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Elena	Bernardini	University	of	Milan	
Giovanna	Colombo	University	of	Insubria	
Carmen	Lomba	University	of	Cantabria,	Spain	
Silvana	Mangiaracina	CNR	Bologna	
Fulvia	Merlini	IRCCS	Burlo	Garofolo	Trieste	
Emanuela	Secinaro	INRIM	Torino	
A	NILDE	survey	on	international	ILL	exchanges:	
results	and	considerations
NILDE		
Italian	network	and	software	
for	resource	sharing		
o  ILL	and	DD	supply	web	
based	system		
o  1000	library	community,	
200.000	requests/year		
o  Same	vision	and	rules		
o  Free	of	charge	cooperation		
	
	
	
2	
Intro	
94%	
5%	
1%	
NILDE	libraries	by	country	
Italy	
Spain	
All	others	(GRE,	CHE,	SWE,	BRA,	LUX,	HRV)
3	
NILDE	International	ILL	request	trend	
o  Opening	to	world	libraries	(since	2011)	
o  Software	with	multilingual	user	interface		
o  Increase		in	ILL	exchanged	documents	2011-2016	
especially	between	libraries	in	Italy	and	Spain	
	 	 	 	 	 					
Intro
4	
From	1858	to	
2002
After	2002	 Now
INTER	LIBRARY	
LOAN	
RESOURCE	
SHARING
RETHINKING	
RESOURCE	SHARING
Intro	
“NILDE	without	borders”	survey	
NILDE	grows,	world	of	libraries	changes,		
different	vision	about	ILL	exchanges	
	
	
Need	to	understand	more	in	addition	to	quantitative	
statistics																
	 			
	 				ILL	Survey?	Why	not?
“NILDE	without	borders”	survey	
PURPOSE:	 investigate	 current	 resource	 sharing	 practices	
and	interlibrary	loan	procedures/policies	not	only	in	NILDE	
libraries	 network	 	 but	 also	 in	 external	 NILDE	 libraries	 in	
European-Mediterranean	context.	
	
AIMS:	collect	feedback/results	for	promoting	international	
cooperation	and	expanding	NILDE	services.	
	
BACKGROUND:	look	at	previous	anglo-american	
international	ALA-RUSA-STARS	2007,	2011,	2015	ILL	surveys	
and	case	studies	
5	
Intro
Survey	METHOD	1	
TARGET	
✔	NILDE	libraries		
(including	Spanish	REBIUN	and	other	foreign	libraries)	mailing	list	
✔	Other	libraries	outside	NILDE	network	
Italian	(AIB,	Gidif,	SiDocumenta),	spanish	(GTBIB,	BIB-MED)	mailing	
lists	and	European	libraries	and	library	national	associations	contacts	
	
6	
	Method	
NILDE	RECIPIENTS	 Non-NILDE	RECIPIENTS	
NILDE,	REBIUN	and	
other	associated,	
foreign	libraries	
AIB,	Gidif,	SiDocumenta,	Spanish	
GTBIB	and	BIB-MED,	other	libraries	
contacts	and	library	national	
associations	mailing	lists
Survey	METHOD	2	
	
SOFTWARE																				 	 						open	source	web-survey	
application	made	available	and	hosted	by	University	of	Cantabria,	
Spain		www.LimeSurvey.org/		
SURVEY	LAYOUT		
Anonymous	multilingual	questionnaire	(Italian,	Spanish,	English),	
total	23	questions	(only	a	few	required)	and	a	final	enquiry	for	
additional	comments	
SURVEY	DISTRIBUTION	
Invitations	with	websurvey	link	distributed	via	email	message	to	all	
mailing	lists	on	19	June	2017	to	fill	in	until	18th	July	2017.	
	
	 7	
	Method
Survey	participation	
Survey	opened	801	times	with	401	completed	surveys.	
Uncompleted:	survey	breakoff,	different	browsers	layout,		
respondents’	levels	of	computer	and	web	use,	technical	failures	
(undelivered)		
	
	
	
	
		 	 	 		
				
	
8	
Results	
69%	
11%	
12%	
5%	
3%	
Library	categories	
University	
Public	Research	Institution	
Public	Institution	
Private	no	profit	
Institution	
Other	
69%	University	
represented	the	
most	common	type	
of	library	
responding	
	
77%	NILDE	
associated	libraries
Survey	country	representation	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
9	
Results	
312	
53	
2	
1	
2	
				and	
	1	Cyprus	
	1	Argentina
10	
Results	
Volume	of	international	lending	requests		
appears	higher	than	borrowing	
Survey	international	ILL	requests	
Yes	
70%	
No	
30%	
Lending	
Yes	
63%	
No	
37%	
Borrowing	
Does	your	library	send/receive	international	ILL-DD	requests?
11	
250	
150	
79	 71	
25	 16	 13	 6	 5	 4	 2	 2	
0	
50	
100	
150	
200	
250	
300	
EU	 Center	&	
South	
America	
North	
America	
Extra	EU	 Oceania	 Russia	 Asia	 Africa	 China	 Middle	
East	
India	 Other	
Which	geographic	areas	does	your	library	receive	international	ILL-DD	
requests	from?	
	
