. The Newark Bay and Tributary region is
the exception to this with its regional yearly averages above
the Best Use Standard (see Figure 5, Enterococcus Seasonal
Geometric Means for 2009). It is important to note, however,
that NJHDG began sampling for Enterococcus in 2007, and
the Enterococcus data has shown decreasing levels in this
region between 2008 and 2009.
As expected, the fecal coliform and Enterococci levels in
the New Jersey area (western) waters of the Harbor are
generally higher than in the New York (eastern) waters,
particularly in the tributaries. Since there are only fecal
coliform data for years 2004-2009, and Enterococcus data
for years 2007-2009 for the New Jersey portion of the
Harbor, it is not feasible to evaluate historical trends in the
New Jersey waters. However, the NJHDG water quality
monitoring program is ongoing, and future data will provide
for long term trend analyses of water quality for the entire
NY/NJ Harbor.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
UNION
MIDDLESEX
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
HudsonRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
Long
Island
Sound
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
Jamaica Bay
24 K4
2322
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
K2
25
26
27
28
K5A
29
K6
30
N8
N9
N16
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A J8 J7
J12
J5
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
E2
33
32
N4
14
13
N1
E7
E15
E6
E14
31
H3
E4
Atlantic Ocean
E8
E10
K5
1921
20
K3
N3B
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
MANHATTAN
QUEENS
BROOKLYN
STATEN
ISLAND
ESSEX
BERGEN
HUDSON
MIDDLESEX
UNION
PASSAIC
MONMOUTH
Raritan
Bay
J
amaica BayHudsonRiver
LongIs
Atlantic Ocean
Newark
Bay
Ra
ritan River
PassaicRiver
H
a
ckensackRiver
EastRiver
A
rthurKill
Rahway River
Elizabeth R
iver
Second River
Kill van Kull
SaddleRiver
Lower
New York
Bay
K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2
K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3
171717171717171717
161616161616161616 151515151515151515
N4N4N4N4N4N4
323232323232323232
141414141414141414
121212121212121212
N3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3B
212121212121212121
202020202020202020 191919191919191919
181818181818181818
888888888
242424242424242424
K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4
J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3
282828282828282828 K5A
K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5
131313131313131313
111111111
E10
E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14
E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15
E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2
E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4
E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6
E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7
G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2
H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3
J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11
J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12
J2
J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5
J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8
J9J9J9J9J9J9J9J9J9A
K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1
K6
N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1
N16
N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5
N6
N7
N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8
N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9
222222222
333333333
444444444
555555555
666666666
777777777
999999999
101010101010101010
111111111111111111
222222222222222222
23
252525252525252525
262626262626262626
272727272727272727
29
30
313131313131313131
333333333333333333
E8
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Figure 7.
Map of Harbor-wide fecal coliform 2009
HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS
Figure 6.
Map of Harbor-wide fecal coliform 2006
14
2006
2009
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2006
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS
Harbor-wide Fecal Coliform and Enterococcus Bacteria
Surface Seasonal Average and Precipitation Data
Units Data Span 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Fecal coliform2
(CFUs/100mL) June 1 - Sept. 30 107 48 106 43 41 55
Enterococcus Bacteria (CFUs/100mL) June 1 - Sept. 30 61
31
61
122
82
112
Harbor Seasonal
Precipitation3 inches June 1 - Sept. 30 12.49 8.13 23.07 24.45 24.05 29.36
Harbor Annual Precipitation3
inches Jan. 1 - Dec. 31 32.78 36.93 59.40 66.11 60.13 63.16
1
NYCDEP data only, 2
Combined NYCDEP and NJHDG data (bacteria data values are the geometric means from June 1 - Sept. 30),
3
PVSC precipitation data (at the plant)
Table 3. Comparison data for bacteria and precipitation
HARBOR-WIDE BACTERIA
15
It is interesting to note that the two sites with the highest
fecal coliform concentrations (Second River and Elizabeth
River) are in areas with separate sewer systems, and
therefore are not under the influence of wet weather
discharges from combined sewer overflows. However, these
areas do have SWOs, and would therefore be affected by
wet weather runoff.
The average 2007 through 2009 Harbor-wide bacterial
results (from both NYCDEP and NJHDG) were low in
relation to most of the water quality standards, and showed
modest fluctuations from year-to-year. The bacteria
results, reported in colony forming units (CFUs), are the
geometric means of the summer season data (June 1 through
September 30). Samples were grab samples collected
approximately once per week throughout the season.
Precipitation levels in the Harbor were significantly higher
during years 2007-2009 as compared to years 2004-2006.
Higher Enterococcus seasonal average values corresponded
with the increase in precipitation amounts, however fecal
coliform seasonal average values did not (see Table 3).
In exploring precipitation trends in the Harbor area, no
reason is apparent at this time for the lower fecal coliform
concentrations that were observed during the times of
higher precipitation from 2007-2009.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Harbor-wide Surface and Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Seasonal Average
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
DO Surface mg/L 6.4 6.4 6.8 6.6 6.9 7.0
DO Bottom mg/L 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.1 6.1
All data are combined NYCDEP and NJHDG arithmetic means from June 1 - Sept. 30
Table 4. Comparison data for surface and bottom DO for 2004 through 2009
summer seasons
HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS
HARBOR-WIDE DISSOLVED OXYGEN
16
2006
Dissolved oxygen levels in the Harbor were reasonably
consistent throughout the 2007 to 2009 monitoring period, and
showed apparent slight improvements since 2004 (see Table 4).
Areas of lowest DO in the Harbor were observed in the Upper
East River/Western Long Island Sound region, Jamaica Bay, and
the Hackensack River, a tributary to Newark Bay. Grab samples
were collected approximately once weekly throughout the
summer season (June 1 through September 30). Figures 9 and
10 show 2009 average summer levels for surface and bottom
dissolved oxygen. Figures 11 and 12 show surface and bottom
dissolved oxygen summer minimum levels for 2009.
Comparison of dissolved oxygen surface seasonal averages from
2006 to 2009 showed improvement of DO at one sampling site
(site 15), and a decrease at one site (site 13). (See Figures 8 and
11). Comparison of dissolved oxygen bottom seasonal average
data showed improvement at 5 sites (two in the Hackensack
River, two in the Upper East River, and one in Jamaica Bay),
and a decrease at 2 sites (Oradell Dam, site 13; and site E14 in
the Upper East River).
All regional surface seasonal averages showed long term upward trends, despite small fluctuations from year to year. All
regional surface DO averages have been above the DO Best Use Standard since 2004 when the East River – Western Long
Island Sound region dipped below the current standard. This DO bottom seasonal summer average for this same region has
increased to above 5.0 mg/L for the first time in 10 years.
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
MANHATTAN
QUEENS
BROOKLYN
STATEN
ISLAND
ESSEX
BERGEN
HUDSON
MIDDLESEX
UNION
PASSAIC
MONMOUTH
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Summer Minima
< 3.00
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
J
amaica Bay
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Upper
New York
Bay
HudsonRiv
LongIs
land
Sou
nd
Atlantic Ocean
Ra
ritan River
PassaicRiver
H
a
ckensackRiver
EastRiver
A
rthurKill
Rahway River
Elizabeth R
iver
Second River
Kill van Kull
SaddleRiver
JJJJJJJ9999999AAAAA
NewarkBay
K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2
K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3
171717171717171717
161616161616161616 151515151515151515
N4N4N4N4N4N4
323232323232323232
141414141414141414
121212121212121212
N3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3B
212121212121212121
202020202020202020 191919191919191919
181818181818181818
888888888
242424242424242424
K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4
J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3
282828282828282828 K5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5A
K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5
131313131313131313
111111111
E10E10E10E10E10E10E10E10E10
E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14
E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15
E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2
E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4
E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6
E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7
G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2
H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3
J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11
J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12
J2J2J2J2J2J2J2J2J2 J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5
J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J9A
K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1
K6K6K6K6K6K6K6K6K6
N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1
N16N16N16N16N16N16N16N16N16
N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5
N6N6N6N6N6N6N6N6N6
N7N7N7N7N7N7N7N7N7
N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8
N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9
222222222
333333333
444444444
555555555
666666666
777777777
999999999
101010101010101010
111111111111111111
222222222222222222
232323232323232323
252525252525252525
262626262626262626
272727272727272727
292929292929292929
303030303030303030
313131313131313131
333333333333333333
E8E8E8E8E8E8E8E8E8
Sampling Points
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Figure 8.
2006 Minimum DO levels in surface waters
2006
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Bottom Seasonal Average*
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
UNION
MIDDLESEX
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
Jamaica Bay
24 K4
23
K2
26
27
28 K5A 29
K6
30
N8
N9
N16
J11 J1
J2
J3
J9A J8 J7
J12
J5
12
16
15
17
18
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
E2
33
32
N4
14
N1
E7
E15
E6
E14
31
H3
E4
Atlantic Ocean
E8
E10
K5
1921
K3
N3B
2009 SUMMER AVERAGE
Dissolved Oxygen in Surface and Bottom Waters
Figure 10.
Average DO levels in bottom waters
Figure 9.
Average DO levels in surface waters
HARBOR-WIDE DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Surface Seasonal Average*
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
UNION
MIDDLESEX
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
24 K4
2322
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
K2
25
26
27
28
K5A 29
K6
30
N8
N9
N16
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A
J8 J7
J12
J5
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
E233
32
N4
14
13
N1
E7
E15
E6
E14
31
H3
E4
Atlantic Ocean
E8
E10
K5
1921
20
K3
N3B
17
2009
2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
HARBOR-WIDE DISSOLVED OXYGEN
MIDDLESEX
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Bottom Summer Minima*
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
UNION
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Raritan
Bay
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENSMANHATTAN
33
Atlantic Ocean
N8
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
32
N4
N1
31
N3B
E2
E7
E15
E6
E14
H3
E4
E8
E10
24
K4
23
K2
K5
1921
K3
26
27
28 K5A
29
K6
30
N9
N16
11
12
16
15
17
18
14
Jamaica Bay
J11
J1
J2
J8 J7
J12
J5
J9A
J3
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Surface Summer Minima*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
UNION
MIDDLESEX
WESTCHESTER
COUNTY
BRONX
BROOKLYN
MONMOUTH
Raritan
Bay
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Rahway River
Elizabet
h
River
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
EastRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
STATEN
ISLAND
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
Jamaica Bay
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
24 K4
2322
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
K2
25
26
27
28 K5A
29
K6
30
N8
N9
N16
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A J8 J7
J12
J5
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
E2
33
32
N4N4
14
13
N1
E7
E15
E6
E14
31
H3
E4
Atlantic Ocean
E8
E10
K5
1921
20
K3
N3B
2009 SUMMER MINIMUM
Dissolved Oxygen in Surface and Bottom Waters
Figure 11.
Minimum DO levels in surface waters
Figure 12.
Minimum DO levels in bottom waters
18
2009
2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Jamaica Bay is located at the southwestern end of Long Island. This
urban, estuarine embayment and national park consists primarily of tidal
wetlands, upland areas and approximately 20 square miles of open waters.
The Bay and its drainage area are almost entirely within the boroughs of
Brooklyn and Queens, except for a small area at the eastern end that is in
Nassau County.
Jamaica Bay joins the New York Harbor to the west via the Rockaway
Inlet at the tip of Breezy Point. The Bay includes the Rockaway Peninsula,
which forms the southern limit of the Bay, and separates Jamaica Bay from
the Atlantic Ocean.
The Jamaica Bay regional fecal coliform summer geometric means ranged from 24 CFUs/100mL to 64 CFUs/100mL
between years 2007 and 2009. In 2009, sampling site J7 had the highest summer geometric mean of this region at 402
CFUs/100mL. In 2009 the individual sampling site maximums ranged from 1180 to 2000, except for J5, with its maximum
value for the season of 72 CFU/100mL. Despite the recent increase in the region’s seasonal average (64 CFUs is the
highest seasonal average in this region since 1994), the region continues to show a decreasing long term trend.
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A
J8 J7
J12
J5
BROOKLYN
Jamaica Bay
Atlantic Ocean
JAMAICA BAY
2009 REGIONAL SUMMARIES
Water Quality Standards (WQS): Throughout the regional summaries, details are given primarily for the 2009 data,
as these are the most recent and provide focus. For perspective, sampling site-specific data are compared to the best use
standards. All trends discussed in the text are base on the visual analyses of trend lines generated by Microsoft Excel.
However, it is important to note that the fecal coliform and Enterococcus Water Quality Standards are based on a 30-day
geometric mean with a minimum of five samples, rather than the seasonal (June 1 - Sept. 30) geometric means presented
throughout this report. Sampling were collected approximately weekly throughout the summer season, rarely providing
five samples in a 30-day period, as specified by the WQS. Similarly, seasonal averages for dissolved oxygen are presented
in this report to provide consistency when comparing trend data with past analyses. Samples (grab samples) were generally
collected and analyzed weekly throughout the summer season (June 1 - Sept. 30). Note that DO water quality standards are
based on daily averages, individual sampling events, and/or limited periods of time. Therefore, the data presented in this
report cannot be used to evaluate compliance with water quality standards.
BACTERIA
19
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
BROOKLYN
Jamaica Bay
Atlantic Ocean
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A
J8 J7
J12
J5
FECAL COLIFORM
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Jamaica Bay
ENTEROCOCCUS
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Jamaica Bay
BROOKLYN
Atlantic Ocean
J11
J1
J2
J3
J9A
J8 J7
J12
J5
Jamaica Bay
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
Enterococci levels for the entire Jamaica Bay region were found to be stable, with regional summer geometric averages of
2 to 3 CFUs/100mL for each of the nine years sampled. Seasonal means of individual sampling sites ranged from 2 to 8
CFUs/100mL. Individual sampling site maximums ranged from 6 (site J1) to 1500 CFU/100mL (site J8). The region’s
seasonal averages remained steady, with a very slight downward trend.
BACTERIA
1
10
100
1000
10000
1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009
Bacteria(CFUs/100mL)
Year
NYC-DEP
Bacteria at Jamaica Bay
Summer Geometric Mean
Fecal Coliform Surface
Fecal Coliform Bottom
Enterococci Surface
Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means).
Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by
the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
20
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006
DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)
Year
NYC-DEP
Dissolved Oxygen at Jamaica Bay
Summer Average
DO Surface DO Bottom
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
The Jamaica Bay summer regional average DO levels for
surface and bottom samples were 7.0 mg/L and 5.8 mg/L,
respectively, in 2007; rising to 8 and 7.0 mg/L in 2009.
