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SUPERPOWERS
T O O U T P E R F O R M I N T H E N E T W O R K E C O N O M Y
4 S E A S O N 2
2
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FABERNOVEL, GAFAnomics®, November 2015
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Our job is to help large organizations think and act like startups. We believe this can only
be achieved by encouraging people to innovate and explore new business models. We
aim to inspire you by giving you the keys to understand new markets like Russia, new
business drivers like APIs or successful companies like Apple, Amazon, Facebook or
LinkedIn.
3
FOREWORD
In GAFAnomics season 2, FABERNOVEL goes beyond analysis of Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon’s place
in the 21st century economy, to look at their legacy and what they will leave for other companies.
 
As with many second acts, there are new disruptors. 2015 has seen the rise of NATU: Netflix, Airbnb, Tesla
and Uber. We were expecting the Chinese to be the challengers, but once again it’s the Californians who have
taken us by surprise.
 
Despite the financial success of Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon on all fronts, this year they would
“only” be able to buy the first three most successful start-ups in the world, as opposed to 50 in 2014. It is
hard to believe that while the majority of our Internet use is still dedicated to the super four, GAFA’s share in
our digital journey has fallen from 55% in 2014 to 51% this year.
 
So, we have to ask, could this spell the end of the GAFA Empire? It’s highly unlikely. To the contrary, Uber
wouldn’t exist without Google, Apple, or Facebook. This is GAFA’s time, along with those smart enough to
copy their four super powers: magnetic; real time; infinite and intimate.
 
Every year, we seek to understand the actions of these new super powers. While GAFA fascinate us in
everything they do, they are also making us think about what they don’t do. In this new study, we hope to
enable everyone to find their place, their way, their levers, and to help companies discover their own powers.
It is the best news of the year: GAFAnomics is within reach of all businesses. It’s now up to them to use
GAFA’s levers – or not.
 
The best series always have a sequel – especially when
the topic is hot!
Stéphane Distinguin
CEO of FABERNOVEL
4 QUICK WINS // ACT
In GAFAnomics®, the new engine
for sustainable business growth
is the network organization.
From it, companies can leverage
4 superpowers to achieve great
competitiveness.
AN ESSAY // UNDERSTAND
GAFAnomics® is not only a new
growth paradigm set by Google,
Apple, Facebook & Amazon.
Looking beyond, GAFAnomics® is a
new economy in rapid motion.
What is GAFAnomics® season 2?
Previously in
SEASON 1
6
From new kids on the block to heavyweight
champions
Google
CONTENT &
ADVERTISING
Amazon
COMMERCE &
FULFILMENT
Facebook
SOCIAL &
DISTRIBUTION
Apple
ENTERTAINMENT
& SOFTWARE
Haven’t read our previous studies?
Go to http://fr.slideshare.net/fabernovel
7
GAFAnomics® outperform economics
Apple and Google are the two most valuable brands
in the world, outperforming Coca-Cola (the past 12
years’ leader). Facebook and Amazon are top risers.
July 2014:
GAFA‘s Market cap is
$300B lower than
CAC40.
July 2015:
GAFA’s Market cap is
$200B higher than
CAC40.
+25% Y/Y
+15% Y/Y
+21% Y/Y
+86% Y/Y
+21% Y/Y
1
2
3
10
23
Leaders outperforming the “old empire” index: the
CAC 40, composed of the 40 most valued
companies on the French stock market (Airbus,
L’Oreal…)
Becoming the most valuable brands on the
planet
Sources: Ychart, Les Echos, Interbrand 2015
8
Apple could reinforce its
position on the streaming
market by acquiring the 2
leaders.
Amazon could purchase 20
telecommunication satellites to
create a private network.
With this cash ….
Google could pre-empt
the payment market by
purchasing the 23 largest
fintech unicorns.
With massive war chests
1Cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities. Doesn’t include less liquid long term securities. *In 2014 Apple’s Long Term Securities have grown by 23%
($23,9B) when Cash and Short Term securities have lost 38% ($15,5B) which explains Apple’s data.
2BP market cap 26/08/2015 : Ychart
Sources: Business Insider, Information Week, Ycharts, Company Data,Yahoo Finance, Globalcom
$118B
GAFA have accumulated $118B in cash1 in 2014
$9B
$18B
$23B
$33B
$42B
$54B
$71B
$84B
$98B
$123B
*
Cash and short-term
marketable securities
9
Apple – worth more than
Switzerland
-
$700B1
(2014)
Facebook – bigger than
China
-
1.55B2
(2015)
GAFA are planet-sized
Apple’s market cap reached new
heights this year, passing
Switzerland’s GDP ($685.4Bn)
The number of Facebook users
outpaced China’s population
(1.35B)
Amazon – the most-
valued retailer
-
$250B3
(2015)
With a $250B market cap, Amazon
has become the most valuable listed
retailer, outdistancing Walmart
($230B)
Google – the world’s
largest media company
-
$59.1B4
(2014)
Google has become the biggest
media company in the world,
generating more revenue from
advertising than WPP, Omnicom and
Publicis combined ($43.9Bn)
VS VS
VS VS
Sources: 1 Valuewalk, 2 Business Insider 3Business Insider, 4Telegraph
10
World’s richest nation in 2020?
In 2014, GAFA’s revenue
(350B) grew as big as
South Africa’s GDP
With 64 times fewer workers
GAFA = 296,800 employees
South Africa = 19M employed
people
GAFA’s revenue
Sources: Statista, Wikipedia
11
What we said
-
Redefining the notion of customer
The free customer
Following last year’s acquisition of the music
streaming service Beats Music, Apple launched
Apple Music in 2015. With Apple Music, Apple
reinvents itself switching to an access-based
model.
Apple Music offers customers three months of
free music.
GAFA strive to deliver the best possible experience
to everyone to earn their attention. Everyone is a
customer, even without money.
FRIENDS
Visitors who commit
by giving personal
information
(ID, email, etc.)
CUSTOMERS
Friends who complete
a purchase.
VISITORS
Anyone who pays special
attention to you.
What they did
-
Facebook launched Internet.org in India,
providing free Internet access to its billion-plus
population.
Sources: Techrunch, The Next Web
12
From users to businesses
What we said
-
What they did
-
GAFA are bolstered by a strong
vocation: to help people save time
and effort in their daily lives.
Don’t improve customers’ life.
Change it.
Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence is the next frontier to make devices and apps
more intuitive to use and efficient to meet customers’ expectations.
Google
Now API
This API enables developers
to build their own service
including Google AI.
Amazon
Machine Learning
With these AI APIs, Amazon enables
developers to build new machine learning
technologies and conceive new services.
The enterprise market is the new land to conquer. GAFA launch many
services to ease our daily professional life as much as our day-to-day life.
ZenPayroll is a payroll service
enabling businesses to set up and
run payroll from any device.
Amazon WorkMail is a professional
messaging service enabling businesses
to manage their client database.
Redefining the notion of value creation
The utility value model
Sources: Techrunch, Forbes
13
Managing:
What we told you
-
What they did
-
RecruitingGAFA have created an
innovation-friendly
environment and
accountability driven work
environment to supercharge
performance and pioneer the
future.
Google recruits high potential
developers thanks to its search
engine
Google detected a likely candidate
searching online for “Python lambda
function list comprehension”, and
offered him 6 coding problems to solve
within 48 hours. Following successful
completion and an interview, they
recruited him.
Zappos experimenting a self-management organization
In 2015, Zappos officially adopted the Holacracy system, which abolishes job titles
and middle management. It should empower workers and ensure they work more
like creative entrepreneurs.
Redefining talent management
The pirate management
Sources: The Hustle, Forbes
WELCOME TO
SEASON 2
SOMMAIRE
3
2
1
Global GAFAnomics:
New Economy Wrapping the Planet
New Competitiveness,
New Superpowers
How Do I Open An Office
in GAFAnomics?
Global GAFAnomics:
New Economy Wrapping the Planet
The homogenization of business models combined with GAFA’s commoditisation gradually draws a new
territory characterized by specific usages, specific costs of doing business, and a specific super-fast
metabolism. Understand it before getting there for a quicker and easier route to double digit growth.
1
17
GAFA are GAFAnomics® incumbents
Facing the “legacy VS new” dilemma, Google announced Alphabet’s creation, a parent company
including Google and its other companies.
