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Generating LADs that
make sense
CSEDU 2023 ✤ 22/04/2023
Madjid SADALLAH* & Jean-Marie GILLIOT
MOTEL, IMT Atlantique / Lab-STICC. Brest, France
*madjid.sadallah@imt-atlantique.fr | https://www.madjidsadallah.net/
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Roadmap
Context & Research questions
1
Theoretical framework
2
LADStudio
3
Evaluation study
4
Conclusion
5
2
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Why Learning Analytics Dashboards (LADs) Design Matters
• LADs : visualize educational data resulting from LA process
• Well-designed LADs: effective to awareness & decision-making
– sustain the learning process & improve its outcomes
• …but hard to design → Limited LAD adoption
– little or no stakeholder involvement in the design process
 inadequate addressing of their needs and expectations
 insufficient support for their abilities e.g., visual literacy
– poor understanding of the associated decision-making process:
how the sensemaking with LADs occurs
3
Our aim : “A design methodology that addresses these factors for effective LADs”
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Research project
4
Guiding Design
Design Space
DEFLAD
Ideation:
Codesign toolkit
PaDLAD
Prototyping:
Generating LADs
that make sense
LADStudio
(Prieto et
al., 2018)
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Current stage, in other words
From this: To this:
5
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Research Questions
6
How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD?
RQ1
How to support designers in translating design specifications into
LADs, with explicit support for the decision-making process?
RQ2
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Making sense of LAD sensemaking
“
“Integrate the sensemaking dimension in LAD
design”
• Sensemaking = process of creating meaning from complex data
• SM with LADs = process of interpreting data presented on the
LAD and using it to inform and support decision-making
7
How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD?
RQ1
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Making sense of LAD sensemaking
Distributed cognition theory (Hutchins 1995)
• Sensemaking develops through perception
and interaction
Data/Frame theory of SM (Klein 2006)
• LAD displays = Data
• Gained insight = frame
8
How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD?
RQ1
“Interaction-Sensemaking Loop”
LAD design: adequate support needed for accurate frame construction (e.g.,
effective interaction and appropriate representations)
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Making sense of LAD sensemaking
“
DEFLAD : LAD Design Framework, defining a refined design space
• Context of use
• LAD goal, focus and targeted SA level
• Stakeholders, timing and info circulation
• Interaction & visualization
• Data & representation
• Types of Interactions
• Explicit SM features at different levels (★)
9
How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD?
RQ1
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Generative CoDesign Methodology
A methodology to combine
participatory design & generative design
• Participatory design
– high levels of stakeholder involvement
– stakeholders’ needs, requirements and abilities
• Generative design
– rapidly generate prototypes compliant with stakeholders’ reqs and designer’s
specs
– leveraging the computational power and efficiency
10
Supporting designers in prototyping LADs with explicit SM processes?
RQ2
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Generative CoDesign Methodology
Generative codesign
methodology
• Clear and structured
approach
• Encourage stakeholder
involvement
• Comply with end-user needs
• Rapid prototyping
11
Supporting designers in prototyping LADs with explicit SM processes?
RQ2
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
LADStudio, a tool for generating codesigned LADs
• Prototyping tool that implements the generative codesign
approach: from needs capturing to their realization
– Specifications developed through co-design process
– Built within the proposed design space
– Instrumented with features to support end-user SM and DM processes
– A platform for stakeholder involvement and customization
• Enables designers to rapidly obtain functional prototypes.
12
4 modules
1. Library of components
2. Specification module
3. Generation module
4. Grafana instance
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
LADStudio : library of components
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
LADStudio : LAD specification & generation
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Qualitative evaluation study
• Evaluate usability and user experience of LADStudio
• 13 Participants: purposive sampling
– Inclusion: experience with EdTools
– Exclusion: unwillingness to participate
• Evaluation procedure
– LADStudio demonstration
– Independent experimentation
– Collective codesign workshop
– Questionnaire and open-ended questions
– Duration: 2 hours
15
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Evaluation study: instruments
• Usability evaluation
– System Usability Scale (SUS)
questionnaire
– Reliable usability measure
• User Experience (UX) evaluation
– User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ)
– Valid tool for UX assessment
– 26 items, 6 scales: attractiveness,
efficiency, perspicuity, dependability,
stimulation, novelty
16
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Results: usability
• Highest scores
– Q1: … able to use it frequently
– Q3: … easy to use
– Q5: …components well integrated
• Lowest scores
– Q2: … unnecessarily complex
– Q4: …need support
– Q6: …too much inconsistency
17
SUS score: 71.15
System usability rated as OK
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Results: UX
• Highest score
– novelty
– efficiency
– stimulation
• Lowest score
– perspicuity
18
UEQ score: 1.99
Rating : Good!
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Results: Participants' Feedback
• Challenging at first but effective with practice
• Capable of creating useful and well-designed LADs
• Reasoning mirroring, support and guidance, at design
Improvement areas
• Challenging theoretical concepts
• Need design support ; lack of data/visual literacy
19
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Discussion
• Usability & UX: satisfactory
• Encouraging feedback
• Some limitations
– self-selection bias
– small sample size restricts generalizability,
– further investigation needed for LAD quality
20
M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023
Conclusion & outlook
• Efficient and involved LAD design methodology
– participatory & generative
• LADStudio: functional prototypes from co-design specs
– Success in innovative proposals and LAD adoption
• Next steps:
– collect user and practitioner LAD proposals
– address design adoption issues, and
– share findings with the learning community.
21
Thank you for your
attention!