Despite a drop in the surface sampling values from above
8.0 mg/L for the seasonal average values from years 1997
through 2003, DO for Jamaica Bay continues on an upward
trend.
2009 Surface DO: Individual site seasonal averages for
surface samples ranged from 7.6 to 8.5 mg/L. The DO at
seven out of nine sampling sites in Jamaica Bay dropped
below 5.0 mg/L on at least one sampling event during
the season. The DO at five out of nine sampling sites in
Jamaica Bay dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event,
four out of nine sites dropped below 4.0 mg/L for at least
one sampling, and at site J12 the DO dropped below 3.0
mg/L for at least one event.
2009 Bottom DO: Site J12 was the only site that had a
seasonal summer average of below 5.0 mg/L (4.1). All
other sites ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 mg/L. All but two of the
nine sampling sites had a DO sampling event below 4.8
mg/L (sites J11 and J5 did not); all but three sites dropped
below 4.0 mg/L. Only one site, J12, had a DO that dropped
below 3.0 mg/L for at least one event. (This is down from
five sites that dropped below 3.0 mg/L in 2006.) The
minimum DO value at site J12 was 1.1 mg/L in 2009. In
past seasons this site has occasionally had 0.0 mg/L as its
lowest tested value.
The Jamaica Bay region, in general, is prone to high
variability in DO levels. Algal blooms are common in the
Bay, which frequently result in large diurnal variations in
DO. Sampling site J12 is a deep area of the Bay that was
created by excavation for the construction of the Kennedy
Airport. During much of the year the site is stratified due to
poor water circulation, causing oxygen depletion (anoxia)
in the bottom layer of this site (hypolimnion).
Although the DO values measured in 2007 were slightly
lower than was the case in 2006, they increased again in
2008 and 2009. The overall long term trend shows that
DO levels in the Jamaica Bay region have been steadily
increasing since 1970.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
21
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Surface
Jamaica Bay
BROOKLYN
Jamaica Bay
Atlantic Ocean
J11 J1
J2
J3
J9A
J8 J7
J12
J5
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Bottom
Jamaica Bay
BROOKLYN
Jamaica Bay
2
Atlantic Ocean
J11 J1
J2
J3
J9A
J8 J7
J12
J5
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
22
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
The East River—Western Long Island Sound region represents the
northeast portion of NY Harbor, extending from the point where the East
River joins the Upper New York Bay (including the East River and the
Harlem River), and continuing north-easterly into the Long Island Sound.
The area includes Flushing Bay, Bowery Bay, the Bronx and Hutchinson
Rivers, Eastchester Bay, and Little Neck Bay.
The East River—Western Long Island Sound regional fecal coliform summer geometric mean in 2007 was 16
CFU/100mL; in 2008 it was 21; and in 2009 it was 35, as compared to 54 in 2006. In 2009, sampling site E15 had the
highest summer geometric mean in the region at 484 CFUs/100mL. The seasonal mean values of all the other sites fell to
below 60 CFUs/100mL. All sites except E10, with a maximum of 36, had maximum individual sampling events ranging
from 510-4000 CFUs/100mL. The region continues its long-term downward trend.
The seasonal geometric mean Enterococci
level for the region averaged about 5
CFUs/100mL for years 2008 and 2009, and
6 CFUs in 2007. These numbers are down
from 8 in 2006. In 2009, sampling site H3
had the highest summer geometric mean in
the region at 21 CFUs/100mL. The seasonal
means for all the other sites ranged from
2-12 CFUs/100mL. All sites except E10,
with a maximum sampling event value of
10 CFUs/100mL, had maximum individual
samples with values ranging from 50-1080
CFUs/100mL. Interestingly, the site with
the highest individual sampling maximum
(site E15 with 1080 CFUs/100mL) was not
the site with the highest seasonal geometric
mean (site H3 with 21 CFUs). The seasonal
averages for the region remain steady, with
a very slight downward trend.
E15
E2
E7
E6
E14
H3
E4
E8
E10
BRONX
EastRiver
QUEENS
MANHATTAN EAST RIVER – WESTERN LONG ISLAND SOUND
1
10
100
1000
10000
1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009
Bacteria(CFUs/100mL)
Year
NYC-DEP
Bacteria at East River - Western Long Island Sound
Summer Average
Fecal Coliform Surface
Fecal Coliform Bottom
Enterococci Surface
Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact)
Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data
represented here are the seasonal averages (geometric means).
Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by
the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
BACTERIA
23
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
FECAL COLIFORM
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
East River–Western Long Island Sound
BRONX
EastRiver
Long
Sou
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
E2
E7
E15
E6
E14
H3
E4
E8
E10
ENTEROCOCCUS
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
East River–Western Long Island Sound
BRONX
EastRiver
Long
Soun
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
E2
E7
E15
E6
E14
H3
E4
E8
E10
Preparing to venture out from Hallets Cove in Queens
on one of the student built East River Crew boats. Photo
courtesy of Rob Buchanan.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
24
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
In the East River – Western Long Island Sound, the
region’s average 2009 surface DO level was 5.7 mg/L,
and 5.1 mg/L for bottom DO. DO levels slightly improved
each year from to 2007 to 2009. It is especially notable that
this is the first year since 2000 that the bottom seasonal
average is above 5.0 mg/L. Additionally, this is only the
4th
time since 1970 that this has been the case. All but two
sites have a seasonal average (surface sampling) above 5.0
mg/L; E4 and E6 did not, but were close with values of 4.9
and 4.9 mg/L, respectively.
2009 Surface DO: All sampling sites for surface DO
dropped below 4.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event.
For individual samples, Site E7 was the only site where
the DO value dropped below 3.0 mg/L.
2009 Bottom DO: All sampling sites had bottom DO
levels that were found to be below 4.0 mg/L for at least
one event. Five sites dropped below 3.0 mg/L for at least
one sampling event, and E10 had the lowest minimum
sample out of this region’s sites, with 1.8 mg/L on August
31, 2009. By September 8 it was back up to 4.8 mg/L.
Although DO levels in the East River and Western Long
Island Sound continue to be the lowest throughout the
NY waters of the Harbor, and are slightly down from the
late 1990’s, the long term trend from the 1970’s remains
positive.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006
DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)
Year
NYC-DEP
Dissolved Oxygen at East River - Western Long Island Sound
Summer Average
DO Surface DO Bottom
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
25
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Surface
East River–West Long Island Sound
BRONX
EastRiver
L S
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
E2
E7
E15
E6
E14
H3
E4
E8
E10
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Bottom
East River–West Long Island Sound
BRONX
EastRiver
Lo So
QUEENS
MANHATTAN
E2
E7
E15
E6
E14
H3
E4
E8
E10
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
26
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
1
10
100
1000
10000
1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009
Bacteria(CFUs/100mL)
Year
NYC-DEP & NJHDG
Bacteria at Raritan River - Raritan Bay
Summer Average
Fecal Coliform Surface
Fecal Coliform Bottom
Enterococci Surface
Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact)Standard
*
* Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined for FC;
Addition of Raritan River sites to this region.
Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30
day period; the data represented here are the seasonal averages
25
26
27
28
K5A
29
K6
30
N9
N16MIDDLESEX
Raritan
Bay
AtlanticOc
ean
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
STATEN
ISLAND
RARITAN RIVER BAY – LOWER NEW YORK BAY
The Raritan River and Bay – Lower New
York Bay region represents the most
oceanic portion of the Harbor. This is
the largest region in the Harbor, and is
represented by ten survey stations. Six of
the stations are in mostly open shallow
waters, from Brooklyn’s Coney Island to
the north, Staten Island to the north and
west, and New Jersey’s Middlesex and
Monmouth Counties.
The most southeastern portion of the region includes the Shrewsbury and Navesink Rivers. This sub-region is a tidal
estuary system that connects the two rivers and drains into Raritan Bay through Sandy Hook Bay. The remainder of the
region’s eastern boundary is open to Rockaway Inlet and the greater Atlantic Ocean. The other four survey stations extend
from the mouth of the Raritan River upstream about 15 miles.
In the Raritan River and Bay – Lower New York Bay region the fecal coliform summer regional geometric means ranged
from 8 to 19 CFUs/100mL for the 2007 to 2009 period. Most of the individual sampling sites in 2009 in the Raritan Bay
part of the region had summer geometric means between 3 and 39. Not surprisingly, the Raritan River sites 25, 26, and
27 had the highest seasonal means, 126, 352,
and 255 respectively. Six of the ten sites had
individual sampling events where fecal coliform
rose above 200 CFUs/100mL for at least one event,
ranging from 228 (N9) to 1500 (site 26).
The long term trend for fecal coliform in this
region has shown an overall decrease from 1985 to
2009. The increased values observed during 2004-
2009 can be mostly attributed to the expansion
of this region to include the Raritan River. The
2009 fecal coliform and Enterococcus averaged
values for the Raritan Bay sites only were 8 and 2
CFUs/100mL, respectively. The fecal coliform and
Enterococcus averaged values from the Raritan
River sites only were 47 and 25 CFUs/100mL,
respectively.
Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by
the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
27
BACTERIA
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Enterococci levels for the entire Raritan Bay region have been stable, with regional geometric means ranging from 1 to 8
CFUs/100mL for the nine years that the area was sampled (2001 through 2009).
In 2009, similar to fecal coliform trends, the highest seasonal geometric means for Enterococcus for this region are in
sites 25, 26 and 27, with Enterococcus values of 217, 68, and 58 CFUs/100mL respectively. These sites also had the
highest individual sampling event values of the region, 10300, 2380 and 2300 respectively.
Site 25, with a maximum individual sampling event of 10300 CFUs/100mL, was the site with the highest level found among
all of the sites, in all regions of the Harbor where Enterococcus was measured.
Five of the ten sites had individual sampling events that were higher than the 35 CFU/100mL Best Use Standard for
Enterococcus. This region and Arthur Kill/Kill Van Kull are the only two regions in the Harbor where the Enterococci data
is showing an upward long term trend, probably because of the inclusion of the high values measured at the Raritan River.
MIDDLESEX
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
STATEN
ISLAND
25
26
27
28
K5A
29
K6
30
N9
N16
AtlanticOce
an
ENTEROCOCCUS
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Raritan River Bay–Lower New York Bay
MIDDLESEX
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
STATEN
ISLAND
25
26
27
28
K5A
29
K6
30
N9
N16
AtlanticO
cean
FECAL COLIFORM
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Raritan River Bay–Lower New York Bay
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept 30 2009
BACTERIA
28
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
For Raritan River and Bay — Lower New
York Bay the regional average for 2009
surface DO levels was 7.7 mg/L, and 6.9
mg/L for bottom DO levels. This is a slight
improvement from years 2004 and 2005
(when the decrease in DO was mostly
attributed to the expansion of this region
to include the Raritan River water quality
values).
2009 Surface DO: All of the individual
sampling sites had seasonal averages
between 6.1 and 9.2 mg/L. The surface DO
at five of the ten sampling sites dropped
below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling
event. Four sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L for
at least one event; three sites had 4.0 mg/L
for at least one event. No sites had measured
values below 3.0 mg/L.
2009 Bottom DO: All of the individual sampling sites had seasonal averages between 5.1 and 8.3 mg/L. The bottom
DO at six of the sampling sites dropped below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event, while five sites dropped below
4.8 mg/L for at least one event, and four sites had 4.0 mg/L for at least one event. Two sites had measured values below
3.0 mg/L (sites K5Aand 28). Average DO levels were the highest throughout this region at stations K6 and 30, while the
average DO levels were found to be lowest at sites 27 and 28.
The region continues to show improving DO values from 1970 to the present.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006
DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)
Year
NYC-DEP & NJHDG
Dissolved Oxygen at Raritan River - Raritan Bay
Summer Average
DO Surface DO Bottom
*
* Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined.
Addition of Raritan River sites to this region.
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
Rowing on the East River.
Photo courtesy of Mary Nell Hawk.
DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
29
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Surface
Raritan River Bay – Lower New York Bay
MIDDLESEX
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Rari
tan River ArthurKill
STATEN
ISLAND
K5A
25
26
27
28 29
K6
30
N9
N16
AtlanticOcea
n
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Bottom
Raritan River Bay – Lower New York Bay
MIDDLESEX
MONMOUTH
Lower
New York
Bay
Raritan
Bay
Rari
tan River
ArthurKill
STATEN
ISLAND
25
26
27
28 K5A 29
K6
30
N9
N16
AtlanticOcea
n
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
30
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
The Hudson River—Upper New York Bay area includes: the Hudson
River from just north of the NYC-Westchester line through the Battery to
the Verrazano Narrows; it joins with and parallels the Lower East River,
and also connects to the Kill van Kull-Arthur Kill system. This area
contains 12 survey stations.
In the Hudson River and Upper New York
Bay region the summer geometric mean fecal
coliform value in 2009 was 35 CFUs/100mL,
which was similar to the 2006 value of 31
and down from 76 in 2002.
In 2009, all but one of the individual
sampling sites in this region had
summer geometric means of less than 55
CFUs/100mL. Site G2 was the exception,
with an average of 138 CFUs/100mL.
Individual maximum samples in this region
ranged from 108 CFUs/100mL at site 31, to
4000 CFUs/100mL at site G2. The long term
trend for fecal coliform continues to show
improvement.
N8
K1
N7
N6 G2
N5
33
32
N4
N1
N3B
31
BROOKLYN
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
EastRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
MANHATTAN
HUDSON RIVER – UPPER NEW YORK BAY
1
10
100
1000
10000
1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009
Bacteria(CFUs/100mL)
Year
NYC-DEP & NJHDG
Bacteria at Hudson River
Summer Average
Fecal Coliform Surface
Fecal Coliform Bottom
Enterococci Surface
Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standards
*
* Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined for FC.
Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means).
Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
BACTERIA
31
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
BROOKLYNKull
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
H
EastRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
MANHATTAN
N8
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
33
32
N4
N1
31
N3B
ENTEROCOCCUS
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Hudson River–Upper New York Bay
FECAL COLIFORM
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Hudson River–Upper New York Bay
B
BROOKLYNKull
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
H
EastRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
MANHATTAN
N8
K1
N7
N6
G2
N5
33
32
N4
N1
31
N3B
Enterococci levels for the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay region were found to be stable, with
regional geometric means ranging from 4 to 5 CFUs/100mL for years 2007 through 2009. Individual sampling
site seasonal geometric means ranged from 3 CFUs/100mL at site 31 to 19 at site G2. The highest individual
Enterococcus measurement at this site was 1380 CFUs/100mL, down from 3,800 in 2006. Note that this had been
the highest level found among all of the sites, in all of the regions of the Harbor where Enterococcus was measured
for that year. All individual sites except one had a sampling event with a value above 35 CFUs/100mL. The
region shows a slow but steady downward long term trend.