232	
84	
64	
47	
29	
12	 10	 6	 4	 3	 2	 1	
0	
50	
100	
150	
200	
250	
EU	 North	
America	
Extra	EU	 Center	&	
South	
America	
Oceania	 Russia	 Asia	 Middle	
East	
China	 Africa	 India	 Other	
Which	geographic	areas	does	your	library	send	international	ILL-DD	
requests	to?	
	
Lending	&	
borrowing	
top	
countries		
Results	
Europe	
and	America	
(North,	Central	
and	South)
Returnables		
requests	
12	
Results	
0%	
10%	
20%	
30%	
40%	
50%	
0	 1-20	 20-50	 50-150	 150-300	 	>300	%		of	responses	
Number	of	requests	in	2016	
International	ILL	requests	(books)	received	in	2016	
	Lending	
0%	
10%	
20%	
30%	
40%	
50%	
0	 1-20	 20-50	 50-150	 150-300	 	>300	
%		of	responses	
Number	of	requests	in	2016	
International	ILL	requests	(books)	sent	in	2016	
	Borrowing
13	
Non-returnables	requests	
The	most	respondents	have	fewer	than	20		international	ILL	
borrowing	and	lending	requests	
Results	
0%	
10%	
20%	
30%	
40%	
50%	
60%	
70%	
80%	
0	 <20	 20-50	 50-100	 150-300	 >300	
%	of	responses	
Number	of	requests	in	2016	
International	lending	requests	
received	(copies)	in	2016		
0%	
10%	
20%	
30%	
40%	
50%	
60%	
0	 <20	 20-50	 50-100	 150-300	 >300	
%	of	responses	
Number	of	requests	in	2016	
International	borrowing	requests	
sent	(copies)	in	2016	
	Lending	 	Borrowing
14	
Type	of	payment	
IFLA	vouchers	are	the	
most	popular	kind	of	
payment	requested	by	
lending	and	borrowing	
libraries		
Other	 •  Credit	card	
•  OCLC	IFM	
•  Deposit	Account	
Results	
47%	
53%	
Does	your	library	require	a	fee	for	
international	ILL-DD	service?	
yes	
No	
0%	 10%	20%	30%	40%	50%	60%	70%	80%	
IFLA	Voucher	
Bank	transfer	
International	postal	order	
Other	
Payment	accepted	by	your	library	(L)	
0%	 10%	 20%	 30%	 40%	 50%	 60%	 70%	
IFLA	Voucher	
Bank	transfer	
Other	
Payment	required	to	your	library	(B)
0%	 5%	 10%	 15%	 20%	 25%	 30%	 35%	 40%	 45%	 50%	
Document	unavailable,	lost	
Copyright/embargo	
Wrong	bibliographical	references	
borrowed	book	
Other	
Main	causes	of	not	successful	processing	of	international	ILL	
	
	
	
	
	
	
15	
•  fee	and	payment	obstacles	
•  ILL	service	not	provided	
•  No	failed	request	
Survey	
RESULT
S	
Unfulfilled		international		interlibrary	
exchanges	causes
16	
Would	your	library	agree	to	free	ILL	exchange	with	foreign	libraries,	
asking	for	a	compensation	at	the	end	of	the	year	after	a	specified	
maximum	number	of	documents	supplied?	
Survey	
RESULTS	
Availability	to	free	cooperation		
Resource	sharing	and	free	of	charge	
cooperation	attitude		
88%	
12%	
Yes	
No
Comments	and	suggestions			
the	 most	 tell	 us	 about	 ILL	 difficulties,	 ILL	 delivery	 and	
procedures,	 catalogue	 holdings	 visibility,	 copyright	 and	
DD	clauses,	systems	interoperability:	
My	library	cannot	implement	an	international	ILL	service	because	
of	insufficient	staff	and	organization”		
Delivery	and	ILL	receptions	time	is	conditioned	by	post	and	custom	
office”	
Respondents	ask:	
	Electronic	IFLA	vouchers	-		Simplify	the	transit	from	customs	(US,	
but	also	Switzerland)	-		Allowing	different	payment	options	-	
	Publishers	agreements	clauses	allowing	document	delivery	
	 17	
Results
Comments	negative	perceptions		
o  Non	significant	progress	in	resource	sharing	of	returnable	items		
✔	visible	but	undeliverable	
✔	fear	of	loss	
✔	limited	e-lending	(i.e.	e-books	licensing	restrictions)	
Comments	positive	perceptions		
o  increasing	exchanges	of	non	returnable	items	(articles)	
o  successful	experiences		
o  innovative	solutions	proposed	
✔	e-lending	solutions	software	or	publisher	agreements	
✔		Local	consortia	or	cooperation	networks	of	libraries	
	
