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Diana Allen, SFU - Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation


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Diana Allen, SFU - Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation

  1. 1. Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation <br />Diana M. Allen<br />Department of Earth Sciences<br />Simon Fraser University<br />Department of <br />Earth Sciences<br />
  2. 2. The Growing Demand on Water<br />Groundwater is becoming an attractive resource to meet the growing water needs in many regions of BC<br />As the demand for groundwater increases, it will become increasingly important to consider:<br />the threats to this resource in terms of sustainability and vulnerability to contamination<br />Conflict between water users, including ecosystems<br />Potential impacts of climate change<br />As water scientists, we need to communicate these risks to decision makers more effectively than we have done in the past.<br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />Examples of case studies throughout BC that aimed to further our understanding of groundwater systems<br />Grand Forks<br />The Gulf Islands<br />Okanagan Basin<br />Demonstrate the importance of groundwater data<br />Highlight the successes and challenges in knowledge translation<br />Low flows, groundwater and climate change<br />
  4. 4. Groundwater (Well) Data<br />Observation wells provide groundwater level time series data that can be used to understand groundwater processes.<br />Well records provide lithological information taken at the time of drilling.<br />These two forms of well data are invaluable for characterizing and modelling aquifers.<br />
  5. 5. Okanagan Basin<br />Gulf Islands<br />Grand Forks<br />
  6. 6. Grand Forks<br />Scibek and Allen, 2006; WRR<br />Scibek et al., 2007; JH<br />
  7. 7. Grand Forks Aquifer<br />N<br />E<br />S<br />W<br />Granby River<br />Grand Forks city<br />Washington<br />State<br />BC<br />Kettle River<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Groundwater Wells<br />(BC database)<br />Standardized lithology<br />Boreholes with lithology information<br />
  10. 10. Aquifer Vulnerability Map<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  11. 11. Potential well yield<br />Assumptions:<br />Homogeneous K, Ss<br />Fully penetrating, 100% efficient wells<br />70% safe available drawdown <br />Recharge within 100 days of pumping<br />Jacob’s equation applicable<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  12. 12. well database<br />
  13. 13. Cross-section layout (selection of boreholes)<br />
  14. 14. Cross-section interpretation<br />
  15. 15. Bedrock surface<br />model (bottom of<br />valley sediment fill)<br />
  16. 16. Deep sand<br />
  17. 17. Clay / Till <br />
  18. 18. Silt / silty sand <br />
  19. 19. Sand (“aquifer”) <br />
  20. 20. Gravel (“aquifer”) <br />
  21. 21. Aquifer Geologic Model<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  22. 22. Overall Modeling Approach<br />aquifer geological model<br />Climate model<br />downscaling<br />river discharge<br />precipitation and temperature<br />numerical model<br />river flow models<br />recharge model (spatially distributed)<br />scenario simulations<br />Scibek and Allen 2006<br />Scibek et al. 2007<br />
  23. 23. Groundwater level (sand unit) –non-pumping scenario<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  24. 24. Groundwater level (sand unit) –pumping scenario<br />Zone 3<br />Zone 4<br />Zone 1<br />Zone 2<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  25. 25. Inflow<br />Outflow<br />Water Budget Information<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  26. 26. Modeled Capture Zones for Major Community Wells<br />Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE<br />
  27. 27. Climate Change Impacts<br />Spatially-varying recharge highlights areas where climate change impacts may be more significant<br />Scibek and Allen, 2006; WRR<br />
  28. 28. earlier peak flow<br />longer low flow<br />higher flow in winter<br />(more snowmelt / rain)<br />lower baseflow<br />
  29. 29. 2040-2069<br />2010-2039<br />May 11<br />June 29<br />Difference in water levels between historical<br />and future climate scenarios<br />Aug 29<br />Scibek et al. 2007<br />Scibek and Allen 2006<br />Nov 1<br />