BACTERIA
32
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Learn to fish programs, such as this one on the Hudson
River, help teach residents about the estuary.
Photo courtesy of Ellen McCarthy.
The Hudson River and Upper New York Bay
regional surface DO average in 2009 for was
6.8 mg/L, and 5.9 mg/L for the bottom DO
value.
2009 Surface DO: All of the individual
sampling sites had seasonal averages
between 6.2 an 7.3 mg/L. The surface DO at
eight of the twelve sampling sites dropped
below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling
event. Four sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L
for at least one event, and no sites measured
below 4.0 mg/L during the sampling season.
Note that in 2006 only one site (G2) dropped
below the 4.8 mg/L.
2009 Bottom DO: All twelve sampling sites
were found to contain less than 4.8 mg/L for
at least one event. Five sites measured less
than 4.0 mg/L at least one event in the 2006
summer season. No sites measured below
3.0 mg/L.
Despite some variability in the last three years, the long term trend for DO in this region continues to show
improvement since the start of the monitoring program.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006
DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)
Year
NYC-DEP & NJHDG
Dissolved Oxygen at Hudson River
Summer Average
DO Surface DO Bottom
*
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the
data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
**Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
33
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Surface
Hudson River–Upper New York Bay
B
BROOKLYNKull
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
H
EastRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
MANHATTAN
N8
K1 N7
N6
G2
N5
33
32
N4
N1
31
N3B
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Bottom
Hudson River–Upper New York Bay
B
BROOKLYNKull
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
H
EastRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
MANHATTAN
G2
33
N8
K1
N7
N6
N5
32
N4
N1
31
N3B
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
34
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
The region of the Newark Bay and tributaries
connects with the Kill van Kull to the south, and
includes the Hackensack and the Passaic Rivers
(and most of their tributaries) to the north.
In the Newark Bay and Tributaries region
the fecal coliform summer geometric mean
value in 2009 was 166 CFUs/100mL. This is
down from 398 in 2006. In 2009, seasonal
geometric means for individual sites ranged
from 34 CFUs/100mL (site 18) to 759 (site
7). However, site nine (in the Second River)
had a significantly higher fecal coliform
average than the other sites in this region
(seasonal mean of 3962 CFU/100 mL). All
sites measured above the Best Use Standard
for at least one sampling event. Interestingly,
site 4 had a higher maximum value than site
9 (8100 CFUs/100 mL as compared to 6000).
Site 9 did not have the highest maximum event
during 2009 (as it did in 2006). However, the
lowest sampling event value for site 9 was
1500 CFUs/100mL, greater by far than any
other site in the harbor. Note that monitoring
for this region only began in December of
2003.
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
14
13
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Elizabeth
River
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
MA
NEWARK BAY AND TRIBUTARIES
1
10
100
1000
10000
2000 2003 2006 2009
Bacteria(CFUs/100mL)
Year
NJHDG
Bacteria at Newark Bay & Tributaries
Summer Average
Fecal Coliform Surface
Fecal Coliform Bottom
Enterococci Surface
Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means).
Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by
the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
BACTERIA
35
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Elizabet
h
River
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
MAN
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
9
5
7
8 14
1
2
3
4 6
13
FECAL COLIFORM
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Newark Bay and Tributaries
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell Dam
Elizabet
h
River
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
MAN
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
14
13
ENTEROCOCCUS
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Newark Bay and Tributaries
It is interesting to note that site 6 and site 9 are in tributaries to the Passaic River (the Saddle River and the Second River)
that do not have any CSOs or POTWs discharging to them. However, there are stormwater discharges which may well be
responsible for these high fecal coliform values. Individual sampling sites had maximum annual values ranging from 460
to 15,000 CFUs/100mL. It is important to recognize that this region is entirely in NJ, and therefore data were collected
only by NJHDG. With only three years of data collected for this region, it is too early to define any long term trend. Since
this region has the highest measured fecal coliform levels, long term trend monitoring will be very important in assessing
the progress of water quality.
NJHDG initiated sample collection for Enterococcus in the Newark Bay and Tributaries in 2007. Seasonal geometric means
for this region were 106, 51, and 58 CFUs/100mL respectively for years 2007, 2008 and 2009. This is the only region
where the seasonal geometric mean values were greater than the Best Use Standard of 35 CFUs/100mL for Enterococcus.
Similar to the fecal coliform results for this region, the individual sampling site seasonal geometric means for Enterococcus
for 2009 were relatively high, ranging from 7 CFUs/100mL (site 18) to 284 (site 6). Site 9 had a significantly higher
Enterococcus average than the other sites in this region with a seasonal mean of 677 CFU/100mL. All sites but three
(13, 16, and 18) measured above the Best Use Standard for at least one sampling event. Site 6 had the highest individual
sampling event, with a 5300 CFUs/100mL.
BACTERIA
36
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Canoeing on the Passaic River in downtown
Newark. Photo courtesy of Jerry Willis,
National Park Service.
In the Newark Bay and Tributaries region the average 2009
surface DO level was 7.4 mg/L, and 5.1 mg/L for bottom DO
levels.
2009 Surface DO: The individual sampling sites had seasonal
averages between 3.7 (site 13) and 9.7 mg/L (site 9). The surface
DO at seven of the eighteen sampling sites dropped below 5.0
mg/L for at least one sampling event and six sites dropped below
4.8 mg/L for at least one event. Four sites measured below 4.0
mg/L for at least one event; and two sites measured below 3.0
mg/L.
2009 Bottom DO: Bottom DO was not measured at all sites
due to the shallowness of certain sampling sites, but of the sites
that were measured, five out of six had DO values below and 4.8
mg/L for at least one sampling event. Three sites dropped below
4.0 mg/L; and one site dropped before 3.0 mg/L (site 14 at 2.7
mg/L).
This region is showing an upward trend, note however, that there
are only six years of data for this region. Because the Newark
Bay and Tributaries region has the lowest DO of the regions in
the NJ waters of the Harbor, long term trend monitoring will be
very important for assessing changes in DO in this monitoring
region.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2000 2006
DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)
Year
NJHDG
Dissolved Oxygen at Newark Bay & Tributaries
Summer Average
DO Surface DO Bottom
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
37
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Surface
Newark Bay and Tributaries
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell
Dam
Elizabet
h
River
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
M
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
16
15
17
18
14
13
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Bottom
Newark Bay and Tributaries
Newark
Bay
Dundee Dam
Oradell
Dam
Elizabet
h
River
Second
River
Ha
ckensackRiver
SaddleRiver
PassaicRiver
Upper
New York
Bay
HUDSON
BERGEN
PASSAIC
ESSEX
MAN
G2
33
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10 11
12
16
15
17
18
14
13
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
38
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
The Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull system
connects three water bodies; Upper New York
Bay, Newark Bay and Raritan Bay, and includes
several tributaries to the west of the Arthur Kill in
Union and Middlesex counties.
In the Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull region
the fecal coliform summer geometric mean
in 2009 was 70 CFUs/100mL, similar
to the 2006 summer geometric mean of
74 CFUs/100mL. In 2009, most of the
individual sampling sites had summer
geometric mean values at or below 110
CFUs/100mL, the exceptions being sites
20 and 22, with CFUs of 830 and 631,
respectively. Individual site maximum
fecal coliform values (CFUs/100mL)
ranged from 56 at site K5, to 7,900 at
site 21. In 2006, site 21 had the highest
individual sampling event found among all
of the sites in all of the regions of the Harbor
for that year, at 3031 CFUs/100mL. The
highest for 2009 was site 4 in the Passaic
River (8100 CFUs/100mL). Additionally,
eight sites in the harbor in 2009 had fecal
coliform values greater than the 2006
maximum value of 3031CFUs/100mL.
The long term trend for this region shows
an overall decrease in fecal coliform levels. Note that data from the Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers were
added to this region in 2004, negatively affecting the long term trend.
1
10
100
1000
10000
1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009
Bacteria(CFUs/100mL)
Year
NYC-DEP & NJHDG
Bacteria at Arthur Kill - Kill Van Kull
Summer Average
Fecal Coliform Surface
Fecal Coliform Bottom
Enterococci Surface
Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
*
*Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined for FC.
Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means).
24 K4
2322
K2
K5
1921
20
K3 Kill van Kull
Rahway River
ArthurKill
STATEN
ISLAND
ARTHUR KILL AND KILL VAN KULL
Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
BACTERIA
39
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Seasonal geometric mean values for Enterococci levels for the Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull region were found to fluctuate
slightly, with a regional geometric mean of 12 CFUs/100mL for 2009. This result compares with 7 CFUs/100mL in
2006, 19 in 2007 and 6 in 2008. Seasonal geometric mean values for most individual sampling stations ranged from 4
to 14 CFUs/100mL, except for sites 20 and 22, which had values of 191 and 330 CFUs/100mL, respectively. Individual
sampling sites had maximum Enterococci levels that ranged from 15 at K5 to 7200 at site 22. All but two sites (K5 and 19)
had individual sampling events greater than the Best Use Standard of 35 CFUs/100mL. The trend for this region, from 2001
to 2009, shows moderately increasing Enterococci levels. This region and Raritan River and Raritan Bay are the only two
regions showing upward trends for Enterococcus.
Rahway River
er
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
STATEN
ISLAND
24 K4
2322
K5
K2
1921
20
K3
ENTEROCOCCUS
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull
FECAL COLIFORM
2009 Summer Geomean (Surface)
Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull
Rahway River
ver
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
STATEN
ISLAND
24 K4
2322
K2
K5
1921
20
K3
BACTERIA
40
51-200
201-770
771-1,500
1,501-2,000
0-50
2,000 +
Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
> 35
0-35
Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL)
Seasonal Geometric Mean*
Sampling Points
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Surface
Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull
Raritan
Bay
Rahway River
er
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
STATEN
ISLAND
24 K4
2322
K2
K5
1921
20
K3
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
2009 Summer Average – Bottom
Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull
Raritan
Bay
Rahway River
ver
ArthurKill
Kill van Kull
STATEN
ISLAND
24 K4
2322
K2
K5
1921
20
K3
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Seasonal Average*
Sampling Points
3.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 4.79
4.80 to 4.99
> = 5.00
< 3.00
*June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
41
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
In Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull the 2009
regional average surface DO level was 6.1
mg/L, and 5.8 mg/L for bottom DO.
2009 Surface DO: The individual sampling
sites seasonal averages ranged from 5.0 (site
20) to 6.8 mg/L (site K5). All ten sites dropped
below 5.0 mg/mL for surface DO for at least
one sampling event. Eight sampling sites
dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event.
Only sites 22 and K5 dropped below 4.0 mg/L
for one event, and no sites were found to
contain less than 3.0 mg/L during the season.
2009 Bottom DO: DO was not measured on
the bottom at all sites due to shallower water
at certain sampling sites, but of those that were
sampled (eight out of ten sites), all were found
to contain less than 4.8 mg/L for at least one
event. DO at three sites dropped below 4.0
mg/L for at least one sampling event. Sites K5
and 24 dropped below 3.0 mg/L. The overall
trend for DO has been steadily increasing since the 1970’s.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006
DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)
Year
NYC-DEP & NJHDG
Dissolved Oxygen at Arthur Kill - Kill Van Kull
Summer Average
DO Surface DO Bottom
*
* Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined
DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard
Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings;
the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages.
DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the
WQS (see pg. 19 for more information).
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Organized competitive swimming events have
become common in the harbor. Photo courtesy of
Capri Djatiasmoro, NYC Swim.
42
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
Many organizations and individuals
contributed to this effort, financially and
with their time and data. The New York-
New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP)
identified the need for a Harbor-wide water
quality monitoring and reporting effort that
would enhance existing monitoring efforts.
The Interstate Environmental Commission
(IEC) formed an interagency adhoc
committee to plan the sampling effort in
New Jersey waters that would complement
the sampling in New York waters that
was being undertaken by the City of
New York. Organizations represented on
the adhoc committee included the New
Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection (NJDEP), the New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation
(NYDEC), the New York City Department
of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), the
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Interstate Environmental Commission (IEC), the National Park
Service (NPS), the New Jersey Harbor Dischargers Group (NJHDG), the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners
(PVSC), and the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). NYCDEP and NJHDG generated the data that is
presented in this report. HEP was responsible for the overall coordination and funding for preparing this report.
The report was prepared by the Great Lakes Environmental Center (GLEC), with administrative services provided
by the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC). Graphics were provided by
GLEC, NYCDEP, and HydroQual Inc. Photographs were provided by Rob Buchanan, Stephen Stanne, Ellen
McCarthy, Hackensack Riverkeeper, Mary Nell Hawk, Jerry Willis–National Park Service, Capri Djatiasmoro–
NYC Swim, Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners, and Kirk Barrett–Montclair State University.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
43
Water quality sampling in the NY-NJ Harbor. Photo courtesy of
Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners.
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
The NJHDG is a consortium of 9 wastewater utilities representing 11 publicly owned treatment works (POTWs)
that discharge into the New Jersey portion of the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The 9 wastewater treatment
utilities in northern New Jersey include the Middlesex County Utilities Authority (MCUA); the Linden Roselle
Sewerage Authority (LRSA); the Rahway Valley Sewerage Authority (RVSA); the Joint Meeting of Essex and
Union Counties (Joint Meeting); the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners (PVSC); the Bergen County Utilities
Authority (BCUA); the North Bergen Municipal Utilities Authority (NBMUA); the North Hudson Sewerage
Authority (NHSA); and the Secaucus Municipal Utilities Authority (SMUA). The NJHDG member organizations
were responsible for collecting the samples from the New Jersey waters, and for analyzing the collected samples.
The coordinators of the sampling and analytical programs for NJHDG and NYCDEP were Ashley Pengitore
(PVSC) and Beau Ranheim (NYCDEP), respectively. The NJHDG Harbor Monitoring Program included
the participation of Thomas Pietrykoski, Prudence Moon-Banks (PVSC), and the PVSC River Restoration
Department; Vinny Makfinsky, David Vieira and Christine Ginn (Joint Meeting); Guy Abramowitz and Alberto
Escobar (NBMUA); Ed Kochick and Janet Thevenin (RVSA); and Wale Adewunmi and John Yannuzzi (MCUA).