22
Madjid SADALLAH
madjid.sadallah@imt-atlantique.fr
https://www.madjidsadallah.net/

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Generating LADs that make sense

  • 1. Generating LADs that make sense CSEDU 2023 ✤ 22/04/2023 Madjid SADALLAH* & Jean-Marie GILLIOT MOTEL, IMT Atlantique / Lab-STICC. Brest, France *madjid.sadallah@imt-atlantique.fr | https://www.madjidsadallah.net/
  • 2. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Roadmap Context & Research questions 1 Theoretical framework 2 LADStudio 3 Evaluation study 4 Conclusion 5 2
  • 3. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Why Learning Analytics Dashboards (LADs) Design Matters • LADs : visualize educational data resulting from LA process • Well-designed LADs: effective to awareness & decision-making – sustain the learning process & improve its outcomes • …but hard to design → Limited LAD adoption – little or no stakeholder involvement in the design process  inadequate addressing of their needs and expectations  insufficient support for their abilities e.g., visual literacy – poor understanding of the associated decision-making process: how the sensemaking with LADs occurs 3 Our aim : “A design methodology that addresses these factors for effective LADs”
  • 4. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Research project 4 Guiding Design Design Space DEFLAD Ideation: Codesign toolkit PaDLAD Prototyping: Generating LADs that make sense LADStudio (Prieto et al., 2018)
  • 5. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Current stage, in other words From this: To this: 5
  • 6. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Research Questions 6 How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD? RQ1 How to support designers in translating design specifications into LADs, with explicit support for the decision-making process? RQ2
  • 7. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Making sense of LAD sensemaking “ “Integrate the sensemaking dimension in LAD design” • Sensemaking = process of creating meaning from complex data • SM with LADs = process of interpreting data presented on the LAD and using it to inform and support decision-making 7 How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD? RQ1
  • 8. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Making sense of LAD sensemaking Distributed cognition theory (Hutchins 1995) • Sensemaking develops through perception and interaction Data/Frame theory of SM (Klein 2006) • LAD displays = Data • Gained insight = frame 8 How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD? RQ1 “Interaction-Sensemaking Loop” LAD design: adequate support needed for accurate frame construction (e.g., effective interaction and appropriate representations)
  • 9. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Making sense of LAD sensemaking “ DEFLAD : LAD Design Framework, defining a refined design space • Context of use • LAD goal, focus and targeted SA level • Stakeholders, timing and info circulation • Interaction & visualization • Data & representation • Types of Interactions • Explicit SM features at different levels (★) 9 How can the decision-making process be reflected on a LAD? RQ1
  • 10. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Generative CoDesign Methodology A methodology to combine participatory design & generative design • Participatory design – high levels of stakeholder involvement – stakeholders’ needs, requirements and abilities • Generative design – rapidly generate prototypes compliant with stakeholders’ reqs and designer’s specs – leveraging the computational power and efficiency 10 Supporting designers in prototyping LADs with explicit SM processes? RQ2
  • 11. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Generative CoDesign Methodology Generative codesign methodology • Clear and structured approach • Encourage stakeholder involvement • Comply with end-user needs • Rapid prototyping 11 Supporting designers in prototyping LADs with explicit SM processes? RQ2
  • 12. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 LADStudio, a tool for generating codesigned LADs • Prototyping tool that implements the generative codesign approach: from needs capturing to their realization – Specifications developed through co-design process – Built within the proposed design space – Instrumented with features to support end-user SM and DM processes – A platform for stakeholder involvement and customization • Enables designers to rapidly obtain functional prototypes. 12 4 modules 1. Library of components 2. Specification module 3. Generation module 4. Grafana instance
  • 13. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 LADStudio : library of components
  • 14. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 LADStudio : LAD specification & generation
  • 15. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Qualitative evaluation study • Evaluate usability and user experience of LADStudio • 13 Participants: purposive sampling – Inclusion: experience with EdTools – Exclusion: unwillingness to participate • Evaluation procedure – LADStudio demonstration – Independent experimentation – Collective codesign workshop – Questionnaire and open-ended questions – Duration: 2 hours 15
  • 16. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Evaluation study: instruments • Usability evaluation – System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire – Reliable usability measure • User Experience (UX) evaluation – User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) – Valid tool for UX assessment – 26 items, 6 scales: attractiveness, efficiency, perspicuity, dependability, stimulation, novelty 16
  • 17. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Results: usability • Highest scores – Q1: … able to use it frequently – Q3: … easy to use – Q5: …components well integrated • Lowest scores – Q2: … unnecessarily complex – Q4: …need support – Q6: …too much inconsistency 17 SUS score: 71.15 System usability rated as OK
  • 18. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Results: UX • Highest score – novelty – efficiency – stimulation • Lowest score – perspicuity 18 UEQ score: 1.99 Rating : Good!
  • 19. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Results: Participants' Feedback • Challenging at first but effective with practice • Capable of creating useful and well-designed LADs • Reasoning mirroring, support and guidance, at design Improvement areas • Challenging theoretical concepts • Need design support ; lack of data/visual literacy 19
  • 20. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Discussion • Usability & UX: satisfactory • Encouraging feedback • Some limitations – self-selection bias – small sample size restricts generalizability, – further investigation needed for LAD quality 20
  • 21. M. Sadallah. Generating LADs that make sense. CSEDU 2023 Conclusion & outlook • Efficient and involved LAD design methodology – participatory & generative • LADStudio: functional prototypes from co-design specs – Success in innovative proposals and LAD adoption • Next steps: – collect user and practitioner LAD proposals – address design adoption issues, and – share findings with the learning community. 21
  • 22. Thank you for your attention! 22 Madjid SADALLAH madjid.sadallah@imt-atlantique.fr https://www.madjidsadallah.net/