  30. 30. Knowledge Translation<br />The various maps that characterize the Grand Forks aquifer are situated on the BC Water Resources Atlas.<br />Well capture zones were intended for use in a Wellhead Protection Plan, but as yet, this plan has not been developed by the community.<br />Climate change impacts results have remained largely in the academic literature.<br />
  31. 31. Okanagan Basin<br />Gulf Islands<br />Grand Forks<br />
  32. 32. Gulf Islands<br />Gabriola<br />Vancouver<br />Galiano<br />Saltspring<br />Mayne<br />Saturna<br />BC<br />Pender<br />WA<br />Victoria<br />
  33. 33. Interbedded Sandstones / <br />Mudstones<br />Sandstones<br />Fault / Fracture Zones<br />
  34. 34. Our Conceptual Understanding of the Geological Framework<br />Allen et al. 2002<br />Mackie MSc thesis 2002<br />Surrette and Allen 2008 GSA Bull<br />Surrette et al. 2008 HJ<br />Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada<br />
  35. 35. Does groundwater come from Mount Baker?<br />
  36. 36. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation on an annual basis; most recharge occurs in the late fall and winter months. <br />Significant variability<br />Longer term cycles are evident in the historic record<br />Trends in groundwater level must be examined keeping in mind these variations.<br />
  37. 37. Allen and Suchy 2001 CJES<br />Allen 2004, GW<br />Saturna Data<br />
  38. 38. 1000 years of submergence approx. 12,000 years ago<br />6000 years before today<br />Today<br />Liteanu and Allen 2008<br />
  39. 39. Vulnerability Mapping with GSC<br />Vulnerability Mapping for southern GI was done to identify potential recharge zones or zones that might be prone to saltwater intrusion problems<br />Denny et al. 2007 HJ<br />
  40. 40. DRASTIC-Fm<br />DRASTIC-Fm is an acronym for the most important mappable features within the hydrogeologic setting which control aquifer vulnerability. These features are:<br /><ul><li>D - Depth to watertable
  41. 41. R- (Net) Recharge
  42. 42. A- Aquifer media
  43. 43. T - Topography (slope)
  44. 44. S- Soil media
  45. 45. I - Impact of Vadose Zone Media
  46. 46. C- Conductivity (Hydraulic) of Aquifer.
  47. 47. Fm- Fractured media</li></ul>Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada<br />
  48. 48. Input Datasets<br />Bedrock Geology<br />Soil characteristics<br />Digital Elevation Model<br />Water Well Database, Faults and Fractures<br />Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada<br />
  49. 49. Faults and Fractures<br />Final fault dataset represents a combination of digital lineament analysis and faults and fractures mapped in the field.<br />Lineament analysis performed by combining satellite imagery and a DEM<br />Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada<br />
  50. 50. Low <br />susceptibility<br />Aquifer Vulnerability Map<br />Denny et al. 2007<br />
  51. 51. Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada<br />
  52. 52. Knowledge Translation<br />Many island residents still believe their groundwater comes from Mount Baker<br />Vulnerability maps are being used by the Islands Trust for planning<br />Research has provided much of the science understanding for the development of the GI Waterscape Poster<br />
  53. 53. Okanagan Basin<br />Gulf Islands<br />Grand Forks<br />
  54. 54. Okanagan Basin<br />Kelowna<br />Oliver<br />
  55. 55. Goals of Okanagan CWN Project<br />To contribute to science knowledge about groundwater, particularly groundwater recharge<br />To partner with Smart Growth on the Ground in Oliver to ensure that this knowledge was effectively transferred to local decision makers.<br />“A Basin Approach to Groundwater Recharge in the Okanagan: Bridging the Gap Between Science and Policy”<br />
  56. 56. Oliver: A Focal Point<br />Vulnerability mapping<br />Groundwater model development<br />Climate change impacts<br />Partnering with local government and Smart Growth on the Ground (SGOG)<br />
  57. 57. DRASTIC<br />Example:<br />Vulnerability = (5)D + (4)R + (3)A + (2)S + (1)T + (5)I + (3)C<br />
  58. 58. Aquifer Vulnerability in Oliver<br />Liggett and Allen accepted, EES<br />
  59. 59. Groundwater Model<br />Toews and Allen 2009, ERL<br />
  60. 60. Lions Park (WTN 83010)<br />Probability of<br />particle origin<br />0.9<br />0.8<br />0.7<br />0.6<br />0.5<br />0.4<br />0.3<br />0.2<br />60 day<br />365 day<br />382 m<br />155 m<br />500 m<br />500 m<br />Toews and Allen 2007, BC MoE<br />