		 18	
Conclusions
Conclusions	1		
o  NILDE	widely	disseminated	in	ITALY		
o  Availability	of	free	cooperation	(88%	yes,	12%	no)	
o  Needs	to	extend	interlibrary	cooperation		
Higher	number	of	international	ILL	transactions	between	neighboring	
geographic	countries	(mainly	ITALY,	SPAIN,		then	other	EU	countries)	
o  International	lending	and	borrowing	common	obstacles	
✔	returnables	payment,	shipping	costs		
✔	copyright	concern	for	non-returnables	
	
	
	 19	
Conclusions
Conclusions	2	
	
Suggestions	about	interlibrary	cooperation	and	resource	
sharing:	
✔	free	service	for	non-returnables	document	(scanned	
and	digitized	documents	have	no	shipping	costs	)	
✔	 collaborative	 collection	 development	 to	 fight	 lack	 of	
funds	and	financial	crisis	
✔	simplify	payment	method	(adoption	of	electronic	IFLA	
vouchers	…)	
20	
Conclusions
Similarities	with	other	international	surveys				
(ALA-RUSA-STARS	surveys)	and	case	studies	
•  Countries	of	ILL	exchanges:	The	majority	of	international	
borrowing	and	lending	countries	are	in	North	America	and	in	
Europe.	
•  Materials	difficult	to	obtain:	older	and	rare,	thesis	and	local	
dissertations,	e-books.	
•  Barriers/obstacles:	shipping	costs,	uncertainty	about	licensing	
and	e-lending		
•  Payment	method:	IFLA	vouchers	
	
21	
Conclusions
Differences		with	other	international	surveys				
(ALA-RUSA-STARS	surveys)	and	case	studies	
•  Lower	volume	of	international	ILL	requests:	
The	most	respondents	have	fewer	than	20	international	ILL	requests	
per	 year	 borrowing	 and	 lending	 returnables	 and	 non-returnables	
(other	surveys	fewer	than	100)	
	
•  ILL	Request	processing	system:			
NILDE		(other	surveys	OCLC)	
	
	
22	
Conclusions
Resource	Sharing	is	not	only		
about	"papers"		but	also	about	"people"		
	Elena	Bernardini										 														Giovanna	Colombo 	
		
	
	
	Carmen	Lomba	 										Silvana	Mangiaracina	
	
	
	Fulvia	Merlini																								 	Emanuela	Secinaro	
	
	 23	
Conclusions
NILDE	Internationalization	Working	Group	
	
	
	
	
24	
Colombo	Giovanna	(CBN	NILDE	-	University	of		Insubria)	
De	Filippis	Patrizia	(CBN	NILDE	–	University	of	Campania)	
Maimone	Ansaldo	Patti	Loriana	(CBN	NILDE	–	University	of	Messina)	
Mangiaracina	Silvana	(CBN	NILDE	–	CNR	Library	Bologna)	
Secinaro	Emanuela	(CBN	NILDE	-	I.N.RI.M	Torino)	
Tugnoli	Alessandro	(CBN	NILDE	-	CNR	Library	Bologna)		
Bae	Peter	(Princeton	University,	USA)	
Bernardini	Elena	(University	of	Milan)	
Çelikbaş	Sema	(Istanbul	Technical	University)	
Chiandoni	Marco	(University	of	Trieste)	
Lomba	Carmen	(University	of	Cantabria,	Spain)	
Mainardi	Andrea	(University	of	Pavia)	
Mulondo	Allan	(Max	Planck	Institute	Luxembourg	for	Procedural	Law)	
Reuspi	Franco	(University	of	Genoa)
Thank	you		for	your	attention!		
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
Any	question?			
Contact	info:		giovanna.colombo@uninsubria.it	
																																		(on	behalf	of	NILDE	Internationalization	Working	Group)	
25	
Conclusions

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