With Alphabet, Google’s historical activity generating 97% of total revenues is isolated from long-
term, ambitious, and potentially life-changing projects.
Search: Ads: Apps:
Mail
Agenda
DriveTranslate
Docs
Google +
NowChrome
Maps:
Maps Earth Street view
+Android:
Android Play Store
is for
Alphabet
is for
[…]
Sources: Slate, Mashable
18
Experiencing difficulties to innovate
Google Glass generated only 300,000
sales, totalling $300M. #fail
Google+ totalized 6M active users
spending 3 minutes per month,
whereas Facebook totalizes 1,5B active
users spending 405 minutes per
month. #fail
Home, Facebook’s attempt to become
the home screen of Android users, hit
only 500,000 downloads. #fail
Equipped with 4 front-facing cameras
tracking users’ movements, Amazon’s
phone was seen as an attempt to spy
on users. #fail
Fire phone
-
Google+
-
Facebook Home
-
Work for Amazon
-
U2 album in I-tunes
-
Many articles have denounced
Amazon’s abusive pressure on
employees. #fail
In 2014, Apple automatically added on
customers’ iTunes account the U2 track
“Songs of Innocence”, attracting their
anger. #fail
Google glass
-
Sources: DailyTech, Forbes , Expanded Ramblings, Business Insider, New York Times, CNET, Geekwire
19
VS
Starting to protect market shares
Apple integrated an ad-blocker in its new
mobile operating system (iOS9). Users can
now choose whether they want to see ads
while browsing.
-
Apple’s iOS9 is a direct attack against
Google as advertising represents 90% of
Google’s revenue.
Amazon doesn’t sell Apple’s and Google’s
streaming devices: the Apple TV and
Google Chromecast.
-
This decision is a strike-back against
Google and Apple: neither included
Amazon’s streaming service, Prime Video,
in their devices’ catalog of services.
Determined to become customers’ number one destination, GAFA work against each others’
interests.
VS
Sources: Techrunch, Business Insider
20
Segmentation and specialization starting
Sources: Fabernovel Analysis, IDC, Gartner, e-marketer, statcounter, Comscore, Streaming media, business insider, Janrain, datanyze, statista,
emailclientmarketshare, appleinsider, Activate Tech & Media Outlook 2016, Adweek
Losing share of the user’s
digital journey
GAFA
Capturing value from micro moments of attention
Market challengers
• Share of the user digital journey:
36 sec. per day
• Valuation: $1.5B
• Share of the user digital journey:
10 sec. per day
• Valuation: $1.8B
• Share of the user digital journey:
19 sec. per day
• Valuation: $1.0B
• Share of the user digital journey:
9 sec. per day
• Valuation: $2.9B
VS
51%
26%
14%
7%
4%
2015
55%
25%
19%
4%
7%
2014
Snapchat
• Share of the user digital journey:
19 min. per day
• Valuation: $16.0B
21
GAFAnomics® spread in every region
Google | Amazon
Facebook | Apple
Alibaba | Baidu
Tencent | Xiaomi
Yandex | Ozon
VK | Yota (acquired)
NTT | Sony
Gree | Rakuten
Samsung | Gmarket
Kakao Talk | Naver
Flipkart
22
Focus: China’s “GAFA” network
(created in 1999)
2.5%
Of Chinese GDP
$203B
Market Cap(2014)
The e-commerce giant
Alibaba differs from Amazon through its hybrid business model,
charging small sellers with advertising services and charging large
sellers with business operations’ fees.
(created in 2000)
5th
Most visited
website WW
$7.9B
Revenue (2014)
The search engine giant
Just like Google, Baidu is diversifying into numerous areas: video
streaming, cloud storage, wearables, self-driving cars etc.
(created in 1998)
600M
Active users (2015)
1st
App in China
The messaging giant
Tencent’s WeChat app has become a full stack social platform. Features
include: group messaging and calling, taxi-hailing, shopping etc.
Revenues are earned from micro-transactions.
(created in 2010)
61.6M
Smartphones Sold
(2014)
$12B
Revenue (2014) The hardware genius
Xiaomi sells directly to consumers high quality devices at low costs
(smartphones, tablets, TVs etc.) and leans on its fan base to improve
its operating system weakly.
Sources: Investopedia.com
23
Accelerated economic metabolism
Valued at more than $1B, unicorns have the same growth potential than GAFA in their early days.
In average, unicorns reach a $1B valuation
within 18 months.
2014: GAFA could afford all 42 Unicorns.
2015: GAFA can only buy the 3 largest
(Xiaomi, Uber and Airbnb)
Sources: Exponential Organizations (by Salim Ismail), Wall Street Journal
*
*Total value of all Unicorns
*
MARKET CAP TO A BILLION
24
More than half of the unicorns born with GAFA’s
infrastructures
Number of tech companies
valued at more than $1B by
year of birth (pre-IPO and post-IPO)
Apple Store Android Store Google play
Source: TechCrunch
25
Uber has built its whole service on top of infrastructures set out by GAFA.
[Case] Uber scaling fast thanks to GAFA
Access to users
-
Data and server management
-
Driver navigation
-
Payment
-
App distribution on the AppStore, the
Playstore and soon Facebook Messenger
Data storage and management on Amazon
Web services in its early stage.
Google Maps used to geolocate cars and
users as well as to help drivers navigate
Google Wallet and Apple Pay are used to
complete transactions.
26
New challengers obey the same rules as GAFA
Playing with GAFAnomics® rules
The free
customer
The utility
value model
The pirate
management
Flawless user experience for both drivers
and final users.
New referral customers are given their
first ride free.
Recommended content based on user’s
tastes.
Flawless rental booking experience for
both renters and lessors.
New customers referred are offered a
€22 discount on their first booking.
No middle management. A rating system
takes care of reviews and self-manages the
whole fleet.
New customers enjoy the service for
free for the first month of
subscription.
Customers’ cars are recharged for
free, for life, at Tesla’s supercharger
charging stations.
Continuous update of cars’ software to
improve drivers’ experience.
Unlimited vacation time.
Tesla’s CEO, Elon Musk, tweets job offers
with direct email addresses.
Rapid recruitment process. Feedback given
in maximum 3 days, leading to a 90% job
acceptance rate.
27
[Case] Leaving space for competitors’ two digit growth
Stepping ahead from Google, Microsoft is catching up with Amazon: Azure Cloud Platform
experiences the biggest growth. In 2014, Microsoft Cloud service generated $6B, and is expected to
reach $20B in 2018.
MARKET SHARE
YOY GROWTH
Source: Synergy Research Group
28
GAFA created an ever enlarging digital playground
29
New Competitiveness,
New Superpowers
2
The secret to this new breed of companies
GAFAnomics® companies are organized as networks, leveraging
connections and interactions as a source of knowledge and therefore
performance.
“In the networked world,
[the three most desirable things]
are connections,
connections and
connections.”
Breaking Smart
Marc Andreessen & Venkatesh Rao
GAFAnomics® companies build open networks
A network is a system connecting a multitude of people, objects, and information to one another.
By taking leadership on a large scale, GAFAnomics® companies become
infrastructures, on which other companies want to connect to create value.
32
Network economy: from concentration to distribution
A concentrated economy A distributed economy
- Assets ownership
-  Localized work
-  Mass production
-  Proprietary value
-  Scarcity control
-  Connections access
-  Distributed work
-  Unit production
-  Shared value
-  Abundance management
33
From the value chain…
In an era of concentration, value flows along a value chain. Value is created and captured linearly
from suppliers to final customers through basic buy and sell mechanisms.
SELLS PRODUCTS TO DISTRIBUTORSBUYS MATERIALS FROM SUPPLIERS
34
…to the value loop
In an era of distribution, value flows inside a value loop. Value is endlessly captured and created for
both companies and final users. Value flowing through the network can take various forms: service,
time, money or data.
VALUE CREATION
VALUE CAPTURE
3
Businesses use Google
AdWords to engage with
final users.
4
Businesses index content:
Google search becomes more
valuable.
1
Google search engine is
valuable: one-click access
to any information.
2
Capturing users’ data
optimizes Google’s search
engine.
35
Networks create growth leverage
THE WINNER SEEMS TO BE A HYBRID
Network orchestrators are defined as companies building a network in which members create and
share value. They outperform traditional companies on both revenues and margins.