The laboratories of PVSC, MCUA and BCUA performed most of the chemical analyses for New Jersey waters.
The analyses for New York City waters were performed by NYCDEP laboratory. NJHDG data files are stored
at PVSC (contact: Ashley Pengitore), and NYCDEP data files are stored at NYCDEP (contact: Beau Ranheim).
This report was funded by a cooperative agreement awarded by the Environmental Protection Agency to the New
England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission in partnership with the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program.
This report was prepared and published by GLEC in Traverse City, Michigan in June 2011.
Competititve rowing on the Passaic. Photo courtesy
of Kirk Barrett, Montclair State University.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
44
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
New York - New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program Office
290 Broadway, 24th
Floor
New York, NY 10007
www.harborestuary.org

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Harbor-Wide Water Quality Monitoring Report for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary

  • 1. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Harbor-Wide Water Quality Monitoring Report for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary 2011 Edition
  • 2. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Recreational boating has become very popular in the Estuary, as shown here in the East River (cover). Photo courtesy of Rob Buchanan.
  • 3. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Harbor-Wide Water Quality Monitoring Report for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary June 2011
  • 4. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
  • 5. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 3 Survey Regions and Station Sites................................................................................................................ 4 Measured Water Quality Parameters ........................................................................................................... 5 Current Waterbody Classifications and Criteria in New York Waters ......................................................... 6 Current Waterbody Classifications and Criteria in New Jersey Waters....................................................... 7 Factors that Affect Water Quality in the Harbor.......................................................................................... 9 A Program to Evaluate and Improve Water Quality in the Harbor............................................................ 12 Harbor-Wide Water Quality Trends.......................................................................................................... 13 Harbor-Wide Bacteria................................................................................................................................ 13 Harbor-Wide Water Dissolved Oxygen ..................................................................................................... 16 2009 Regional Summaries........................................................................................................................... 19 Jamaica Bay............................................................................................................................................... 19 East River – Western Long Island Sound .................................................................................................. 23 Raritan River and Bay – Lower New York Bay ........................................................................................ 27 Hudson River – Upper New York Bay ..................................................................................................... 31 Newark Bay and Tributaries ...................................................................................................................... 35 Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull..................................................................................................................... 39 Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................................... 43
  • 6. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 This report was developed under the auspices of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP), and is the collaborative effort of many partners. This is the second report in what HEP envisions to be a series of water quality trend assessments for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary. The data analyzed for this report include fecal coliform, Enterococcus, and dissolved oxygen, and focus on the data collected in 2007-2009, similar to the last Harbor- wide Water Quality Report which reported data from years 2004-2006. Long term monitoring programs, such as that of the City of New York, have documented dramatic improvements in water quality since implementation of the Clean Water Act began in the 1970s. With significant new investments in wastewater treatment and combined sewer infrastructure, HEP believes it is prudent to monitor the influence of these projects on ambient water quality, and to expand the monitoring to include all of the Harbor waters. In conjunction with the monitoring and reporting contained within these pages, an assessment of pollutant load reductions that may be needed to further improve water quality in areas of the Harbor is also being undertaken under the auspices of HEP. This Water Quality Report combines and analyzes data from New York (collected by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP)) and the data from New Jersey (collected by the New Jersey Harbor Dischargers Group (NJHDG)). A continued collaboration over time will offer broader insights of the quality of the water in the NY/NJ Harbor. The total number of sampling sites in this combined Harbor region is sixty-eight (see Figure 1). Fecal coliform bacteria are indicators of human and other warm blooded animal wastes in surface waters, and of the possible presence of pathogenic bacteria. The fecal coliform levels based on summer geometric means in the Harbor between 2006 and 2009 have shown some improvement (decrease in fecal coliform) in eighteen of the sample sites. Eight of the sample sites have shown an increase in fecal coliform during this timeframe. As expected, the fecal coliform levels in the New Jersey area (western) waters of the Harbor are generally higher than in the New York (eastern) waters, due to the influence of the heavily-urbanized tributaries. (See 2006 and 2009 Harbor-wide fecal coliform maps on page 14.) Note that fecal coliform Water Quality Standards are based on a 30 day geometric mean of five or more samples, rather than seasonal geometric means (as presented in this report), and on a percentage of the data as compared to a target value. For all parameters presented in this report, data were collected, at most, weekly in the Harbor regions. Therefore, direct comparisons to the actual standards are not possible. Seasonal geometric means are used in this report as a basis for understanding long term trends (consistent with the 2004-2006 Harbor report). Enterococcus bacteria are also indicators of pathogenic organisms from untreated human and animal wastes. The Harbor-wide map of the 2009 Enterococcus data (see page 13) shows a similar pattern to the fecal coliform map. The Enterococcus levels in the New Jersey area (western) waters of the Harbor are generally higher than in the New York (eastern) waters, again due to the influence of the tributaries. The trends for the summer geometric means for Enterococcus in the Harbor show that Enterococcus bacteria numbers continue to be low and stable. Improvement is shown in some regions where individual sampling site maximum values have decreased between the years 2007 and 2009. Note that Enterococcus values were generated only by NYCDEP through 2006. NJHDG initiated Enterococcus sampling in 2007, and so 2007-2009 is the only period of combined (NJHDG and NYCDEP) Enterococcus data. As with fecal coliform standards, Enterococcus Water Quality Standards are based on a 30 day geometric mean of five or more samples; and also on a single sample maximum. Therefore, comparison against the actual standards is not possible, but seasonal geometric means reflect long term trends and therefore can be used for comparison purposes. Enterococci are thought to have a greater correlation with swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness in both marine and fresh waters than other bacterial indicator organisms, and are more likely to survive for longer periods of time in saltwater.
  • 7. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Kayakers off Manhattan with Jersey City in the background. Photo courtesy of Stephen Stanne. 2 Bacterial trend data for years 2007-2009 for all regions remain below the best use primary contact standards, except for the fecal coliform average for the Newark Bay & Tributaries region for 2007. Note that there are only six years of data for the Newark Bay and Tributaries region, as compared to 35-50 years of data for all other regions. Therefore, evaluating trends for this region is not yet possible. Dissolved oxygen is essential for all forms of aquatic life. The amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water column dictates both the abundance and types of aquatic life that can survive and reproduce in a water body. Dissolved oxygen levels throughout the Harbor continued an upward trend from 1970 to 2009. Based on seasonal averages, the Harbor generally is well oxygenated. Surface DO seasonal averages for sampling sites in 2009 were very similar to the 2006 values. Bottom DO seasonal averages improved at five of the sites (and decreased at two). The lowest DO seasonal summer averages (both surface and bottom values) continue to be from sites in the Hackensack River, the Western Long Island Sound and in Grassy Bay within Jamaica Bay. Note that dissolved oxygen Water Quality Standards are based either on daily averages or individual sampling events, rather than seasonal averages. Seasonal averages are used in this report as the basis for illustrating long term trends. The water quality standard values for these parameters vary between the NY and NJ State standards and also between waterbody classifications. Additionally, there have been changes to the standards over time. For the sake of consistency we compared all of the data to “Best Use” Standards. These classifications and standards are for reference use only, and are not intended to indicate compliance status or to set policy. (See Tables 1 and 2; and Figures 2 and 8.)
  • 8. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION INTRODUCTION 3 The NY-NJ Harbor Estuary is a bi-state water-body of great importance to the well-being and economy of the 14 million people that live in close proximity to the Harbor. As the population of the region grew over the past two hundred years, the water quality of the estuary which surrounds the region began to suffer. Though great improvements in water quality resulted from the passage and implementation of the federal Clean Water Act in the 1970s, documentation of water quality trends were lacking for portions of the Harbor. Fortunately, the City of New York has been collecting water quality information for the New York portion of the New York/New Jersey Harbor (the Harbor) for nearly 100 years. Over that time period the monitoring program in New York has been expanded and refined to reflect the City’s commitment to monitoring and improving water quality in the Harbor and the associated tributaries. In 1992 the New Jersey Harbor Dischargers Group (NJHDG) was formed by the sewerage authorities which are responsible for the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) discharging into the New Jersey portion of the Harbor and tributaries to the Harbor. NJHDG was formed to provide a unified voice from the POTW community in the arena of water quality improvement and regulatory development for the New Jersey portion of the Harbor. After a series of meetings coordinated by HEP and the IEC, NJHDG developed a long-term water quality monitoring program in 2003 for the New Jersey waters of the Harbor. The goal was for the new sampling program to be consistent with the City of New York’s monitoring approach. Sampling was initiated in late 2003, and NJHDG plans to continue the program for the foreseeable future. The parameters that are being monitored by New York City and NJHDG include fecal coliform bacteria, Enterococcus bacteria, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity, pH, total suspended solids (TSS), carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, transparency (Secchi depth) and chlorophyll-a. All of these parameters have important implications regarding the overall water quality of the Harbor and the associated tributaries. This report is focused on three of those parameters: fecal coliform bacteria, Enterococcus bacteria and DO. These parameters are being featured in this report (as they were in the 2004-2006 report) because the bacterial indicators have the most direct impact on the recreational uses of the Harbor waters, and because adequate DO is critical to the survival, growth and reproduction of fish and other aquatic life. The purpose of this report is to present the bacterial and DO information for the Harbor as a whole, and for the principal geographic regions of the Harbor. It is the intention of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) Office, and all its partners that a series of integrated (New York and New Jersey) water quality reports for the Harbor and its tributaries will be produced. Because this is the second of a series of anticipated reports involving data generated by NJHDG, there are limited trend data to report in certain areas of the Harbor. However, as more data are accumulated, it will be possible to evaluate and report on water quality trends over multi-year time frames throughout the Harbor. The water use classifications and standards for interstate and shared waters vary. To provide a standardized view of the water quality data, comparisons are made to the highest potential use across the regions (on regional trend graphs) and to each of the standards (in the text). The water quality standard values for these parameters vary between the NY and NJ state standards and also between waterbody classifications. Additionally, there have been changes to the standards over time. Prior to October 2006, waters classified as SE1 and FW2 were based on, in part, fecal coliform concentrations. The current standards for these waterbody classes are based on different bacteria as indicator organisms (Enterococcus for SE1 waters, and E. coli for FW2 waters). E. coli testing is being implemented for freshwater sites in 2011 by the NJHDG. For the sake of consistency, all of the data were compared to the “Best Use” Standards (fecal coliform: 30-day geometric mean ≤ 200 CFU/100mL; Enterococci: 30-day geometric mean ≤ 35 CFU/100mL; dissolved oxygen: DO ≥ 5.0 mg/L).
  • 9. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION SURVEY REGIONS AND STATION SITES E15 UNION MIDDLESEX WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver HudsonRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENS MANHATTAN Jamaica Bay 24 K4 2322 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 K2 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N8 N9 N16 J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 E2 33 32 N4 14 13 N1 E7 E6 E14 31 H3 E4 Atlantic Ocean Long Island Sound E8 E10 K5 1921 20 K3 N3B Hudson River & Upper New York Bay East River & Western Long Island Sound Jamaica Bay Raritan River & Bay; Lower New York Bay Newark Bay & Tributaries Arthur Kill & Kill van Kull SAMPLING REGIONS NJ Harbor Dischargers Group 2004 - present NYCDEP Harbor Survey 1970 - present Figure 1. Locations of the sampling stations for the Harbor-wide survey and the geographic sampling regions 4 Sampling Station Locations
  • 10. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION MEASURED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS 5 While many water quality parameters are important to accurately understand the overall condition of the Harbor and associated biota, this report is focusing on a subset of the parameters that are measured by the Harbor-wide survey. These parameters (dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform bacteria, and Enterococcus bacteria) are important to the health of biota living in the estuary, as well as to human use of the estuary for activities such as shellfishing and swimming. Other programs, such as the Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) and the Regional Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) have collected information on toxic contaminants, which is presented elsewhere. As noted in Figures 2 and 3, the specific water quality standards vary throughout the Harbor according to how the states classify those waters. For example, those areas designated for shellfishing and bathing have the most stringent standards, whereas areas designated for fish survival have the least stringent. See Tables 1 and 2 for more detail. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)—Dissolved oxygen is essential for all forms of aquatic life. The amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water column dictates both the abundance and types of aquatic life that can survive and reproduce in a water body. It is important to recognize that in most inshore marine waters (like the Harbor), the concentration of DO varies according to the time of day, tidal cycle, season and depth. Thus, each of these factors influence DO concentrations and the presence (or absence) and abundance of individual species. For the above reasons, the range of DO concentrations in a water body is commonly considered to be one of the key parameters that define the quality of a waterbody, and the types of species that reside in, and pass through, the waterbody. Fecal Coliform Bacteria—Fecal coliform bacteria are indicators of human and other animal fecal wastes in surface waters, and of the possible presence of pathogenic (disease-producing) bacteria. Enterococcus Bacteria—Enterococcus bacteria are also indicators of pathogenic organisms from untreated sewage. Enterococcus bacteria are commonly found in the feces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Although some strains are ubiquitous and not pathogenic, their presence in water is an indication of fecal pollution and the possible presence of enteric pathogens. Enterococcus bacteria are much like coliform bacteria, but are thought to have a greater correlation with swimming-associated illnesses, and are more likely to survive in highly saline waters. The Enterococcus bacteria data in this report reflect only data gathered by NYCDEP until the year 2006. NJHDG began certified testing of Enterococcus samples in 2007, and those data are included in this report for years 2007-2009. Sampling—Sampling locations were identified using latitude and longitude coordinates. Grab samples were collected approximately once per week during the summer season. Bacterial standards used for regulatory purposes are based on five samples in a 30 day period. One sample weekly, as is the case here, is not sufficient to make true comparisons between the data and the standards. These parameters may be variable throughout the water column. Shallow/flowing waters are usually well mixed, whereas still/deep waters usually have poorly mixed layers. For this reason samples were taken at both surface and bottom levels in the deeper regions, and at mid-depth in shallower waters. Deep water sites were accessed by boat, and water samples were collected one meter from the substrate (bottom samples) and one meter below the surface (surface samples). Shallow-water sites were sampled at mid-depth from the middle of the river channel and were accessed from bridges. Tidal conditions were not noted during sampling. For further details, reference the NJHDG Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP).