  61. 61. Fairview (WTN 21867)<br />Probability of<br />particle origin<br />0.9<br />0.8<br />0.7<br />0.6<br />0.5<br />0.4<br />0.3<br />0.2<br />60 day<br />365 day<br />237 m<br />96 m<br />500 m<br />500 m<br />Toews and Allen 2007, BC MoE<br />
  62. 62. Climate Change<br />Absolute change in mean temperature<br />Relative change in monthly precipitation<br />Relative change in solar radiation<br />Changes in growing days (10°C)<br />Toews and Allen 2009, JH<br />
  63. 63. Recharge modelling results: seasonal<br />Annual recharge rates<br />22.5 km<br /><ul><li>Minor increase of recharge with future-predicted climate change
  64. 64. More potential evapotranspiration earlier in season</li></ul>8.6 km<br />80 mm/yr<br />45<br />Toews and Allen 2009, JH<br />
  65. 65. Using Groundwater Information in Land Use Planning<br />Smart Growth on the Ground took place in the Greater Oliver Area<br />Principles of creating tangible, built examples of smart growth<br />Facilitators help to establish a vision, principles, priorities, goals and targets for smart growth through a charrette process (May 2006)<br />Municipal officials, developers, local residents all took part<br />Designs for housing mix, transportation routes, commercial opportunities, trail networks, etc.<br />Water scarcity and water quality identified as key priorities to be incorporated into the OCP<br />
  66. 66. 2041<br />2031<br />2021<br />2011<br />2001<br />
  67. 67. Use of Science for Local Decision Making<br />Land Use Allocation Model (LUAM) was developed to help identify areas of desirable growth, and the aquifer vulnerability maps were included.<br />Well capture zones for use in wellhead protection planning are identified in the new Oliver OCP<br />Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge have been assessed although not explicitly incorporated into the LUAM<br />Most of the research on groundwater within the Oliver region was not considered during the recent Okanagan Basin Supply and Demand Study.<br />
  68. 68. Groundwater, Low Flows and Climate Change<br />Interaction between groundwater and surface water<br />Trends in late summer streamflow and groundwater levels<br />
  69. 69. GW-SW Interactions<br />Gaining – groundwater contributes to stream<br /><ul><li>Upwelling water has relatively constant temperature and contains nutrients from underground, but is lower in dissolved oxygen</li></ul>B. Losing – surface water contributes to groundwater<br /><ul><li>Downwelling water is high in dissolved oxygen but temperature varies daily and seasonally</li></ul>Streams may gain groundwater in some reaches and lose in others, and the patterns can change seasonally.<br />From Alley et al., USGS Circular 1186, 1999<br />
  70. 70. Recharge Area<br />Stream<br />Stream<br />Recharge Area<br />Stream<br />Stream<br />Conflict Between Water Users<br />Gaining Stream<br />Losing Stream<br />Pumping enhances loss.<br />Pumping can reverse direction of water movement.<br />Becomes a losing stream.<br />
  71. 71. Dominantly Negative Trends in September Groundwater Levels<br />Red tones: decreases<br />Blue tones: increases<br />Moore et al 2008 CCAF<br />
  72. 72. More Negative Trends in September Streamflows<br />Red tones: decreases<br />Blue tones: increases<br />Moore et al 2008 CCAF<br />
  73. 73. Science Needs on GW-SW Interaction<br /><ul><li>There are some indications that negative trends in late summer groundwater levels may be related to negative trends in summer baseflow
  74. 74. Given that groundwater is the main contributor to baseflow it is important to consider linkages between the groundwater system and the surface water system
  75. 75. Aquatic habitat protection
  76. 76. Avoid user conflict</li></li></ul><li>There have been some significant success stories with respect to knowledge translation and uptake in BC.<br />But, academic research is largely disseminated in the peer refereed literature and often does not lead to informing policy development.<br />Conclusions<br />
  77. 77. Acknowledgements<br />Students:<br />Jacek Scibek (MSc), Mike Toews (MSc), Jessica Liggett (MSc), Dan Mackie (MSc), Megan Surrette (MSc), Laurie Neilson-Welch (PhD), Mary Ann Middleton (PhD)<br />Collaborators:<br />Geological Survey of Canada (Murray Journeay, Shannon Denny, Sonia Tolwar)<br />Environment Canada (Basil Hii, Gwyn Graham, Paul Whitfield, Alex Cannon)<br />BC MoE (Mike Wei, Vicki Carmichael, Kevin Ronneseth)<br />