Average revenue compound annual
growth rate (CAGR) 2011-2012
Average profit margin, 2013
Source: Harvard Business Review (authors: Barry Libert, CEO of OpenMatters, Megan Beck Fenley, consultant at OpenMatters and Yoram Wind, Lauder
Professor and professor of marketing at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School in Philadelphia)
36
“I joined the company in 2002 and
initially worked on the economics of
the AdWords auction. […] I have also
worked on query and revenue
forecasting, advertiser behavior, ad
effectiveness […] We have hundreds
of statisticians, econometricians,
data scientists, and other
quantitative analysts at Google.”
Hal Varian
Chief Economist at Google
A new economy requires new experts
GAFAnomics companies all have a new breed of experts in their top management
team: the Chief Economists, in charge of extracting value from networks through
microeconomic and econometric analysis.
37
S U P E R P O W E R S
TO OUTPERFORM IN THE
NETWORK ECONOMY
4
38
Magnet enterprise
–
Aggregating and managing very
small units
Networked companies are able to
detect, organize, and animate very
small units of value.
Their competitive advantage is to
deal efficiently with billions of
small transactions.
Real-time enterprise
–
Instantly tuning value
Networked companies use real-time
data feedback to instantly optimize
market fit and improve products’
value
Their competitive advantage is instant
fit-to-market.
4 superpowers to outperform in the network economy
Infinite enterprise
–
Shooting for the 100% profit
consumer
Networked companies use highly
scalable software and services to
achieve zero cost delivery once
critical user mass is achieved.
Their competitive advantage is
speed of scalability and profitability.
Intimate enterprise
–
Hospitality is the norm
Networked companies use customer
knowledge to fine-tune and
personalize the experiences they
deliver to each customer. Large-scale
customization is at the heart of their
products.
Their competitive advantage is
customer hospitality and comfort.
39
Magnet enterprise
Aggregating and managing very small units
Networked companies are able to detect,
organize, and animate very small units of value.
They leverage excess capacities and user value
creation to capture and deliver micro deals.
Their competitive advantage is to deal efficiently
with billions of small transactions.
MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE ADAPTIVE+ + +4 =
40
Magnet enterprise
How it works
Standard economy
–
Companies take raw materials in input
and produce finished products that are
sold to consumers. Revenue unit = 100
Network economy
–
Companies identify available value, as small as
it is and capture it. They transform this value
and redistribute it to consumers and producers
while taking a cut. Revenue unit = 1
41
A vacant room or apartment is not used to its full capacity. AirBnb identifies these excess capacities
and matches demand for rentals with supply. Leveraging excess capacities at a large scale, Airbnb
can now offer 2x more room than Hilton Worldwide at a zero marginal cost.
Magnet enterprise
[Case] Tapping into excess capacity
Sources: Quartz, Wall Street Journal, FABERNOVEL estimates
(2015) (2014)
42
The more apps available, the more
attractive the iPhone gets.
Launching its iOS Developer Program has
enabled Apple to offer 1.5 millions apps on its
AppStore. Developing as many apps internally
would have demanded Apple
more than 519,000 years
worth of work.
In return, Apple’s partners
can “reach customers around
the world on the App Store”. According to
Apple, in 2014, the amount paid to developers
reached $30B.
Magnet enterprise
[Case] Enriching products with crowd creation
Sources: Venture Beat, Apple, FABERNOVEL estimates
43
The real-time enterprise
MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE ADAPTIVE+ + +4 =
Instantly tuning value
Networked companies use real-time data
feedback to instantly optimize market fit
and improve products’ value. They use
optimum management and work in
perpetual beta to answer user needs in
real-time.
Their competitive advantage is instant fit-
to-market.
44
Real-time enterprise
How it works
Standard economy
–
Companies produce and put new products on
the market every other year. They don’t have
information about their products’ usage for
months.
Network economy
–
Companies produce a first minimum viable
version of their products and perpetually
improve it through iterative development. They
closely monitor the usage of their products to
answer their user’s needs in real time.
45
Real-time enterprise
[Case] Amazon monitoring the optimum
Gathering and analyzing massive data on consumers, vendors and competitors, Amazon can
determine what products to offer in what quantities as well as the optimal pricing during every step of
a product’s lifecycle.
Sources: Quartz, Recode, blog of Boomerang Commerce
46
Google leverages its network to identify emerging user needs and create
products accordingly.
In 2000, query monitoring revealed users were searching for a picture of Jennifer
Lopez at the Grammy Awards.
To meet users’ expectations, Google came up with the idea of creating a search
engine for pictures: that’s how Google Images was born!
Real-time enterprise
[Case] Perpetual beta serendipity
Source:
Business
Insider
47
The infinite enterprise
Shooting for the 100% profit consumer
Networked companies use highly scalable
software and services to achieve zero cost
delivery once critical user mass is achieved.
Thanks to network effects and zero
marginal costs, they can grow indefinitely in
revenue with minimal impact on costs.
Their competitive advantage is speed of
scalability and profitability.
MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE ADAPTIVE+ + +4 =
48
Infinite enterprise
How it works
Standard economy
–
Companies have to produce an additional
output to serve an additional customer. Their
growth is constrained by their production
capacity and by the marginal cost of
production.
Network economy
–
Companies distribute non-competitive goods and
can serve additional customers at virtually no
additional cost, giving them an infinite growth
opportunity. Additionally, they benefit from
network effects and see the perceived value of
their products increase with the number of users.
This is much easier with immaterial goods.
49
Infinite enterprise
[Case] Network effects accelerating growth
Since its birth, Facebook’s revenue has followed a near-exponential growth.
The more users Facebook gets, the more users are attracted. Then the more
businesses are willing to advertise on Facebook. And finally, the more Facebook
generates revenue.
This virtuous circle is at the core of Networked companies’ growth.
Number of daily active
Facebook users (in million)
Facebook’s annual revenue
(in million U.S. dollars)
Source: Statista
Infinite enterprise
[Case] Scaling at zero marginal cost
Launched in 2009, Waze is a traffic and navigation app that leverages crowd sourced real-time data
from its users. Waze was duplicated and distributed at virtually zero marginal cost as users are in
charge of the supply, and social media facilitates viral distribution.
Acquired by Google in 2013 for $1.15 B, Waze has reached 50M users in 200 countries.
Sources: Forbes, Slate, The Telegraph
51
Intimate enterprise
MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE INTIMATE+ + +4 =
Hospitality is the norm
Networked companies use customer knowledge
to fine-tune and personalize the experiences they
deliver to each customer. Large-scale
customization is at the heart of their products.
Targeting and customizing their products to
every single user, they create intimate long-lasting
relationships.
Their competitive advantage is customer
hospitality and comfort.
52
Intimate enterprise
How it works
Standard economy
–
Companies produce in mass and sell a
identical product to all their customers.
Network economy
–
Companies offer tailored products and
customization possibilities to each of their
customers, creating an intimate and long-lasting
experience.
53
75% of the content consumed on Netflix is based on targeted recommendations, creating a
unique catalog of movies for each user.
Thanks to user behavior tracking and powerful algorithms, Netflix draws a specific profile of every
single one of them. Based on their tastes, their behaviors, their apparent humor, and to the time of
the day, Netflix tailors each viewing experience.
Intimate enterprise
[Case] Targeted information to the right audience
Source: Business Insider
54
Every iPhone becomes unique after
its 30 first minutes of usage,
depending on the apps downloaded
by each user.
Intimate enterprise
[Case] Mass customization through
software
Source: Wall Street Journal
55
Leverage networks to embrace superpowers
Intimate enterprise
Magnet enterprise Real-time enterprise
Infinite enterpriseNetworked company
By structuring themselves as networks, companies can automatically benefit from these 4
superpowers and compete in the new economy.
56
Reward is growth
Classic
Growth
Network
Growth
GROWTH
T
Network GROWTH
OPPORTUNITY
Source: FABERNOVEL
How Do I Open an Office
in GAFAnomics®?
Or how to become a networked company with two digit growth
3
58
All areas can be connected to the networks
Fulfil and sell to
customers
Reach and
retain customers
Streamline
operations
Design
products
and
services
Recruit
and manage
talents
Build
products
and services
Core
Business
&
Finance
5 strategies to win in a GAFAnomics world
In a world dominated by GAFAnomics, legacy companies can either connect to
existing networks or create networks of their own.