  • 11. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Staten Island Queens AN BAY LOWER NEW YORK BAY ATLTT ALL NTNN ITT CII OCECC AEE N 0 2 64 CURRENT WATERBODY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CRITERIA IN NEW YORK WATERS Figure 2. Waterbody classifications in New York waters The best use of Class SA waters are shellfishing for market purposes, primary and secondary contact recreation and fishing. These waters must be suitable for fish propagation and survival. The best use of Class SD waters is fishing. These waters must be suitable for fish survival. This classification may be given to those waters that (because of natural or man-made conditions), cannot meet the requirements for primary and secondary contact recreation and fish propagation. SD Fish Survival The best use of Class I waters are secondary contact recreation and fishing. These waters must be suitable for fish propagation and survival. I Boating/Fishing The best use of Class SC waters is fishing. These waters must be suitable for fish propagation and survival. The water quality must be suitable for primary and secondary contact recreation, although other factors may limit the use of these purposes. SC Bathing/Fishing SB Bathing The best use of Class SB waters are primary and secondary contact recreation and fishing. The waters must be suitable for fish propagation and survival. SA Shellfish New York State Saline Surface Water Quality Criteria (from NYDEC Surface and Groundwater Quality Standards, 6NYCRR Part 703, unless otherwise noted) Water Class Use Fecal Coliform Bacteria5 CFUs/100mL Enterococcus DO mg/L (2004-2005) DO mg/L (Proposed 2006; adopted 2008) SA – Shellfish Site 30 Geomean*2 ≤14; 90%≤491 Geomean*3 ≤88; 90%≤3001 Geomean* ≤354 ; Never ˃1047 Not less than 5.0 at any time Not less than a daily average of 4.8, with excursions between 4.8 and 3.0 allowed for a period of time6 SB – Bathing Sites J1-J5, J7, J8, J9A, J11, J12, E7, E8, E10, N1, K5A, K6, N9, and N16 Geomean*3 ≤200 Geomean*≤354 ; Never ˃1047 Not less than 5.0 at any time Not less than a daily average of 4.8, with excursions between 4.8 and 3.0 allowed for a period of time6 I – Fishing Sites E2, E4, E6, E14, E15, H3, K5, N3B, N4-N7, K1, N8, and 31-33 Geomean* ≤2000 -- Not less than 4.0 at any time Not less than 4.0 at any time SD – Fish Survival Sites G2, K2-K4, 19, 21, 23, and 24 -- -- Not less than 3.0 at any time Not less than 3.0 at any time * Geomean - Monthly geometric means based on a 30-day geometric mean of 5 or more samples 1 Based on total number of samples in a 30-day period: 100 mL sample 2 Based on National Shellfish Sanitation Program standards for shellfish water, direct harvest 3 Based on National Shellfish Sanitation Program standards for shellfish waters, depuration 4 Federal Register, 40 CFR 131, Water Quality Standards for Coastal and Great Lakes Recreational Waters; Final Rule. Nov. 16, 2004 5 When disinfection is required or when determined necessary to protect human health 6 See Amendment to 6 NYCRR Part 703 for DO limited period of time formula 7 For beach notification purposes only Note: There are currently no NJHDG or NYDEP SC sites Table 1. New York Water Quality Standards 6
  • 12. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION NewJerseyStateSurfaceWaterQualityCriteria (fromNJDEPSurfaceWaterQualityStandards,N.J.A.C.7:9B,unlessotherwisenoted) WaterClassUseBacteriaCFUs/100mL 8/2004and6/2005 BacteriaCFUs/100mL (10/2006) DOmg/L FW2-NT (Non-troutFishing/ Propagation/Bathing) Sites1-9,25 Fecal coliform Geomean*≤200; 90%˂4001 ----24hrAve≥5.04 ; Never˂4.0 EnterococciGeomean*≤33; Never˃61 ---- ----E.coliGeomean*≤126; Never˃2355 SE1 (Shellfish/Bathing) Sites13,26-27 Fecal coliform Geomean*≤200; 90%˂4001 ----24hrAve≥5.04 ; Never˂4.0 EnterococciGeomean*≤35; Never˃104 EnterococciGeomean*≤35; Never˃1045 SE2 (Fishing/Fish Propagation) Sites14,15,31-33,K1, K5,N3B,N4-N6 Fecal coliform Geomean*≤770Fecal coliform Geomean*≤770;Never˂4.0 SE3 (Fishing/Fish Migration) Sites10-12,16-24, K2-K4 Fecal coliform Geomean*≤1500Fecal coliform Geomean*≤1500;Never˂3.0 SE1 (Shellfish/Bathing) Sites28-29,K5A Fecal2 coliform Geomean*≤14; 90%≤491 Fecal2 coliform Geomean*≤14; 90%≤491 24hrAve≥5.04 Never˂4.0 Fecal3 coliform Geomean*≤88; 90%≤3001 Fecal3 coliform Geomean*≤88; 90%≤3001 EnterococciGeomean*≤35; Never˃104 EnterococciGeomean*≤35; Never˃1045 *Geomean-Monthlygeometricmeansbasedona30-daygeometricmeanof5ormoresamples 1 Basedontotalnumberofsamplesina30-dayperiod:100mLsample 2 BasedonNationalShellfishSanitationProgramstandardsforshellfishwater,directharvest 3 BasedonNationalShellfishSanitationProgramstandardsforshellfishwaters,depuration 4 SupersaturatedDOvaluesmustbeexpressedastheircorresponding100%saturationvaluesforpurposesofcalculating24-hr.averages 5 Forbeachnotificationpurposesonly Note:TherearecurrentlynoNJHDGorNYDEPSCsites CURRENT WATERBODY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CRITERIA IN NEW JERSEY WATERS Table 2. New Jersey Water Quality Standards 7
  • 13. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION CURRENT WATERBODY CLASSIFICATIONS AND CRITERIA IN NEW JERSEY WATERS Figure 3. Waterbody classifications in New Jersey waters Shellfish harvesting; maintenance, migration,and propagation of the natural and established biota; primary and secondary contact recreation; and any other reasonable uses. SE1 Shellfish/Bathing Maintenance; migration and propagation of the natural and established biota; migration of diadromous fish; maintenance of wildlife; secondary contact recreation; and any other reasonable uses. SE2 Fishing/Fish Propagation Maintenance; migration and propagation of the natural and established biota; primary and secondary contact recreation; industrial and agricultural water supply; public potable water supply after conventional filtration treatment and disinfection; and any other reasonable uses. FW2-NT Fishing/Fish Propagation/Bathing Secondary contact recreation; maintenance and migration of fish populations; migration of diadromous fish; maintenance of wildlife; any other reasonable uses. SE3 Fishing/Fish Migration Shellfish harvesting; primary and secondary contact recreation; maintenance, migration and propagation of the natural and established biota; and any other reasonable uses. SC Shellfish/Bathing/Fishing 8
  • 14. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION FACTORS THAT AFFECT WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION 9 Publicly Owned Treatment Works The most commonly recognized point source discharges to the Harbor are the municipal wastewater treatment plants or Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), 14 of which are in New York City, and 11 of which are in New Jersey. In addition to POTW point source discharges to the Harbor, there are combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges and stormwater outfalls (SWOs) discharges (discussed below). (See Figure 4.) New York City’s 14 POTWs treat the industrial, commercial and residential sewage from the City. The infrastructure includes over 6,000 miles of collection system pipes, 130,000 catch basins, and 5,000 seepage basins. The total amount of sewage treated is over one billion gallons per day (BGD). In contrast to New York where there is a single municipal authority responsible for the POTWs, there are 11 New Jersey POTWs discharging to the Harbor, collectively treating 500 MGD of residential and industrial/commercial sewage from 175 separate communities in the vicinity of the Harbor. All of the wastewater treated by each of these New York and New Jersey POTWs receives both primary and secondary treatment. Primary treatment refers to the removal of coarse material by screening and settling, while secondary treatment refers to the biological and chemical removal of organic matter, followed by final clarification. Finally the wastewater is disinfected with chlorine to remove pathogenic bacteria before being discharged to the Harbor. Combined Sewer Overflows/Stormwater Outfalls There are two basic types of sewer systems that are used to accommodate wet weather flows: combined sewer systems (CSOs) and separate sewer systems. In the case of combined sewer systems, rainfall and/or snowmelt combined with sanitary flows may exceed the capacity of either the sewer pipes or the POTWs (or both). In order to prevent flooding in streets and houses and operational problems at the treatment plants, combined sewer systems are designed to release the excess wet weather flows to the Harbor waters through CSOs. In contrast to combined sewer systems, separate sewer systems are designed to address wet weather flows by segregating the sanitary and wet weather flows. Thus, when it is raining and/or snow is melting, the stormwater flows are collected in a series of separate sewer lines (which are the responsibility of the municipalities), and discharged directly to the waters of the Harbor through stormwater outfalls (SWO)s. Therefore, the sanitary flows to the POTWs remain largely unaffected (except for infiltration) during wet weather events. The entirely separate sewer systems in New Jersey include Linden- Roselle, Rahway Valley, Joint Meeting, North Hudson, Edgewater, Secaucus and West New York. CSO and SWO discharges contain stormwater, and therefore can convey large quantities of floatable materials into the Harbor waters. Floatable debris, which can contribute to beach closures, can also interfere with navigation, have a negative effect on the well being of wildlife, and is aesthetically undesirable. All New Jersey CSO permittees must capture and remove solids/ floatables which cannot pass through a one- half inch bar screen. In the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary Complex, 83% of New Jersey’s CSOs have long- term CSO solids/floatable control measures constructed and operational. To help measure the effectiveness of the multiple control programs and to target improvements to priority waterbodies, New York City is implementing a Harbor-wide floatables monitoring program, which complements the City’s longstanding street litter cleanliness rating system to track landside debris. Finally, the City conducts multiple public education programs and clean-up programs that address floatables control.
  • 15. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION FACTORS THAT AFFECT WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR *Open to commercial shellfish harvest for depuration Figure 4. NY-NJ Harbor areas CSOs, POTWs, bathing beaches and shellfishing regions 10
  • 16. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION FACTORS THAT AFFECT WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR Catch and release recreational fishing has become popular once again in the Harbor. Photo courtesy of Ellen McCarthy. NON-POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION 11 Both CSOs and SWOs contribute to increased pathogen concentrations in the Harbor during and after wet weather events. The States of both New York and New Jersey have programs in place to decrease the impacts of CSOs on water quality throughout the Harbor. In both New York and New Jersey, programs are in place to reduce the abundance of floatable materials discharged from CSOs. In New York City, 70-80 percent of the sewer system was built as a combined system. Among the NJHDG members, the PVSC, BCUA, North Bergen and MCUA systems were designed as either entirely or partially combined sewer systems. Non-point source pollutants enter the Harbor via diffuse sources (other than discharge pipes) during rainfall and snowmelt events. Residential and commercial properties, roadways and parking lots, agricultural operations, faulty septic systems, construction sites and direct deposition from the atmosphere are all examples of the broad source category referred to as non-point source pollution. Fine and coarse grained sediments, fertilizers, pathogens (bacteria and viruses), salt, oils and grease, high molecular weight organic compounds and heavy metals are widely- recognized as non-point source pollutants. Many of the pollutants that enter the Harbor as non-point source pollutants originally are transported to the Harbor watershed via atmospheric deposition (both wet and dry). Some of these pollutants are from regional sources, while others are deposited as a consequence of long-range atmospheric transport.
  • 17. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION A PROGRAM TO EVALUATE AND IMPROVE WATER QUALITY IN THE HARBOR With improved water quality, public access, such as at this site on the Hackensack River, has become very popular. Photo courtesy of Hackensack Riverkeeper. 12 The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP), EPA Region II, and the States of New Jersey and New York, are in the process of implementing a comprehensive program to assess and improve water quality throughout the Harbor. The program is a component of a national effort to comply with the “fishable/swimmable” goal of the federal Clean Water Act. In an effort to achieve that goal, EPA, the states, dischargers and other stakeholders, under the auspices of HEP, are in the process of developing “total maximum daily loads” (TMDLs) for pathogens (bacteria), oxygen-demanding substances (nutrients and organic matter), and toxics. This process is being coordinated through multi-stakeholder work groups for pathogens, nutrients, and toxics. In order to develop the total maximum daily loads for the various substances, a series of computer- based water quality models has been developed. These predictive water quality models, which are state-of-the-art mathematical models, take into consideration the existing water and sediment quality characteristics, as well as the current and anticipated future point and non-point source discharges to the Harbor to determine the types and magnitudes of pollutant load reductions that will be required to achieve state water quality standards. Currently the Pathogens, Nutrients and Toxics Work Groups are evaluating the model products, and will ultimately be responsible for determining the pollutant load reduction goals that will be implemented through the New York and New Jersey National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting programs. Most of the water quality modeling/projections have been completed, and HEP and the States of New York and New Jersey are considering implementation options. The data provided in this report are not currently used in modeling water quality. At this time, these data are only being used to assess long-term water quality trends.
  • 18. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Figure 5. Map of Harbor-wide Enterococcus 2009 HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* 24 UNION MIDDLESEX WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver HudsonRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay Long Island Sound STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENS MANHATTAN *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 24 K4 2322 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 K2 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N8 N9 N16 J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 E2 33 32 N4 14 13 N1 E7 E15 E6 E14 31 H3 E4 Atlantic Ocean E8 E10 K5 1921 20 K3 N3B Jamaica Bay HARBOR-WIDE BACTERIA 13 2009 The fecal coliform levels based on the summer geometric means in the Harbor between years 2006 and 2009 have shown some improvement (decrease in fecal coliform) at 18 of the 68 sampling sites. Eight of the sample sites show an increase in fecal coliform values during this timeframe. (See 2006 and 2009 Harbor-wide fecal coliform maps, Figures 6 and 7.) The Harbor-wide average fecal coliform value decreased from 106 CFUs/100 mL in 2006 to 55 in 2009. Long term trends show decreasing levels of fecal coliform in all regions. Enterococcus bacteria results for the Harbor based on the summer geometric means have increased slightly between years 2006 and 2009. The Harbor-wide average Enterococcus value increased from 6 CFUs/100 mL in 2006 to 11 in 2009. The regional long term trends show mostly steady or slightly decreasing Enterococcus values across the Harbor, except for the Raritan River – Raritan Bay and the Arthur Kill – Kill Van Kull. These two regions show slightly increasing trends from 2001 to 2009. Despite the increasing trends, the average seasonal values for these regions remain well below the Enterococcus Best Use Standard. It is encouraging to note that the seasonal summer averages for all but one region remain well below the Enterococcus Best Use Standard. The Newark Bay and Tributary region is the exception to this with its regional yearly averages above the Best Use Standard (see Figure 5, Enterococcus Seasonal Geometric Means for 2009). It is important to note, however, that NJHDG began sampling for Enterococcus in 2007, and the Enterococcus data has shown decreasing levels in this region between 2008 and 2009. As expected, the fecal coliform and Enterococci levels in the New Jersey area (western) waters of the Harbor are generally higher than in the New York (eastern) waters, particularly in the tributaries. Since there are only fecal coliform data for years 2004-2009, and Enterococcus data for years 2007-2009 for the New Jersey portion of the Harbor, it is not feasible to evaluate historical trends in the New Jersey waters. However, the NJHDG water quality monitoring program is ongoing, and future data will provide for long term trend analyses of water quality for the entire NY/NJ Harbor.