Connect
to existing
networks
Create
your own
networks
Plug in to GAFAnomics
Know how to leverage GAFAnomics’s massive networks, the new
century’s infrastructures.
Using GAFAnomics as
distribution channels
The wide array of services created
by GAFAnomics can be leveraged to
create new experiences for users.
FedEx’s online service is built on
the Google Maps engine
Chase Bank’s app users can now
log in with iPhone’s TouchID
Using GAFAnomics’s features
to improve your services
Plug in to
Fulfill and sell to
customers
Reach and retain
customers
Design products
and services
Build products
and services
Recruit and
manage talents
Streamline
operations
61
Deal some exclusive partnerships to create a competitive edge.
Some large companies have already implemented this strategy very successfully:
Partner with GAFAnomics
Audi partnered with
Amazon to test e-
commerce deliveries into
trunks of customers’
vehicles in Munich
Audi
x Amazon
Southwest Airlines offers
Apple’s Beats music service
for free on their flights
Southwest Airlines
x Apple
Allianz partnered with Tesla
to offer drivers tailored
insurances for their forward-
looking electric cars.
Allianz
x Tesla
62
Compete with GAFA on their own turf.
In an attempt to compete with
LinkedIn, the Wall Street Journal
launched its own professional network
in 2013: WSJ Profile.
Fighting against Linkedin’s network
effects coming from a growing
installed user base, WSJ profile never
took off.
Compete head-on with GAFAnomics
Unless you can offer a superior twist to an existing value proposition, competing with the
entrenched network and data effects of the GAFAnomics is too resources-consuming.
63
Compete by going where GAFA have not been.
This strategy requires a lot of up-front investment in technology in order to reach critical mass, but it
can pay off.
By launching Nike +, and by focusing on
developing software for sports’ IOT, the company
has capitalized on its success in the sports
equipment market to impose itself as one of the
major player in the IOT market becoming a sports
network orchestrator.
By opening its booking platform to independent
hotels, Accor Hotels built a serious competitor to
Booking.com thanks to its hospitality expertise and
additional services.
Differentiate from GAFAnomics
Accor HotelsNike
64
Experiment hand-in-hand with GAFAnomics.
Legacy companies will find the best returns on their investments when they work with GAFAnomics
to explore new business horizons.
Partnered on a satellite
initiative to provide internet
access in Africa
Collaborated to create more
than 50 business-focused
apps for iOS.
Worked hand in hand to
bring to market innovative
textiles with digital-sensing
capabilities
Co-innovate with GAFAnomics
Apple and IBMFacebook and Eutelsat Google and Levi’s
65
Legacy companies can join forces to compete in this new economy
From television groups to
streaming networks
Disney, Fox and NBC
Co-innovate without GAFAnomics
In 2015, Audi, Daimler and BMW
acquired Nokia’s HERE maps,
supercharching a serious
competitor to Google Maps.
From car manufacturer to car
sharing
In 2011, BMW and SIXT launched
a joint venture for a premium car
sharing service.
As of November 2014, DriveNow
has over 330,000 customers in 6
countries.
BMW and Sixt
From car manufacturers to
mobility network
Audi, Daimler and
BMW
In 2007, The Walt Disney Company,
Fox and NBC together launched
Hulu, as streaming service to
compete with existing networks.
Hulu has more than 6M subscribers
worldwide.
One golden rule: Connect and Open
“There is no future for hermetically
sealed closed systems in the Network
Economy. […] Every time a closed
system opens, it begins to interact
more directly with other existing
systems, and therefore acquires all
the value of those systems.”
Kevin Kelly
Wired co-founder
67
Since Statya Nadella took on the position of CEO in
February 2014, things have changed at Microsoft.
One imperative: « Build stuff that people like »
One symbol: « Microsoft Loves Linux »
Microsoft opening up…
•  Since late 2014, Microsoft Office is free for
download and use on Apple and Android
devices
•  Launched in August 2015, project Astoria
enables developers to port Android apps to
Windows 10 Mobile devices
… a strategy paying off
•  Revenue: $93.6B (+10% vs. 2014)
…And it works
Sources: The Verge, Ars Technica, Microsoft Annual Report 2015
[Case] Open Microsoft
Are you next
69
Get fresh news on GAFAnomics®
Register to our newsletter on www.GAFAnomics.com
70
See also…
Facebook, The Perfect Startup (2012)
6 365k views on Slideshare
Amazon, The Hidden Empire (2011)
918k views on Slideshare
•••
Three digital engines to reshape
and dominate retail
mazon.com
THE HIDDEN EMPIRE
Linkedin, The serious Network (2013)
197k views on Slideshare
Google, Everything you always
wanted to know (2008)
540k views on Slideshare
Everything you always wanted to know
about  Google…But  were  afraid  to  ask
Paris, December 2008
And more.
Apple: 8 Easy Steps to Beat
Microsoft (and Google)
Paris, September 2010
Apple, 8 easy steps to beat Microsoft
(and Google) (2011)
179k views on Slideshare
GAFAnomics®, New Economy New
rules (2014) - 197k views on Slideshare
71
4 sessions to become a GAFAnomics expert
(customer, innovation and organization, network
economy, strategy) and implement their best
practices toyour business
Inspiring
keynotes
Collaborative
workshops
Cross-sessions
business case
Certification and
alumni community
First session in December 2015 (Paris)
Information and inscriptions on
academy.gafanomics.com
We are
A new world needs new solutions
Who we are 
We are a “digital native”
organization of a new type,
nourished by a unique culture
and incomparable talents. We
gather wide and cutting-edge
capabilities –in strategy, software,
design and data marketing –
boosting our clients’
competitiveness.
Our offices
From our offices in San
Francisco, Paris, Toulouse,
Lisbon and Moscow, we work
with clients everywhere in
the world to help them
define and develop new
opportunities.
What we do
We transform feared disruptions into
business opportunities. We craft
impactful user experiences that
benefit our clients and their
customers. We build agile prototypes
to test and develop strong strategic
assets. And we play a prominent role
with a sustainable impact, in the best
ecosystems. At startup speed.
@FABERNOVEL facebook.com/FABERNOVEL FABERNOVEL.com
A full stack and digital native company to identify
levers for competitiveness
Stéphane DISTINGUIN
Founder & CEO FABERNOVEL
stephane.distinguin@fabernovel.com
Cyril VART
VP Strategy & Development FABERNOVEL
cyril.vart@fabernovel.com
Leila TURNER
CEO FABERNOVEL Paris
leila.turner@fabernovel.com
Dominique PIOTET
CEO FABERNOVEL US & PARISOMA
dominique.piotet@fabernovel.com
Baptiste BENEZET
CEO Applidium
baptiste.benezet@applidium.com
Alexis Godais
CEO Buzzaka
alexis.godais@buzzaka.com
Kevin GENTIL-CANTIN
Co-founder & CEO lagencemedia
kevin@lagencemedia.fr
Yassine BELFKIH
Co-founder & CEO lagencemedia
yassine@lagencemedia.fr
Antonin TORIKIAN
CEO Institut FABERNOVEL
antonin@institutfabernovel.com
74
Credits
Audrey DA CRUZ
Junior Art Director
Amaury BOTREL
Art Director
DESIGN
-
Stéphane DISTINGUIN
Founder & CEO
Cyril VART
VP Strategy & Development
Sarah NOKRY
Senior Project Analyst
Kevin ECHRAGHI
Project Analyst
Louis MOULLARD
Senior Project Analyst
RESEARCH
-
SPECIAL THANKS
-
Robin Chase (Peers Inc) | Vivek Badrinath (Accor) | Angelos Souriadakis (Ylios) | Philippe Février (Veltys)
David Salabi (Financière Cambon) | François Druel | Jean-Christophe Liaubet (Exane) | Air France Manager Café
Pierre-Baptiste Goutagny (Ex-FABERNOVEL Paris) | Elisa Jo Harkness (FABERNOVEL US)
Benoit TALABOT
Partner & Creative Director
75
// NEW YORK
150 West 25th St. , Suite 503
New York, NY 10001
+1415 298 02 09
meet_nyc@fabernovel.com
// MOSCOW
3-iy Monetchikovskiy Peureulok
17, Stroenie 2 Moscow 11054 Russia
+7(999) 639 80 82
meet_moscow@fabernovel.com
// PARIS
17 rue du faubourg du Temple
75010 Paris
+33 1 42 72 20 04
meet_paris@fabernovel.com
// SAN FRANCISCO
169 11th St.
San Francisco, CA 94103 USA
+1415 626 6406
meet_sf@fabernovel.com
SAN FRANCISCO
Dominique Piotet
dominique.piotet@fabernovel.com
PARIS
Leila Turner
leila.turner@fabernovel.com
LISBON
Nuno Ribeiro
nuno.ribeiro@fabernovel.com
MOSCOW
Lev Samsonov
lev.samsonov@fabernovel.com
TOULOUSE
Paul Bois
paul.bois@fabernovel.com
BUSINESS INQUIRIES
MEDIA INQUIRIES
Amelie Pauvert
amelie.pauvert@fabernovel.com

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GAFANOMICS Season 2: 4 superpowers to outperform in the Network Economy

  • 1. SUPERPOWERS T O O U T P E R F O R M I N T H E N E T W O R K E C O N O M Y 4 S E A S O N 2
  • 2. 2 This work was made for you to share, reuse, remix, rework… It is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license to allow for further contributions by experts and users in the coming months. You are free to share and remix/adapt the work. You must cite this document: FABERNOVEL, GAFAnomics®, November 2015 Why do we release this kind of work for free? You may not use this work for commercial purposes. You may distribute a modified work under the same or similar license. Our job is to help large organizations think and act like startups. We believe this can only be achieved by encouraging people to innovate and explore new business models. We aim to inspire you by giving you the keys to understand new markets like Russia, new business drivers like APIs or successful companies like Apple, Amazon, Facebook or LinkedIn.
  • 3. 3 FOREWORD In GAFAnomics season 2, FABERNOVEL goes beyond analysis of Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon’s place in the 21st century economy, to look at their legacy and what they will leave for other companies.   As with many second acts, there are new disruptors. 2015 has seen the rise of NATU: Netflix, Airbnb, Tesla and Uber. We were expecting the Chinese to be the challengers, but once again it’s the Californians who have taken us by surprise.   Despite the financial success of Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon on all fronts, this year they would “only” be able to buy the first three most successful start-ups in the world, as opposed to 50 in 2014. It is hard to believe that while the majority of our Internet use is still dedicated to the super four, GAFA’s share in our digital journey has fallen from 55% in 2014 to 51% this year.   So, we have to ask, could this spell the end of the GAFA Empire? It’s highly unlikely. To the contrary, Uber wouldn’t exist without Google, Apple, or Facebook. This is GAFA’s time, along with those smart enough to copy their four super powers: magnetic; real time; infinite and intimate.   Every year, we seek to understand the actions of these new super powers. While GAFA fascinate us in everything they do, they are also making us think about what they don’t do. In this new study, we hope to enable everyone to find their place, their way, their levers, and to help companies discover their own powers. It is the best news of the year: GAFAnomics is within reach of all businesses. It’s now up to them to use GAFA’s levers – or not.   The best series always have a sequel – especially when the topic is hot! Stéphane Distinguin CEO of FABERNOVEL
  • 4. 4 QUICK WINS // ACT In GAFAnomics®, the new engine for sustainable business growth is the network organization. From it, companies can leverage 4 superpowers to achieve great competitiveness. AN ESSAY // UNDERSTAND GAFAnomics® is not only a new growth paradigm set by Google, Apple, Facebook & Amazon. Looking beyond, GAFAnomics® is a new economy in rapid motion. What is GAFAnomics® season 2?
  • 6. 6 From new kids on the block to heavyweight champions Google CONTENT & ADVERTISING Amazon COMMERCE & FULFILMENT Facebook SOCIAL & DISTRIBUTION Apple ENTERTAINMENT & SOFTWARE Haven’t read our previous studies? Go to http://fr.slideshare.net/fabernovel
  • 7. 7 GAFAnomics® outperform economics Apple and Google are the two most valuable brands in the world, outperforming Coca-Cola (the past 12 years’ leader). Facebook and Amazon are top risers. July 2014: GAFA‘s Market cap is $300B lower than CAC40. July 2015: GAFA’s Market cap is $200B higher than CAC40. +25% Y/Y +15% Y/Y +21% Y/Y +86% Y/Y +21% Y/Y 1 2 3 10 23 Leaders outperforming the “old empire” index: the CAC 40, composed of the 40 most valued companies on the French stock market (Airbus, L’Oreal…) Becoming the most valuable brands on the planet Sources: Ychart, Les Echos, Interbrand 2015
  • 8. 8 Apple could reinforce its position on the streaming market by acquiring the 2 leaders. Amazon could purchase 20 telecommunication satellites to create a private network. With this cash …. Google could pre-empt the payment market by purchasing the 23 largest fintech unicorns. With massive war chests 1Cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities. Doesn’t include less liquid long term securities. *In 2014 Apple’s Long Term Securities have grown by 23% ($23,9B) when Cash and Short Term securities have lost 38% ($15,5B) which explains Apple’s data. 2BP market cap 26/08/2015 : Ychart Sources: Business Insider, Information Week, Ycharts, Company Data,Yahoo Finance, Globalcom $118B GAFA have accumulated $118B in cash1 in 2014 $9B $18B $23B $33B $42B $54B $71B $84B $98B $123B * Cash and short-term marketable securities
  • 9. 9 Apple – worth more than Switzerland - $700B1 (2014) Facebook – bigger than China - 1.55B2 (2015) GAFA are planet-sized Apple’s market cap reached new heights this year, passing Switzerland’s GDP ($685.4Bn) The number of Facebook users outpaced China’s population (1.35B) Amazon – the most- valued retailer - $250B3 (2015) With a $250B market cap, Amazon has become the most valuable listed retailer, outdistancing Walmart ($230B) Google – the world’s largest media company - $59.1B4 (2014) Google has become the biggest media company in the world, generating more revenue from advertising than WPP, Omnicom and Publicis combined ($43.9Bn) VS VS VS VS Sources: 1 Valuewalk, 2 Business Insider 3Business Insider, 4Telegraph
  • 10. 10 World’s richest nation in 2020? In 2014, GAFA’s revenue (350B) grew as big as South Africa’s GDP With 64 times fewer workers GAFA = 296,800 employees South Africa = 19M employed people GAFA’s revenue Sources: Statista, Wikipedia
  • 11. 11 What we said - Redefining the notion of customer The free customer Following last year’s acquisition of the music streaming service Beats Music, Apple launched Apple Music in 2015. With Apple Music, Apple reinvents itself switching to an access-based model. Apple Music offers customers three months of free music. GAFA strive to deliver the best possible experience to everyone to earn their attention. Everyone is a customer, even without money. FRIENDS Visitors who commit by giving personal information (ID, email, etc.) CUSTOMERS Friends who complete a purchase. VISITORS Anyone who pays special attention to you. What they did - Facebook launched Internet.org in India, providing free Internet access to its billion-plus population. Sources: Techrunch, The Next Web
  • 12. 12 From users to businesses What we said - What they did - GAFA are bolstered by a strong vocation: to help people save time and effort in their daily lives. Don’t improve customers’ life. Change it. Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence is the next frontier to make devices and apps more intuitive to use and efficient to meet customers’ expectations. Google Now API This API enables developers to build their own service including Google AI. Amazon Machine Learning With these AI APIs, Amazon enables developers to build new machine learning technologies and conceive new services. The enterprise market is the new land to conquer. GAFA launch many services to ease our daily professional life as much as our day-to-day life. ZenPayroll is a payroll service enabling businesses to set up and run payroll from any device. Amazon WorkMail is a professional messaging service enabling businesses to manage their client database. Redefining the notion of value creation The utility value model Sources: Techrunch, Forbes
  • 13. 13 Managing: What we told you - What they did - RecruitingGAFA have created an innovation-friendly environment and accountability driven work environment to supercharge performance and pioneer the future. Google recruits high potential developers thanks to its search engine Google detected a likely candidate searching online for “Python lambda function list comprehension”, and offered him 6 coding problems to solve within 48 hours. Following successful completion and an interview, they recruited him. Zappos experimenting a self-management organization In 2015, Zappos officially adopted the Holacracy system, which abolishes job titles and middle management. It should empower workers and ensure they work more like creative entrepreneurs. Redefining talent management The pirate management Sources: The Hustle, Forbes
  • 15. SOMMAIRE 3 2 1 Global GAFAnomics: New Economy Wrapping the Planet New Competitiveness, New Superpowers How Do I Open An Office in GAFAnomics?