  • 19. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION UNION MIDDLESEX WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver HudsonRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay Long Island Sound STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENS MANHATTAN Jamaica Bay 24 K4 2322 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 K2 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N8 N9 N16 J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 E2 33 32 N4 14 13 N1 E7 E15 E6 E14 31 H3 E4 Atlantic Ocean E8 E10 K5 1921 20 K3 N3B WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX MANHATTAN QUEENS BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND ESSEX BERGEN HUDSON MIDDLESEX UNION PASSAIC MONMOUTH Raritan Bay J amaica BayHudsonRiver LongIs Atlantic Ocean Newark Bay Ra ritan River PassaicRiver H a ckensackRiver EastRiver A rthurKill Rahway River Elizabeth R iver Second River Kill van Kull SaddleRiver Lower New York Bay K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2 K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3 171717171717171717 161616161616161616 151515151515151515 N4N4N4N4N4N4 323232323232323232 141414141414141414 121212121212121212 N3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3B 212121212121212121 202020202020202020 191919191919191919 181818181818181818 888888888 242424242424242424 K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4 J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3 282828282828282828 K5A K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5 131313131313131313 111111111 E10 E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14 E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15 E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2 E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4 E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6 E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7 G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2 H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3 J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11 J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12 J2 J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5 J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8 J9J9J9J9J9J9J9J9J9A K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1 K6 N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1 N16 N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5 N6 N7 N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8 N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9 222222222 333333333 444444444 555555555 666666666 777777777 999999999 101010101010101010 111111111111111111 222222222222222222 23 252525252525252525 262626262626262626 272727272727272727 29 30 313131313131313131 333333333333333333 E8 Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Figure 7. Map of Harbor-wide fecal coliform 2009 HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS Figure 6. Map of Harbor-wide fecal coliform 2006 14 2006 2009 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2006
  • 20. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS Harbor-wide Fecal Coliform and Enterococcus Bacteria Surface Seasonal Average and Precipitation Data Units Data Span 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fecal coliform2 (CFUs/100mL) June 1 - Sept. 30 107 48 106 43 41 55 Enterococcus Bacteria (CFUs/100mL) June 1 - Sept. 30 61 31 61 122 82 112 Harbor Seasonal Precipitation3 inches June 1 - Sept. 30 12.49 8.13 23.07 24.45 24.05 29.36 Harbor Annual Precipitation3 inches Jan. 1 - Dec. 31 32.78 36.93 59.40 66.11 60.13 63.16 1 NYCDEP data only, 2 Combined NYCDEP and NJHDG data (bacteria data values are the geometric means from June 1 - Sept. 30), 3 PVSC precipitation data (at the plant) Table 3. Comparison data for bacteria and precipitation HARBOR-WIDE BACTERIA 15 It is interesting to note that the two sites with the highest fecal coliform concentrations (Second River and Elizabeth River) are in areas with separate sewer systems, and therefore are not under the influence of wet weather discharges from combined sewer overflows. However, these areas do have SWOs, and would therefore be affected by wet weather runoff. The average 2007 through 2009 Harbor-wide bacterial results (from both NYCDEP and NJHDG) were low in relation to most of the water quality standards, and showed modest fluctuations from year-to-year. The bacteria results, reported in colony forming units (CFUs), are the geometric means of the summer season data (June 1 through September 30). Samples were grab samples collected approximately once per week throughout the season. Precipitation levels in the Harbor were significantly higher during years 2007-2009 as compared to years 2004-2006. Higher Enterococcus seasonal average values corresponded with the increase in precipitation amounts, however fecal coliform seasonal average values did not (see Table 3). In exploring precipitation trends in the Harbor area, no reason is apparent at this time for the lower fecal coliform concentrations that were observed during the times of higher precipitation from 2007-2009.
  • 21. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Harbor-wide Surface and Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Seasonal Average 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 DO Surface mg/L 6.4 6.4 6.8 6.6 6.9 7.0 DO Bottom mg/L 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.1 6.1 All data are combined NYCDEP and NJHDG arithmetic means from June 1 - Sept. 30 Table 4. Comparison data for surface and bottom DO for 2004 through 2009 summer seasons HARBOR-WIDE WATER QUALITY TRENDS HARBOR-WIDE DISSOLVED OXYGEN 16 2006 Dissolved oxygen levels in the Harbor were reasonably consistent throughout the 2007 to 2009 monitoring period, and showed apparent slight improvements since 2004 (see Table 4). Areas of lowest DO in the Harbor were observed in the Upper East River/Western Long Island Sound region, Jamaica Bay, and the Hackensack River, a tributary to Newark Bay. Grab samples were collected approximately once weekly throughout the summer season (June 1 through September 30). Figures 9 and 10 show 2009 average summer levels for surface and bottom dissolved oxygen. Figures 11 and 12 show surface and bottom dissolved oxygen summer minimum levels for 2009. Comparison of dissolved oxygen surface seasonal averages from 2006 to 2009 showed improvement of DO at one sampling site (site 15), and a decrease at one site (site 13). (See Figures 8 and 11). Comparison of dissolved oxygen bottom seasonal average data showed improvement at 5 sites (two in the Hackensack River, two in the Upper East River, and one in Jamaica Bay), and a decrease at 2 sites (Oradell Dam, site 13; and site E14 in the Upper East River). All regional surface seasonal averages showed long term upward trends, despite small fluctuations from year to year. All regional surface DO averages have been above the DO Best Use Standard since 2004 when the East River – Western Long Island Sound region dipped below the current standard. This DO bottom seasonal summer average for this same region has increased to above 5.0 mg/L for the first time in 10 years. WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX MANHATTAN QUEENS BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND ESSEX BERGEN HUDSON MIDDLESEX UNION PASSAIC MONMOUTH Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Summer Minima < 3.00 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 J amaica Bay Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Upper New York Bay HudsonRiv LongIs land Sou nd Atlantic Ocean Ra ritan River PassaicRiver H a ckensackRiver EastRiver A rthurKill Rahway River Elizabeth R iver Second River Kill van Kull SaddleRiver JJJJJJJ9999999AAAAA NewarkBay K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2K2 K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3K3 171717171717171717 161616161616161616 151515151515151515 N4N4N4N4N4N4 323232323232323232 141414141414141414 121212121212121212 N3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3BN3B 212121212121212121 202020202020202020 191919191919191919 181818181818181818 888888888 242424242424242424 K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4K4 J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3J3 282828282828282828 K5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5AK5A K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5K5 131313131313131313 111111111 E10E10E10E10E10E10E10E10E10 E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14E14 E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15E15 E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2E2 E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4E4 E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6E6 E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7E7 G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2G2 H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3H3 J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J1J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11J11 J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12J12 J2J2J2J2J2J2J2J2J2 J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5J5 J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J7J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J8J9A K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1K1 K6K6K6K6K6K6K6K6K6 N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1N1 N16N16N16N16N16N16N16N16N16 N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5N5 N6N6N6N6N6N6N6N6N6 N7N7N7N7N7N7N7N7N7 N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8N8 N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9N9 222222222 333333333 444444444 555555555 666666666 777777777 999999999 101010101010101010 111111111111111111 222222222222222222 232323232323232323 252525252525252525 262626262626262626 272727272727272727 292929292929292929 303030303030303030 313131313131313131 333333333333333333 E8E8E8E8E8E8E8E8E8 Sampling Points Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Figure 8. 2006 Minimum DO levels in surface waters 2006
  • 22. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Bottom Seasonal Average* *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 UNION MIDDLESEX WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENS MANHATTAN Jamaica Bay 24 K4 23 K2 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N8 N9 N16 J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 12 16 15 17 18 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 E2 33 32 N4 14 N1 E7 E15 E6 E14 31 H3 E4 Atlantic Ocean E8 E10 K5 1921 K3 N3B 2009 SUMMER AVERAGE Dissolved Oxygen in Surface and Bottom Waters Figure 10. Average DO levels in bottom waters Figure 9. Average DO levels in surface waters HARBOR-WIDE DISSOLVED OXYGEN Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Surface Seasonal Average* *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 UNION MIDDLESEX WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENS MANHATTAN 24 K4 2322 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 K2 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N8 N9 N16 J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 E233 32 N4 14 13 N1 E7 E15 E6 E14 31 H3 E4 Atlantic Ocean E8 E10 K5 1921 20 K3 N3B 17 2009 2009
  • 23. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION HARBOR-WIDE DISSOLVED OXYGEN MIDDLESEX Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Bottom Summer Minima* *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 UNION WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Raritan Bay Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENSMANHATTAN 33 Atlantic Ocean N8 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 32 N4 N1 31 N3B E2 E7 E15 E6 E14 H3 E4 E8 E10 24 K4 23 K2 K5 1921 K3 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N9 N16 11 12 16 15 17 18 14 Jamaica Bay J11 J1 J2 J8 J7 J12 J5 J9A J3 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Surface Summer Minima* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 UNION MIDDLESEX WESTCHESTER COUNTY BRONX BROOKLYN MONMOUTH Raritan Bay Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Rahway River Elizabet h River Rari tan River ArthurKill Kill van Kull Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver EastRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay STATEN ISLAND HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX QUEENS MANHATTAN Jamaica Bay *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 24 K4 2322 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 K2 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N8 N9 N16 J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 E2 33 32 N4N4 14 13 N1 E7 E15 E6 E14 31 H3 E4 Atlantic Ocean E8 E10 K5 1921 20 K3 N3B 2009 SUMMER MINIMUM Dissolved Oxygen in Surface and Bottom Waters Figure 11. Minimum DO levels in surface waters Figure 12. Minimum DO levels in bottom waters 18 2009 2009
  • 24. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Jamaica Bay is located at the southwestern end of Long Island. This urban, estuarine embayment and national park consists primarily of tidal wetlands, upland areas and approximately 20 square miles of open waters. The Bay and its drainage area are almost entirely within the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, except for a small area at the eastern end that is in Nassau County. Jamaica Bay joins the New York Harbor to the west via the Rockaway Inlet at the tip of Breezy Point. The Bay includes the Rockaway Peninsula, which forms the southern limit of the Bay, and separates Jamaica Bay from the Atlantic Ocean. The Jamaica Bay regional fecal coliform summer geometric means ranged from 24 CFUs/100mL to 64 CFUs/100mL between years 2007 and 2009. In 2009, sampling site J7 had the highest summer geometric mean of this region at 402 CFUs/100mL. In 2009 the individual sampling site maximums ranged from 1180 to 2000, except for J5, with its maximum value for the season of 72 CFU/100mL. Despite the recent increase in the region’s seasonal average (64 CFUs is the highest seasonal average in this region since 1994), the region continues to show a decreasing long term trend. J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 BROOKLYN Jamaica Bay Atlantic Ocean JAMAICA BAY 2009 REGIONAL SUMMARIES Water Quality Standards (WQS): Throughout the regional summaries, details are given primarily for the 2009 data, as these are the most recent and provide focus. For perspective, sampling site-specific data are compared to the best use standards. All trends discussed in the text are base on the visual analyses of trend lines generated by Microsoft Excel. However, it is important to note that the fecal coliform and Enterococcus Water Quality Standards are based on a 30-day geometric mean with a minimum of five samples, rather than the seasonal (June 1 - Sept. 30) geometric means presented throughout this report. Sampling were collected approximately weekly throughout the summer season, rarely providing five samples in a 30-day period, as specified by the WQS. Similarly, seasonal averages for dissolved oxygen are presented in this report to provide consistency when comparing trend data with past analyses. Samples (grab samples) were generally collected and analyzed weekly throughout the summer season (June 1 - Sept. 30). Note that DO water quality standards are based on daily averages, individual sampling events, and/or limited periods of time. Therefore, the data presented in this report cannot be used to evaluate compliance with water quality standards. BACTERIA 19
  • 25. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION BROOKLYN Jamaica Bay Atlantic Ocean J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 FECAL COLIFORM 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Jamaica Bay ENTEROCOCCUS 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Jamaica Bay BROOKLYN Atlantic Ocean J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 Jamaica Bay > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 Enterococci levels for the entire Jamaica Bay region were found to be stable, with regional summer geometric averages of 2 to 3 CFUs/100mL for each of the nine years sampled. Seasonal means of individual sampling sites ranged from 2 to 8 CFUs/100mL. Individual sampling site maximums ranged from 6 (site J1) to 1500 CFU/100mL (site J8). The region’s seasonal averages remained steady, with a very slight downward trend. BACTERIA 1 10 100 1000 10000 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Bacteria(CFUs/100mL) Year NYC-DEP Bacteria at Jamaica Bay Summer Geometric Mean Fecal Coliform Surface Fecal Coliform Bottom Enterococci Surface Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means). Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). 20 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 26. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 DissolvedOxygen(mg/L) Year NYC-DEP Dissolved Oxygen at Jamaica Bay Summer Average DO Surface DO Bottom DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. The Jamaica Bay summer regional average DO levels for surface and bottom samples were 7.0 mg/L and 5.8 mg/L, respectively, in 2007; rising to 8 and 7.0 mg/L in 2009. Despite a drop in the surface sampling values from above 8.0 mg/L for the seasonal average values from years 1997 through 2003, DO for Jamaica Bay continues on an upward trend. 2009 Surface DO: Individual site seasonal averages for surface samples ranged from 7.6 to 8.5 mg/L. The DO at seven out of nine sampling sites in Jamaica Bay dropped below 5.0 mg/L on at least one sampling event during the season. The DO at five out of nine sampling sites in Jamaica Bay dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event, four out of nine sites dropped below 4.0 mg/L for at least one sampling, and at site J12 the DO dropped below 3.0 mg/L for at least one event. 2009 Bottom DO: Site J12 was the only site that had a seasonal summer average of below 5.0 mg/L (4.1). All other sites ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 mg/L. All but two of the nine sampling sites had a DO sampling event below 4.8 mg/L (sites J11 and J5 did not); all but three sites dropped below 4.0 mg/L. Only one site, J12, had a DO that dropped below 3.0 mg/L for at least one event. (This is down from five sites that dropped below 3.0 mg/L in 2006.) The minimum DO value at site J12 was 1.1 mg/L in 2009. In past seasons this site has occasionally had 0.0 mg/L as its lowest tested value. The Jamaica Bay region, in general, is prone to high variability in DO levels. Algal blooms are common in the Bay, which frequently result in large diurnal variations in DO. Sampling site J12 is a deep area of the Bay that was created by excavation for the construction of the Kennedy Airport. During much of the year the site is stratified due to poor water circulation, causing oxygen depletion (anoxia) in the bottom layer of this site (hypolimnion). Although the DO values measured in 2007 were slightly lower than was the case in 2006, they increased again in 2008 and 2009. The overall long term trend shows that DO levels in the Jamaica Bay region have been steadily increasing since 1970. DISSOLVED OXYGEN 21