  • 16. Global GAFAnomics: New Economy Wrapping the Planet The homogenization of business models combined with GAFA’s commoditisation gradually draws a new territory characterized by specific usages, specific costs of doing business, and a specific super-fast metabolism. Understand it before getting there for a quicker and easier route to double digit growth. 1
  • 17. 17 GAFA are GAFAnomics® incumbents Facing the “legacy VS new” dilemma, Google announced Alphabet’s creation, a parent company including Google and its other companies. With Alphabet, Google’s historical activity generating 97% of total revenues is isolated from long- term, ambitious, and potentially life-changing projects. Search: Ads: Apps: Mail Agenda DriveTranslate Docs Google + NowChrome Maps: Maps Earth Street view +Android: Android Play Store is for Alphabet is for […] Sources: Slate, Mashable
  • 18. 18 Experiencing difficulties to innovate Google Glass generated only 300,000 sales, totalling $300M. #fail Google+ totalized 6M active users spending 3 minutes per month, whereas Facebook totalizes 1,5B active users spending 405 minutes per month. #fail Home, Facebook’s attempt to become the home screen of Android users, hit only 500,000 downloads. #fail Equipped with 4 front-facing cameras tracking users’ movements, Amazon’s phone was seen as an attempt to spy on users. #fail Fire phone - Google+ - Facebook Home - Work for Amazon - U2 album in I-tunes - Many articles have denounced Amazon’s abusive pressure on employees. #fail In 2014, Apple automatically added on customers’ iTunes account the U2 track “Songs of Innocence”, attracting their anger. #fail Google glass - Sources: DailyTech, Forbes , Expanded Ramblings, Business Insider, New York Times, CNET, Geekwire
  • 19. 19 VS Starting to protect market shares Apple integrated an ad-blocker in its new mobile operating system (iOS9). Users can now choose whether they want to see ads while browsing. - Apple’s iOS9 is a direct attack against Google as advertising represents 90% of Google’s revenue. Amazon doesn’t sell Apple’s and Google’s streaming devices: the Apple TV and Google Chromecast. - This decision is a strike-back against Google and Apple: neither included Amazon’s streaming service, Prime Video, in their devices’ catalog of services. Determined to become customers’ number one destination, GAFA work against each others’ interests. VS Sources: Techrunch, Business Insider
  • 20. 20 Segmentation and specialization starting Sources: Fabernovel Analysis, IDC, Gartner, e-marketer, statcounter, Comscore, Streaming media, business insider, Janrain, datanyze, statista, emailclientmarketshare, appleinsider, Activate Tech & Media Outlook 2016, Adweek Losing share of the user’s digital journey GAFA Capturing value from micro moments of attention Market challengers • Share of the user digital journey: 36 sec. per day • Valuation: $1.5B • Share of the user digital journey: 10 sec. per day • Valuation: $1.8B • Share of the user digital journey: 19 sec. per day • Valuation: $1.0B • Share of the user digital journey: 9 sec. per day • Valuation: $2.9B VS 51% 26% 14% 7% 4% 2015 55% 25% 19% 4% 7% 2014 Snapchat • Share of the user digital journey: 19 min. per day • Valuation: $16.0B
  • 21. 21 GAFAnomics® spread in every region Google | Amazon Facebook | Apple Alibaba | Baidu Tencent | Xiaomi Yandex | Ozon VK | Yota (acquired) NTT | Sony Gree | Rakuten Samsung | Gmarket Kakao Talk | Naver Flipkart
  • 22. 22 Focus: China’s “GAFA” network (created in 1999) 2.5% Of Chinese GDP $203B Market Cap(2014) The e-commerce giant Alibaba differs from Amazon through its hybrid business model, charging small sellers with advertising services and charging large sellers with business operations’ fees. (created in 2000) 5th Most visited website WW $7.9B Revenue (2014) The search engine giant Just like Google, Baidu is diversifying into numerous areas: video streaming, cloud storage, wearables, self-driving cars etc. (created in 1998) 600M Active users (2015) 1st App in China The messaging giant Tencent’s WeChat app has become a full stack social platform. Features include: group messaging and calling, taxi-hailing, shopping etc. Revenues are earned from micro-transactions. (created in 2010) 61.6M Smartphones Sold (2014) $12B Revenue (2014) The hardware genius Xiaomi sells directly to consumers high quality devices at low costs (smartphones, tablets, TVs etc.) and leans on its fan base to improve its operating system weakly. Sources: Investopedia.com
  • 23. 23 Accelerated economic metabolism Valued at more than $1B, unicorns have the same growth potential than GAFA in their early days. In average, unicorns reach a $1B valuation within 18 months. 2014: GAFA could afford all 42 Unicorns. 2015: GAFA can only buy the 3 largest (Xiaomi, Uber and Airbnb) Sources: Exponential Organizations (by Salim Ismail), Wall Street Journal * *Total value of all Unicorns * MARKET CAP TO A BILLION
  • 24. 24 More than half of the unicorns born with GAFA’s infrastructures Number of tech companies valued at more than $1B by year of birth (pre-IPO and post-IPO) Apple Store Android Store Google play Source: TechCrunch
  • 25. 25 Uber has built its whole service on top of infrastructures set out by GAFA. [Case] Uber scaling fast thanks to GAFA Access to users - Data and server management - Driver navigation - Payment - App distribution on the AppStore, the Playstore and soon Facebook Messenger Data storage and management on Amazon Web services in its early stage. Google Maps used to geolocate cars and users as well as to help drivers navigate Google Wallet and Apple Pay are used to complete transactions.
  • 26. 26 New challengers obey the same rules as GAFA Playing with GAFAnomics® rules The free customer The utility value model The pirate management Flawless user experience for both drivers and final users. New referral customers are given their first ride free. Recommended content based on user’s tastes. Flawless rental booking experience for both renters and lessors. New customers referred are offered a €22 discount on their first booking. No middle management. A rating system takes care of reviews and self-manages the whole fleet. New customers enjoy the service for free for the first month of subscription. Customers’ cars are recharged for free, for life, at Tesla’s supercharger charging stations. Continuous update of cars’ software to improve drivers’ experience. Unlimited vacation time. Tesla’s CEO, Elon Musk, tweets job offers with direct email addresses. Rapid recruitment process. Feedback given in maximum 3 days, leading to a 90% job acceptance rate.
  • 27. 27 [Case] Leaving space for competitors’ two digit growth Stepping ahead from Google, Microsoft is catching up with Amazon: Azure Cloud Platform experiences the biggest growth. In 2014, Microsoft Cloud service generated $6B, and is expected to reach $20B in 2018. MARKET SHARE YOY GROWTH Source: Synergy Research Group
  • 28. 28 GAFA created an ever enlarging digital playground
  • 30. The secret to this new breed of companies GAFAnomics® companies are organized as networks, leveraging connections and interactions as a source of knowledge and therefore performance. “In the networked world, [the three most desirable things] are connections, connections and connections.” Breaking Smart Marc Andreessen & Venkatesh Rao
  • 31. GAFAnomics® companies build open networks A network is a system connecting a multitude of people, objects, and information to one another. By taking leadership on a large scale, GAFAnomics® companies become infrastructures, on which other companies want to connect to create value.
  • 32. 32 Network economy: from concentration to distribution A concentrated economy A distributed economy - Assets ownership -  Localized work -  Mass production -  Proprietary value -  Scarcity control -  Connections access -  Distributed work -  Unit production -  Shared value -  Abundance management
  • 33. 33 From the value chain… In an era of concentration, value flows along a value chain. Value is created and captured linearly from suppliers to final customers through basic buy and sell mechanisms. SELLS PRODUCTS TO DISTRIBUTORSBUYS MATERIALS FROM SUPPLIERS
  • 34. 34 …to the value loop In an era of distribution, value flows inside a value loop. Value is endlessly captured and created for both companies and final users. Value flowing through the network can take various forms: service, time, money or data. VALUE CREATION VALUE CAPTURE 3 Businesses use Google AdWords to engage with final users. 4 Businesses index content: Google search becomes more valuable. 1 Google search engine is valuable: one-click access to any information. 2 Capturing users’ data optimizes Google’s search engine.