  • 27. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Surface Jamaica Bay BROOKLYN Jamaica Bay Atlantic Ocean J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Bottom Jamaica Bay BROOKLYN Jamaica Bay 2 Atlantic Ocean J11 J1 J2 J3 J9A J8 J7 J12 J5 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 22 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 28. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION The East River—Western Long Island Sound region represents the northeast portion of NY Harbor, extending from the point where the East River joins the Upper New York Bay (including the East River and the Harlem River), and continuing north-easterly into the Long Island Sound. The area includes Flushing Bay, Bowery Bay, the Bronx and Hutchinson Rivers, Eastchester Bay, and Little Neck Bay. The East River—Western Long Island Sound regional fecal coliform summer geometric mean in 2007 was 16 CFU/100mL; in 2008 it was 21; and in 2009 it was 35, as compared to 54 in 2006. In 2009, sampling site E15 had the highest summer geometric mean in the region at 484 CFUs/100mL. The seasonal mean values of all the other sites fell to below 60 CFUs/100mL. All sites except E10, with a maximum of 36, had maximum individual sampling events ranging from 510-4000 CFUs/100mL. The region continues its long-term downward trend. The seasonal geometric mean Enterococci level for the region averaged about 5 CFUs/100mL for years 2008 and 2009, and 6 CFUs in 2007. These numbers are down from 8 in 2006. In 2009, sampling site H3 had the highest summer geometric mean in the region at 21 CFUs/100mL. The seasonal means for all the other sites ranged from 2-12 CFUs/100mL. All sites except E10, with a maximum sampling event value of 10 CFUs/100mL, had maximum individual samples with values ranging from 50-1080 CFUs/100mL. Interestingly, the site with the highest individual sampling maximum (site E15 with 1080 CFUs/100mL) was not the site with the highest seasonal geometric mean (site H3 with 21 CFUs). The seasonal averages for the region remain steady, with a very slight downward trend. E15 E2 E7 E6 E14 H3 E4 E8 E10 BRONX EastRiver QUEENS MANHATTAN EAST RIVER – WESTERN LONG ISLAND SOUND 1 10 100 1000 10000 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Bacteria(CFUs/100mL) Year NYC-DEP Bacteria at East River - Western Long Island Sound Summer Average Fecal Coliform Surface Fecal Coliform Bottom Enterococci Surface Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data represented here are the seasonal averages (geometric means). Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). BACTERIA 23
  • 29. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION FECAL COLIFORM 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) East River–Western Long Island Sound BRONX EastRiver Long Sou QUEENS MANHATTAN E2 E7 E15 E6 E14 H3 E4 E8 E10 ENTEROCOCCUS 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) East River–Western Long Island Sound BRONX EastRiver Long Soun QUEENS MANHATTAN E2 E7 E15 E6 E14 H3 E4 E8 E10 Preparing to venture out from Hallets Cove in Queens on one of the student built East River Crew boats. Photo courtesy of Rob Buchanan. DISSOLVED OXYGEN 24 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 30. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION In the East River – Western Long Island Sound, the region’s average 2009 surface DO level was 5.7 mg/L, and 5.1 mg/L for bottom DO. DO levels slightly improved each year from to 2007 to 2009. It is especially notable that this is the first year since 2000 that the bottom seasonal average is above 5.0 mg/L. Additionally, this is only the 4th time since 1970 that this has been the case. All but two sites have a seasonal average (surface sampling) above 5.0 mg/L; E4 and E6 did not, but were close with values of 4.9 and 4.9 mg/L, respectively. 2009 Surface DO: All sampling sites for surface DO dropped below 4.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event. For individual samples, Site E7 was the only site where the DO value dropped below 3.0 mg/L. 2009 Bottom DO: All sampling sites had bottom DO levels that were found to be below 4.0 mg/L for at least one event. Five sites dropped below 3.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event, and E10 had the lowest minimum sample out of this region’s sites, with 1.8 mg/L on August 31, 2009. By September 8 it was back up to 4.8 mg/L. Although DO levels in the East River and Western Long Island Sound continue to be the lowest throughout the NY waters of the Harbor, and are slightly down from the late 1990’s, the long term trend from the 1970’s remains positive. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 DissolvedOxygen(mg/L) Year NYC-DEP Dissolved Oxygen at East River - Western Long Island Sound Summer Average DO Surface DO Bottom DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). DISSOLVED OXYGEN 25
  • 31. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Surface East River–West Long Island Sound BRONX EastRiver L S QUEENS MANHATTAN E2 E7 E15 E6 E14 H3 E4 E8 E10 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Bottom East River–West Long Island Sound BRONX EastRiver Lo So QUEENS MANHATTAN E2 E7 E15 E6 E14 H3 E4 E8 E10 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 26 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 32. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION 1 10 100 1000 10000 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Bacteria(CFUs/100mL) Year NYC-DEP & NJHDG Bacteria at Raritan River - Raritan Bay Summer Average Fecal Coliform Surface Fecal Coliform Bottom Enterococci Surface Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact)Standard * * Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined for FC; Addition of Raritan River sites to this region. Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data represented here are the seasonal averages 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N9 N16MIDDLESEX Raritan Bay AtlanticOc ean MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Rari tan River ArthurKill STATEN ISLAND RARITAN RIVER BAY – LOWER NEW YORK BAY The Raritan River and Bay – Lower New York Bay region represents the most oceanic portion of the Harbor. This is the largest region in the Harbor, and is represented by ten survey stations. Six of the stations are in mostly open shallow waters, from Brooklyn’s Coney Island to the north, Staten Island to the north and west, and New Jersey’s Middlesex and Monmouth Counties. The most southeastern portion of the region includes the Shrewsbury and Navesink Rivers. This sub-region is a tidal estuary system that connects the two rivers and drains into Raritan Bay through Sandy Hook Bay. The remainder of the region’s eastern boundary is open to Rockaway Inlet and the greater Atlantic Ocean. The other four survey stations extend from the mouth of the Raritan River upstream about 15 miles. In the Raritan River and Bay – Lower New York Bay region the fecal coliform summer regional geometric means ranged from 8 to 19 CFUs/100mL for the 2007 to 2009 period. Most of the individual sampling sites in 2009 in the Raritan Bay part of the region had summer geometric means between 3 and 39. Not surprisingly, the Raritan River sites 25, 26, and 27 had the highest seasonal means, 126, 352, and 255 respectively. Six of the ten sites had individual sampling events where fecal coliform rose above 200 CFUs/100mL for at least one event, ranging from 228 (N9) to 1500 (site 26). The long term trend for fecal coliform in this region has shown an overall decrease from 1985 to 2009. The increased values observed during 2004- 2009 can be mostly attributed to the expansion of this region to include the Raritan River. The 2009 fecal coliform and Enterococcus averaged values for the Raritan Bay sites only were 8 and 2 CFUs/100mL, respectively. The fecal coliform and Enterococcus averaged values from the Raritan River sites only were 47 and 25 CFUs/100mL, respectively. Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). 27 BACTERIA
  • 33. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Enterococci levels for the entire Raritan Bay region have been stable, with regional geometric means ranging from 1 to 8 CFUs/100mL for the nine years that the area was sampled (2001 through 2009). In 2009, similar to fecal coliform trends, the highest seasonal geometric means for Enterococcus for this region are in sites 25, 26 and 27, with Enterococcus values of 217, 68, and 58 CFUs/100mL respectively. These sites also had the highest individual sampling event values of the region, 10300, 2380 and 2300 respectively. Site 25, with a maximum individual sampling event of 10300 CFUs/100mL, was the site with the highest level found among all of the sites, in all regions of the Harbor where Enterococcus was measured. Five of the ten sites had individual sampling events that were higher than the 35 CFU/100mL Best Use Standard for Enterococcus. This region and Arthur Kill/Kill Van Kull are the only two regions in the Harbor where the Enterococci data is showing an upward long term trend, probably because of the inclusion of the high values measured at the Raritan River. MIDDLESEX MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Rari tan River ArthurKill STATEN ISLAND 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N9 N16 AtlanticOce an ENTEROCOCCUS 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Raritan River Bay–Lower New York Bay MIDDLESEX MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Rari tan River ArthurKill STATEN ISLAND 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N9 N16 AtlanticO cean FECAL COLIFORM 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Raritan River Bay–Lower New York Bay 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept 30 2009 BACTERIA 28 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 34. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION For Raritan River and Bay — Lower New York Bay the regional average for 2009 surface DO levels was 7.7 mg/L, and 6.9 mg/L for bottom DO levels. This is a slight improvement from years 2004 and 2005 (when the decrease in DO was mostly attributed to the expansion of this region to include the Raritan River water quality values). 2009 Surface DO: All of the individual sampling sites had seasonal averages between 6.1 and 9.2 mg/L. The surface DO at five of the ten sampling sites dropped below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event. Four sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event; three sites had 4.0 mg/L for at least one event. No sites had measured values below 3.0 mg/L. 2009 Bottom DO: All of the individual sampling sites had seasonal averages between 5.1 and 8.3 mg/L. The bottom DO at six of the sampling sites dropped below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event, while five sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event, and four sites had 4.0 mg/L for at least one event. Two sites had measured values below 3.0 mg/L (sites K5Aand 28). Average DO levels were the highest throughout this region at stations K6 and 30, while the average DO levels were found to be lowest at sites 27 and 28. The region continues to show improving DO values from 1970 to the present. DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 DissolvedOxygen(mg/L) Year NYC-DEP & NJHDG Dissolved Oxygen at Raritan River - Raritan Bay Summer Average DO Surface DO Bottom * * Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined. Addition of Raritan River sites to this region. DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. Rowing on the East River. Photo courtesy of Mary Nell Hawk. DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). 29
  • 35. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Surface Raritan River Bay – Lower New York Bay MIDDLESEX MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Rari tan River ArthurKill STATEN ISLAND K5A 25 26 27 28 29 K6 30 N9 N16 AtlanticOcea n DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Bottom Raritan River Bay – Lower New York Bay MIDDLESEX MONMOUTH Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay Rari tan River ArthurKill STATEN ISLAND 25 26 27 28 K5A 29 K6 30 N9 N16 AtlanticOcea n DISSOLVED OXYGEN 30 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 36. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION The Hudson River—Upper New York Bay area includes: the Hudson River from just north of the NYC-Westchester line through the Battery to the Verrazano Narrows; it joins with and parallels the Lower East River, and also connects to the Kill van Kull-Arthur Kill system. This area contains 12 survey stations. In the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay region the summer geometric mean fecal coliform value in 2009 was 35 CFUs/100mL, which was similar to the 2006 value of 31 and down from 76 in 2002. In 2009, all but one of the individual sampling sites in this region had summer geometric means of less than 55 CFUs/100mL. Site G2 was the exception, with an average of 138 CFUs/100mL. Individual maximum samples in this region ranged from 108 CFUs/100mL at site 31, to 4000 CFUs/100mL at site G2. The long term trend for fecal coliform continues to show improvement. N8 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 33 32 N4 N1 N3B 31 BROOKLYN Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver EastRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN MANHATTAN HUDSON RIVER – UPPER NEW YORK BAY 1 10 100 1000 10000 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Bacteria(CFUs/100mL) Year NYC-DEP & NJHDG Bacteria at Hudson River Summer Average Fecal Coliform Surface Fecal Coliform Bottom Enterococci Surface Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standards * * Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined for FC. Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means). Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). BACTERIA 31
  • 37. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION BROOKLYNKull Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver H EastRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN MANHATTAN N8 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 33 32 N4 N1 31 N3B ENTEROCOCCUS 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Hudson River–Upper New York Bay FECAL COLIFORM 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Hudson River–Upper New York Bay B BROOKLYNKull Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver H EastRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN MANHATTAN N8 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 33 32 N4 N1 31 N3B Enterococci levels for the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay region were found to be stable, with regional geometric means ranging from 4 to 5 CFUs/100mL for years 2007 through 2009. Individual sampling site seasonal geometric means ranged from 3 CFUs/100mL at site 31 to 19 at site G2. The highest individual Enterococcus measurement at this site was 1380 CFUs/100mL, down from 3,800 in 2006. Note that this had been the highest level found among all of the sites, in all of the regions of the Harbor where Enterococcus was measured for that year. All individual sites except one had a sampling event with a value above 35 CFUs/100mL. The region shows a slow but steady downward long term trend. BACTERIA 32 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 38. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Learn to fish programs, such as this one on the Hudson River, help teach residents about the estuary. Photo courtesy of Ellen McCarthy. The Hudson River and Upper New York Bay regional surface DO average in 2009 for was 6.8 mg/L, and 5.9 mg/L for the bottom DO value. 2009 Surface DO: All of the individual sampling sites had seasonal averages between 6.2 an 7.3 mg/L. The surface DO at eight of the twelve sampling sites dropped below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event. Four sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event, and no sites measured below 4.0 mg/L during the sampling season. Note that in 2006 only one site (G2) dropped below the 4.8 mg/L. 2009 Bottom DO: All twelve sampling sites were found to contain less than 4.8 mg/L for at least one event. Five sites measured less than 4.0 mg/L at least one event in the 2006 summer season. No sites measured below 3.0 mg/L. Despite some variability in the last three years, the long term trend for DO in this region continues to show improvement since the start of the monitoring program. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 DissolvedOxygen(mg/L) Year NYC-DEP & NJHDG Dissolved Oxygen at Hudson River Summer Average DO Surface DO Bottom * Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. **Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). DISSOLVED OXYGEN 33