  • 35. 35 Networks create growth leverage THE WINNER SEEMS TO BE A HYBRID Network orchestrators are defined as companies building a network in which members create and share value. They outperform traditional companies on both revenues and margins. Average revenue compound annual growth rate (CAGR) 2011-2012 Average profit margin, 2013 Source: Harvard Business Review (authors: Barry Libert, CEO of OpenMatters, Megan Beck Fenley, consultant at OpenMatters and Yoram Wind, Lauder Professor and professor of marketing at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School in Philadelphia)
  • 36. 36 “I joined the company in 2002 and initially worked on the economics of the AdWords auction. […] I have also worked on query and revenue forecasting, advertiser behavior, ad effectiveness […] We have hundreds of statisticians, econometricians, data scientists, and other quantitative analysts at Google.” Hal Varian Chief Economist at Google A new economy requires new experts GAFAnomics companies all have a new breed of experts in their top management team: the Chief Economists, in charge of extracting value from networks through microeconomic and econometric analysis.
  • 37. 37 S U P E R P O W E R S TO OUTPERFORM IN THE NETWORK ECONOMY 4
  • 38. 38 Magnet enterprise – Aggregating and managing very small units Networked companies are able to detect, organize, and animate very small units of value. Their competitive advantage is to deal efficiently with billions of small transactions. Real-time enterprise – Instantly tuning value Networked companies use real-time data feedback to instantly optimize market fit and improve products’ value Their competitive advantage is instant fit-to-market. 4 superpowers to outperform in the network economy Infinite enterprise – Shooting for the 100% profit consumer Networked companies use highly scalable software and services to achieve zero cost delivery once critical user mass is achieved. Their competitive advantage is speed of scalability and profitability. Intimate enterprise – Hospitality is the norm Networked companies use customer knowledge to fine-tune and personalize the experiences they deliver to each customer. Large-scale customization is at the heart of their products. Their competitive advantage is customer hospitality and comfort.
  • 39. 39 Magnet enterprise Aggregating and managing very small units Networked companies are able to detect, organize, and animate very small units of value. They leverage excess capacities and user value creation to capture and deliver micro deals. Their competitive advantage is to deal efficiently with billions of small transactions. MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE ADAPTIVE+ + +4 =
  • 40. 40 Magnet enterprise How it works Standard economy – Companies take raw materials in input and produce finished products that are sold to consumers. Revenue unit = 100 Network economy – Companies identify available value, as small as it is and capture it. They transform this value and redistribute it to consumers and producers while taking a cut. Revenue unit = 1
  • 41. 41 A vacant room or apartment is not used to its full capacity. AirBnb identifies these excess capacities and matches demand for rentals with supply. Leveraging excess capacities at a large scale, Airbnb can now offer 2x more room than Hilton Worldwide at a zero marginal cost. Magnet enterprise [Case] Tapping into excess capacity Sources: Quartz, Wall Street Journal, FABERNOVEL estimates (2015) (2014)
  • 42. 42 The more apps available, the more attractive the iPhone gets. Launching its iOS Developer Program has enabled Apple to offer 1.5 millions apps on its AppStore. Developing as many apps internally would have demanded Apple more than 519,000 years worth of work. In return, Apple’s partners can “reach customers around the world on the App Store”. According to Apple, in 2014, the amount paid to developers reached $30B. Magnet enterprise [Case] Enriching products with crowd creation Sources: Venture Beat, Apple, FABERNOVEL estimates
  • 43. 43 The real-time enterprise MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE ADAPTIVE+ + +4 = Instantly tuning value Networked companies use real-time data feedback to instantly optimize market fit and improve products’ value. They use optimum management and work in perpetual beta to answer user needs in real-time. Their competitive advantage is instant fit- to-market.
  • 44. 44 Real-time enterprise How it works Standard economy – Companies produce and put new products on the market every other year. They don’t have information about their products’ usage for months. Network economy – Companies produce a first minimum viable version of their products and perpetually improve it through iterative development. They closely monitor the usage of their products to answer their user’s needs in real time.
  • 45. 45 Real-time enterprise [Case] Amazon monitoring the optimum Gathering and analyzing massive data on consumers, vendors and competitors, Amazon can determine what products to offer in what quantities as well as the optimal pricing during every step of a product’s lifecycle. Sources: Quartz, Recode, blog of Boomerang Commerce
  • 46. 46 Google leverages its network to identify emerging user needs and create products accordingly. In 2000, query monitoring revealed users were searching for a picture of Jennifer Lopez at the Grammy Awards. To meet users’ expectations, Google came up with the idea of creating a search engine for pictures: that’s how Google Images was born! Real-time enterprise [Case] Perpetual beta serendipity Source: Business Insider
  • 47. 47 The infinite enterprise Shooting for the 100% profit consumer Networked companies use highly scalable software and services to achieve zero cost delivery once critical user mass is achieved. Thanks to network effects and zero marginal costs, they can grow indefinitely in revenue with minimal impact on costs. Their competitive advantage is speed of scalability and profitability. MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE ADAPTIVE+ + +4 =
  • 48. 48 Infinite enterprise How it works Standard economy – Companies have to produce an additional output to serve an additional customer. Their growth is constrained by their production capacity and by the marginal cost of production. Network economy – Companies distribute non-competitive goods and can serve additional customers at virtually no additional cost, giving them an infinite growth opportunity. Additionally, they benefit from network effects and see the perceived value of their products increase with the number of users. This is much easier with immaterial goods.
  • 49. 49 Infinite enterprise [Case] Network effects accelerating growth Since its birth, Facebook’s revenue has followed a near-exponential growth. The more users Facebook gets, the more users are attracted. Then the more businesses are willing to advertise on Facebook. And finally, the more Facebook generates revenue. This virtuous circle is at the core of Networked companies’ growth. Number of daily active Facebook users (in million) Facebook’s annual revenue (in million U.S. dollars) Source: Statista
  • 50. Infinite enterprise [Case] Scaling at zero marginal cost Launched in 2009, Waze is a traffic and navigation app that leverages crowd sourced real-time data from its users. Waze was duplicated and distributed at virtually zero marginal cost as users are in charge of the supply, and social media facilitates viral distribution. Acquired by Google in 2013 for $1.15 B, Waze has reached 50M users in 200 countries. Sources: Forbes, Slate, The Telegraph
  • 51. 51 Intimate enterprise MAGNET REAL-TIME INFINITE INTIMATE+ + +4 = Hospitality is the norm Networked companies use customer knowledge to fine-tune and personalize the experiences they deliver to each customer. Large-scale customization is at the heart of their products. Targeting and customizing their products to every single user, they create intimate long-lasting relationships. Their competitive advantage is customer hospitality and comfort.
  • 52. 52 Intimate enterprise How it works Standard economy – Companies produce in mass and sell a identical product to all their customers. Network economy – Companies offer tailored products and customization possibilities to each of their customers, creating an intimate and long-lasting experience.
  • 53. 53 75% of the content consumed on Netflix is based on targeted recommendations, creating a unique catalog of movies for each user. Thanks to user behavior tracking and powerful algorithms, Netflix draws a specific profile of every single one of them. Based on their tastes, their behaviors, their apparent humor, and to the time of the day, Netflix tailors each viewing experience. Intimate enterprise [Case] Targeted information to the right audience Source: Business Insider
  • 54. 54 Every iPhone becomes unique after its 30 first minutes of usage, depending on the apps downloaded by each user. Intimate enterprise [Case] Mass customization through software Source: Wall Street Journal
  • 55. 55 Leverage networks to embrace superpowers Intimate enterprise Magnet enterprise Real-time enterprise Infinite enterpriseNetworked company By structuring themselves as networks, companies can automatically benefit from these 4 superpowers and compete in the new economy.
  • 57. How Do I Open an Office in GAFAnomics®? Or how to become a networked company with two digit growth 3
  • 58. 58 All areas can be connected to the networks Fulfil and sell to customers Reach and retain customers Streamline operations Design products and services Recruit and manage talents Build products and services Core Business & Finance
  • 59. 5 strategies to win in a GAFAnomics world In a world dominated by GAFAnomics, legacy companies can either connect to existing networks or create networks of their own. Connect to existing networks Create your own networks
  • 60. Plug in to GAFAnomics Know how to leverage GAFAnomics’s massive networks, the new century’s infrastructures. Using GAFAnomics as distribution channels The wide array of services created by GAFAnomics can be leveraged to create new experiences for users. FedEx’s online service is built on the Google Maps engine Chase Bank’s app users can now log in with iPhone’s TouchID Using GAFAnomics’s features to improve your services Plug in to Fulfill and sell to customers Reach and retain customers Design products and services Build products and services Recruit and manage talents Streamline operations
  • 61. 61 Deal some exclusive partnerships to create a competitive edge. Some large companies have already implemented this strategy very successfully: Partner with GAFAnomics Audi partnered with Amazon to test e- commerce deliveries into trunks of customers’ vehicles in Munich Audi x Amazon Southwest Airlines offers Apple’s Beats music service for free on their flights Southwest Airlines x Apple Allianz partnered with Tesla to offer drivers tailored insurances for their forward- looking electric cars. Allianz x Tesla
  • 62. 62 Compete with GAFA on their own turf. In an attempt to compete with LinkedIn, the Wall Street Journal launched its own professional network in 2013: WSJ Profile. Fighting against Linkedin’s network effects coming from a growing installed user base, WSJ profile never took off. Compete head-on with GAFAnomics Unless you can offer a superior twist to an existing value proposition, competing with the entrenched network and data effects of the GAFAnomics is too resources-consuming.
  • 63. 63 Compete by going where GAFA have not been. This strategy requires a lot of up-front investment in technology in order to reach critical mass, but it can pay off. By launching Nike +, and by focusing on developing software for sports’ IOT, the company has capitalized on its success in the sports equipment market to impose itself as one of the major player in the IOT market becoming a sports network orchestrator. By opening its booking platform to independent hotels, Accor Hotels built a serious competitor to Booking.com thanks to its hospitality expertise and additional services. Differentiate from GAFAnomics Accor HotelsNike
  • 64. 64 Experiment hand-in-hand with GAFAnomics. Legacy companies will find the best returns on their investments when they work with GAFAnomics to explore new business horizons. Partnered on a satellite initiative to provide internet access in Africa Collaborated to create more than 50 business-focused apps for iOS. Worked hand in hand to bring to market innovative textiles with digital-sensing capabilities Co-innovate with GAFAnomics Apple and IBMFacebook and Eutelsat Google and Levi’s
  • 65. 65 Legacy companies can join forces to compete in this new economy From television groups to streaming networks Disney, Fox and NBC Co-innovate without GAFAnomics In 2015, Audi, Daimler and BMW acquired Nokia’s HERE maps, supercharching a serious competitor to Google Maps. From car manufacturer to car sharing In 2011, BMW and SIXT launched a joint venture for a premium car sharing service. As of November 2014, DriveNow has over 330,000 customers in 6 countries. BMW and Sixt From car manufacturers to mobility network Audi, Daimler and BMW In 2007, The Walt Disney Company, Fox and NBC together launched Hulu, as streaming service to compete with existing networks. Hulu has more than 6M subscribers worldwide.
  • 66. One golden rule: Connect and Open “There is no future for hermetically sealed closed systems in the Network Economy. […] Every time a closed system opens, it begins to interact more directly with other existing systems, and therefore acquires all the value of those systems.” Kevin Kelly Wired co-founder
  • 67. 67 Since Statya Nadella took on the position of CEO in February 2014, things have changed at Microsoft. One imperative: « Build stuff that people like » One symbol: « Microsoft Loves Linux » Microsoft opening up… •  Since late 2014, Microsoft Office is free for download and use on Apple and Android devices •  Launched in August 2015, project Astoria enables developers to port Android apps to Windows 10 Mobile devices … a strategy paying off •  Revenue: $93.6B (+10% vs. 2014) …And it works Sources: The Verge, Ars Technica, Microsoft Annual Report 2015 [Case] Open Microsoft
  • 69. 69 Get fresh news on GAFAnomics® Register to our newsletter on www.GAFAnomics.com
  • 70. 70 See also… Facebook, The Perfect Startup (2012) 6 365k views on Slideshare Amazon, The Hidden Empire (2011) 918k views on Slideshare ••• Three digital engines to reshape and dominate retail mazon.com THE HIDDEN EMPIRE Linkedin, The serious Network (2013) 197k views on Slideshare Google, Everything you always wanted to know (2008) 540k views on Slideshare Everything you always wanted to know about  Google…But  were  afraid  to  ask Paris, December 2008 And more. Apple: 8 Easy Steps to Beat Microsoft (and Google) Paris, September 2010 Apple, 8 easy steps to beat Microsoft (and Google) (2011) 179k views on Slideshare GAFAnomics®, New Economy New rules (2014) - 197k views on Slideshare
  • 71. 71 4 sessions to become a GAFAnomics expert (customer, innovation and organization, network economy, strategy) and implement their best practices toyour business Inspiring keynotes Collaborative workshops Cross-sessions business case Certification and alumni community First session in December 2015 (Paris) Information and inscriptions on academy.gafanomics.com
  • 72. We are A new world needs new solutions Who we are  We are a “digital native” organization of a new type, nourished by a unique culture and incomparable talents. We gather wide and cutting-edge capabilities –in strategy, software, design and data marketing – boosting our clients’ competitiveness. Our offices From our offices in San Francisco, Paris, Toulouse, Lisbon and Moscow, we work with clients everywhere in the world to help them define and develop new opportunities. What we do We transform feared disruptions into business opportunities. We craft impactful user experiences that benefit our clients and their customers. We build agile prototypes to test and develop strong strategic assets. And we play a prominent role with a sustainable impact, in the best ecosystems. At startup speed. @FABERNOVEL facebook.com/FABERNOVEL FABERNOVEL.com
  • 73. A full stack and digital native company to identify levers for competitiveness Stéphane DISTINGUIN Founder & CEO FABERNOVEL stephane.distinguin@fabernovel.com Cyril VART VP Strategy & Development FABERNOVEL cyril.vart@fabernovel.com Leila TURNER CEO FABERNOVEL Paris leila.turner@fabernovel.com Dominique PIOTET CEO FABERNOVEL US & PARISOMA dominique.piotet@fabernovel.com Baptiste BENEZET CEO Applidium baptiste.benezet@applidium.com Alexis Godais CEO Buzzaka alexis.godais@buzzaka.com Kevin GENTIL-CANTIN Co-founder & CEO lagencemedia kevin@lagencemedia.fr Yassine BELFKIH Co-founder & CEO lagencemedia yassine@lagencemedia.fr Antonin TORIKIAN CEO Institut FABERNOVEL antonin@institutfabernovel.com
  • 74. 74 Credits Audrey DA CRUZ Junior Art Director Amaury BOTREL Art Director DESIGN - Stéphane DISTINGUIN Founder & CEO Cyril VART VP Strategy & Development Sarah NOKRY Senior Project Analyst Kevin ECHRAGHI Project Analyst Louis MOULLARD Senior Project Analyst RESEARCH - SPECIAL THANKS - Robin Chase (Peers Inc) | Vivek Badrinath (Accor) | Angelos Souriadakis (Ylios) | Philippe Février (Veltys) David Salabi (Financière Cambon) | François Druel | Jean-Christophe Liaubet (Exane) | Air France Manager Café Pierre-Baptiste Goutagny (Ex-FABERNOVEL Paris) | Elisa Jo Harkness (FABERNOVEL US) Benoit TALABOT Partner & Creative Director
  • 75. 75 // NEW YORK 150 West 25th St. , Suite 503 New York, NY 10001 +1415 298 02 09 meet_nyc@fabernovel.com // MOSCOW 3-iy Monetchikovskiy Peureulok 17, Stroenie 2 Moscow 11054 Russia +7(999) 639 80 82 meet_moscow@fabernovel.com // PARIS 17 rue du faubourg du Temple 75010 Paris +33 1 42 72 20 04 meet_paris@fabernovel.com // SAN FRANCISCO 169 11th St. San Francisco, CA 94103 USA +1415 626 6406 meet_sf@fabernovel.com SAN FRANCISCO Dominique Piotet dominique.piotet@fabernovel.com PARIS Leila Turner leila.turner@fabernovel.com LISBON Nuno Ribeiro nuno.ribeiro@fabernovel.com MOSCOW Lev Samsonov lev.samsonov@fabernovel.com TOULOUSE Paul Bois paul.bois@fabernovel.com BUSINESS INQUIRIES MEDIA INQUIRIES Amelie Pauvert amelie.pauvert@fabernovel.com