  • 39. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Surface Hudson River–Upper New York Bay B BROOKLYNKull Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver H EastRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN MANHATTAN N8 K1 N7 N6 G2 N5 33 32 N4 N1 31 N3B DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Bottom Hudson River–Upper New York Bay B BROOKLYNKull Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver H EastRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN MANHATTAN G2 33 N8 K1 N7 N6 N5 32 N4 N1 31 N3B DISSOLVED OXYGEN 34 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 40. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION The region of the Newark Bay and tributaries connects with the Kill van Kull to the south, and includes the Hackensack and the Passaic Rivers (and most of their tributaries) to the north. In the Newark Bay and Tributaries region the fecal coliform summer geometric mean value in 2009 was 166 CFUs/100mL. This is down from 398 in 2006. In 2009, seasonal geometric means for individual sites ranged from 34 CFUs/100mL (site 18) to 759 (site 7). However, site nine (in the Second River) had a significantly higher fecal coliform average than the other sites in this region (seasonal mean of 3962 CFU/100 mL). All sites measured above the Best Use Standard for at least one sampling event. Interestingly, site 4 had a higher maximum value than site 9 (8100 CFUs/100 mL as compared to 6000). Site 9 did not have the highest maximum event during 2009 (as it did in 2006). However, the lowest sampling event value for site 9 was 1500 CFUs/100mL, greater by far than any other site in the harbor. Note that monitoring for this region only began in December of 2003. 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 14 13 Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Elizabeth River Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX MA NEWARK BAY AND TRIBUTARIES 1 10 100 1000 10000 2000 2003 2006 2009 Bacteria(CFUs/100mL) Year NJHDG Bacteria at Newark Bay & Tributaries Summer Average Fecal Coliform Surface Fecal Coliform Bottom Enterococci Surface Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means). Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). BACTERIA 35
  • 41. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Elizabet h River Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX MAN 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 9 5 7 8 14 1 2 3 4 6 13 FECAL COLIFORM 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Newark Bay and Tributaries Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Elizabet h River Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX MAN 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 14 13 ENTEROCOCCUS 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Newark Bay and Tributaries It is interesting to note that site 6 and site 9 are in tributaries to the Passaic River (the Saddle River and the Second River) that do not have any CSOs or POTWs discharging to them. However, there are stormwater discharges which may well be responsible for these high fecal coliform values. Individual sampling sites had maximum annual values ranging from 460 to 15,000 CFUs/100mL. It is important to recognize that this region is entirely in NJ, and therefore data were collected only by NJHDG. With only three years of data collected for this region, it is too early to define any long term trend. Since this region has the highest measured fecal coliform levels, long term trend monitoring will be very important in assessing the progress of water quality. NJHDG initiated sample collection for Enterococcus in the Newark Bay and Tributaries in 2007. Seasonal geometric means for this region were 106, 51, and 58 CFUs/100mL respectively for years 2007, 2008 and 2009. This is the only region where the seasonal geometric mean values were greater than the Best Use Standard of 35 CFUs/100mL for Enterococcus. Similar to the fecal coliform results for this region, the individual sampling site seasonal geometric means for Enterococcus for 2009 were relatively high, ranging from 7 CFUs/100mL (site 18) to 284 (site 6). Site 9 had a significantly higher Enterococcus average than the other sites in this region with a seasonal mean of 677 CFU/100mL. All sites but three (13, 16, and 18) measured above the Best Use Standard for at least one sampling event. Site 6 had the highest individual sampling event, with a 5300 CFUs/100mL. BACTERIA 36 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 42. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Canoeing on the Passaic River in downtown Newark. Photo courtesy of Jerry Willis, National Park Service. In the Newark Bay and Tributaries region the average 2009 surface DO level was 7.4 mg/L, and 5.1 mg/L for bottom DO levels. 2009 Surface DO: The individual sampling sites had seasonal averages between 3.7 (site 13) and 9.7 mg/L (site 9). The surface DO at seven of the eighteen sampling sites dropped below 5.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event and six sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event. Four sites measured below 4.0 mg/L for at least one event; and two sites measured below 3.0 mg/L. 2009 Bottom DO: Bottom DO was not measured at all sites due to the shallowness of certain sampling sites, but of the sites that were measured, five out of six had DO values below and 4.8 mg/L for at least one sampling event. Three sites dropped below 4.0 mg/L; and one site dropped before 3.0 mg/L (site 14 at 2.7 mg/L). This region is showing an upward trend, note however, that there are only six years of data for this region. Because the Newark Bay and Tributaries region has the lowest DO of the regions in the NJ waters of the Harbor, long term trend monitoring will be very important for assessing changes in DO in this monitoring region. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2000 2006 DissolvedOxygen(mg/L) Year NJHDG Dissolved Oxygen at Newark Bay & Tributaries Summer Average DO Surface DO Bottom DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). DISSOLVED OXYGEN 37
  • 43. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Surface Newark Bay and Tributaries Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Elizabet h River Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX M 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 14 13 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Bottom Newark Bay and Tributaries Newark Bay Dundee Dam Oradell Dam Elizabet h River Second River Ha ckensackRiver SaddleRiver PassaicRiver Upper New York Bay HUDSON BERGEN PASSAIC ESSEX MAN G2 33 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 16 15 17 18 14 13 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 38 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 44. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION The Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull system connects three water bodies; Upper New York Bay, Newark Bay and Raritan Bay, and includes several tributaries to the west of the Arthur Kill in Union and Middlesex counties. In the Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull region the fecal coliform summer geometric mean in 2009 was 70 CFUs/100mL, similar to the 2006 summer geometric mean of 74 CFUs/100mL. In 2009, most of the individual sampling sites had summer geometric mean values at or below 110 CFUs/100mL, the exceptions being sites 20 and 22, with CFUs of 830 and 631, respectively. Individual site maximum fecal coliform values (CFUs/100mL) ranged from 56 at site K5, to 7,900 at site 21. In 2006, site 21 had the highest individual sampling event found among all of the sites in all of the regions of the Harbor for that year, at 3031 CFUs/100mL. The highest for 2009 was site 4 in the Passaic River (8100 CFUs/100mL). Additionally, eight sites in the harbor in 2009 had fecal coliform values greater than the 2006 maximum value of 3031CFUs/100mL. The long term trend for this region shows an overall decrease in fecal coliform levels. Note that data from the Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers were added to this region in 2004, negatively affecting the long term trend. 1 10 100 1000 10000 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Bacteria(CFUs/100mL) Year NYC-DEP & NJHDG Bacteria at Arthur Kill - Kill Van Kull Summer Average Fecal Coliform Surface Fecal Coliform Bottom Enterococci Surface Fecal Coliform Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard * *Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined for FC. Enterococcus Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 5 sample minimum within a 30 day period; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages (geometric means). 24 K4 2322 K2 K5 1921 20 K3 Kill van Kull Rahway River ArthurKill STATEN ISLAND ARTHUR KILL AND KILL VAN KULL Bacteria sampling does not meet the requirements specified by the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). BACTERIA 39
  • 45. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Seasonal geometric mean values for Enterococci levels for the Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull region were found to fluctuate slightly, with a regional geometric mean of 12 CFUs/100mL for 2009. This result compares with 7 CFUs/100mL in 2006, 19 in 2007 and 6 in 2008. Seasonal geometric mean values for most individual sampling stations ranged from 4 to 14 CFUs/100mL, except for sites 20 and 22, which had values of 191 and 330 CFUs/100mL, respectively. Individual sampling sites had maximum Enterococci levels that ranged from 15 at K5 to 7200 at site 22. All but two sites (K5 and 19) had individual sampling events greater than the Best Use Standard of 35 CFUs/100mL. The trend for this region, from 2001 to 2009, shows moderately increasing Enterococci levels. This region and Raritan River and Raritan Bay are the only two regions showing upward trends for Enterococcus. Rahway River er ArthurKill Kill van Kull STATEN ISLAND 24 K4 2322 K5 K2 1921 20 K3 ENTEROCOCCUS 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull FECAL COLIFORM 2009 Summer Geomean (Surface) Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull Rahway River ver ArthurKill Kill van Kull STATEN ISLAND 24 K4 2322 K2 K5 1921 20 K3 BACTERIA 40 51-200 201-770 771-1,500 1,501-2,000 0-50 2,000 + Fecal Coliform (#/100ml) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 > 35 0-35 Enterococcus (# CFU/100mL) Seasonal Geometric Mean* Sampling Points *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009
  • 46. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Surface Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull Raritan Bay Rahway River er ArthurKill Kill van Kull STATEN ISLAND 24 K4 2322 K2 K5 1921 20 K3 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 2009 Summer Average – Bottom Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull Raritan Bay Rahway River ver ArthurKill Kill van Kull STATEN ISLAND 24 K4 2322 K2 K5 1921 20 K3 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Seasonal Average* Sampling Points 3.00 to 3.99 4.00 to 4.79 4.80 to 4.99 > = 5.00 < 3.00 *June 1 to Sept. 30, 2009 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 41
  • 47. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION In Arthur Kill and Kill van Kull the 2009 regional average surface DO level was 6.1 mg/L, and 5.8 mg/L for bottom DO. 2009 Surface DO: The individual sampling sites seasonal averages ranged from 5.0 (site 20) to 6.8 mg/L (site K5). All ten sites dropped below 5.0 mg/mL for surface DO for at least one sampling event. Eight sampling sites dropped below 4.8 mg/L for at least one event. Only sites 22 and K5 dropped below 4.0 mg/L for one event, and no sites were found to contain less than 3.0 mg/L during the season. 2009 Bottom DO: DO was not measured on the bottom at all sites due to shallower water at certain sampling sites, but of those that were sampled (eight out of ten sites), all were found to contain less than 4.8 mg/L for at least one event. DO at three sites dropped below 4.0 mg/L for at least one sampling event. Sites K5 and 24 dropped below 3.0 mg/L. The overall trend for DO has been steadily increasing since the 1970’s. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 DissolvedOxygen(mg/L) Year NYC-DEP & NJHDG Dissolved Oxygen at Arthur Kill - Kill Van Kull Summer Average DO Surface DO Bottom * * Initiation of NJHDG monitoring program: NY/NJ data combined DO Best Use (Primary Contact) Standard Note: The standards are based on a 24 hour average and/or single samplings; the data represented here are the seasonal summer averages. DO sampling does not meet the requirements specified in the WQS (see pg. 19 for more information). DISSOLVED OXYGEN Organized competitive swimming events have become common in the harbor. Photo courtesy of Capri Djatiasmoro, NYC Swim. 42
  • 48. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION Many organizations and individuals contributed to this effort, financially and with their time and data. The New York- New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) identified the need for a Harbor-wide water quality monitoring and reporting effort that would enhance existing monitoring efforts. The Interstate Environmental Commission (IEC) formed an interagency adhoc committee to plan the sampling effort in New Jersey waters that would complement the sampling in New York waters that was being undertaken by the City of New York. Organizations represented on the adhoc committee included the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC), the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Interstate Environmental Commission (IEC), the National Park Service (NPS), the New Jersey Harbor Dischargers Group (NJHDG), the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners (PVSC), and the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). NYCDEP and NJHDG generated the data that is presented in this report. HEP was responsible for the overall coordination and funding for preparing this report. The report was prepared by the Great Lakes Environmental Center (GLEC), with administrative services provided by the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC). Graphics were provided by GLEC, NYCDEP, and HydroQual Inc. Photographs were provided by Rob Buchanan, Stephen Stanne, Ellen McCarthy, Hackensack Riverkeeper, Mary Nell Hawk, Jerry Willis–National Park Service, Capri Djatiasmoro– NYC Swim, Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners, and Kirk Barrett–Montclair State University. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 43 Water quality sampling in the NY-NJ Harbor. Photo courtesy of Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners.
  • 49. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION The NJHDG is a consortium of 9 wastewater utilities representing 11 publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) that discharge into the New Jersey portion of the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The 9 wastewater treatment utilities in northern New Jersey include the Middlesex County Utilities Authority (MCUA); the Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority (LRSA); the Rahway Valley Sewerage Authority (RVSA); the Joint Meeting of Essex and Union Counties (Joint Meeting); the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners (PVSC); the Bergen County Utilities Authority (BCUA); the North Bergen Municipal Utilities Authority (NBMUA); the North Hudson Sewerage Authority (NHSA); and the Secaucus Municipal Utilities Authority (SMUA). The NJHDG member organizations were responsible for collecting the samples from the New Jersey waters, and for analyzing the collected samples. The coordinators of the sampling and analytical programs for NJHDG and NYCDEP were Ashley Pengitore (PVSC) and Beau Ranheim (NYCDEP), respectively. The NJHDG Harbor Monitoring Program included the participation of Thomas Pietrykoski, Prudence Moon-Banks (PVSC), and the PVSC River Restoration Department; Vinny Makfinsky, David Vieira and Christine Ginn (Joint Meeting); Guy Abramowitz and Alberto Escobar (NBMUA); Ed Kochick and Janet Thevenin (RVSA); and Wale Adewunmi and John Yannuzzi (MCUA). The laboratories of PVSC, MCUA and BCUA performed most of the chemical analyses for New Jersey waters. The analyses for New York City waters were performed by NYCDEP laboratory. NJHDG data files are stored at PVSC (contact: Ashley Pengitore), and NYCDEP data files are stored at NYCDEP (contact: Beau Ranheim). This report was funded by a cooperative agreement awarded by the Environmental Protection Agency to the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission in partnership with the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program. This report was prepared and published by GLEC in Traverse City, Michigan in June 2011. Competititve rowing on the Passaic. Photo courtesy of Kirk Barrett, Montclair State University. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 44
  • 50. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
  • 51. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION
  • 52. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR WATER QUALITY REPORT – 2011 EDITION New York - New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program Office 290 Broadway, 24th Floor New York, NY 10007 www.harborestuary.org