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Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Fallacies of Unit Testing
Road to reality-driven testing
WARNING
Controversial topic
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Clarification
Unit testing is not inherently bad, but the practices & beliefs surrounding it
often lead to cargo cult mentality
Some subjects in the talk may be opinionated and come from my own
experience, which might not represent yours
I will rely on “classic” definitions, where…
• Unit tests target smallest separable parts of code
• End-to-end tests target the application boundaries
• Integration tests target everything in-between
/whois ${speaker}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
• Open-source developer ✨
• Conference speaker & blogger 🌐️
• C#, F#, JavaScript 💻
• Cloud & web ☁️
• Automation & DevOps ⚙️
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Unit tests…
Unit
Small isolated part
No formal definition
Method of a class
Function of a module
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit tests must be isolated
Dependency inversion
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Abstraction
Unit tests must be isolated
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Unit tests must be pure
Unit
DB
File
system
• Unit tests achieve isolation by stubbing dependencies
• Unit tests don’t cover integrations between units
• Unit tests mostly avoid exercising effectful code
• Unit tests are primarily useful to verify business logic
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class LocationProvider : IDisposable
{
private readonly HttpClient _httpClient = new HttpClient();
// Gets location by query
public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(string locationQuery) { /* ... */ }
// Gets current location by IP
public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync() { /* ... */ }
public void Dispose() => _httpClient.Dispose();
}
Design is fine, but
not unit-testable
public class SolarCalculator : IDiposable
{
private readonly LocationProvider _locationProvider = new LocationProvider();
// Gets solar times for current location and specified date
public async Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(DateTimeOffset date) { /* //. // }
public void Dispose() /> _locationProvider.Dispose();
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public interface ILocationProvider
{
Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(string locationQuery);
Task<Location> GetLocationAsync();
}
public class LocationProvider : ILocationProvider
{
private readonly HttpClient _httpClient;
public LocationProvider(HttpClient httpClient) => _httpClient = httpClient;
public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(string locationQuery) { /* ... */ }
public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync() { /* ... */ }
}
public interface ISolarCalculator
{
Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(DateTimeOffset date);
}
public class SolarCalculator : ISolarCalculator
{
private readonly ILocationProvider _locationProvider;
public SolarCalculator(ILocationProvider locationProvider) => _locationProvider = locationProvider;
public async Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(DateTimeOffset date) { /* ... */ }
}
Isolation through
dependency
inversion
Design influence
• Isolation comes at the expense of fragmentation
• Objects no longer encapsulate their dependencies
• Abstractions for the sake of testing, not polymorphism
• Design driven by testability, rather than domain
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class SolarCalculatorTests
{
[Fact]
public async Task GetSolarTimesAsync_ForKyiv_ReturnsCorrectSolarTimes()
{
// Arrange
var location = new Location(50.45, 30.52);
var date = new DateTimeOffset(2019, 11, 04, 00, 00, 00, TimeSpan.FromHours(+2));
var expectedSolarTimes = new SolarTimes(
new TimeSpan(06, 55, 00),
new TimeSpan(16, 29, 00)
);
var locationProvider = Mock.Of<ILocationProvider>(lp =>
lp.GetLocationAsync() == Task.FromResult(location)
);
var solarCalculator = new SolarCalculator(locationProvider);
// Act
var solarTimes = await solarCalculator.GetSolarTimesAsync(date);
// Assert
solarTimes.Should().BeEquivalentTo(expectedSolarTimes);
}
}
Implementation-
aware testing
Tight coupling to a
specific class/method
Consider the drawbacks
• Unit tests rely on implementation details
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Unit
Dep A
Dep B
Dep C
Which method does it use?
How is it used?
When does it call it?
How many times does it call it?
Consider the drawbacks
• Unit tests often lead to more complicated design
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Unit Unit
Unit
Unit Unit
Unit
Consider the drawbacks
• Unit tests can get quite expensive
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
UnitDep
Mock
A
Mock
B
Mock
C
Consider the drawbacks
• Unit tests are limited in purpose
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Payroll
System
CRUD
application
Business logic (%)
Consider the drawbacks
• Unit tests don’t exercise user behavior
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
User
API
UI
CLI
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Pyramid-driven testing
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Development tests need to be
• Fast
• Cheap
• Predictable
• Stable
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
High-level tests are
• Not Fast
• Not Cheap
• Not Predictable
• Not Stable
(allegedly)
Handled by QAs
Often
avoided
entirely
Development
testing
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Someone
else’s
problem
Integration tests are not slow
• Just because they can be, doesn’t mean they should be
• Technologies make things easier
• Architecture dictates testability
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Return on investment is not linear
• Isolation isn’t free
• Higher-level tests are often cheaper
• Cheap & fast tests aren’t automatically valuable
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Business logic is not a constant
• Value of unit testing is contingent on the amount of business logic
• Modern software contains a lot of “glue” code
• Depending on the project, the pyramid may be misleading
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Development
testing
Unit
testing≠
Reality-driven testing
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Component
System
Confidence
(value)
User
Systemboundary
Unit level End-to-end levelIntegration scope
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
User needs to be able get solar times for their location
User needs to be able get solar times during periods of midnight sun
User needs to be able get solar times even if their location cannot be determined
Functional requirements
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class SolarTimesSpecs
{
[Fact]
public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_automatically_for_their_location() { /* //. // }
[Fact]
public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_during_periods_of_midnight_sun() { /* //. // }
[Fact]
public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_if_their_location_cannot_be_determined() { /* //. // }
}
Functional tests
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Functional tests Powered by xUnit’s
test display options
✓ Live documentation
✓ Human-readable test
names
✓ No dependency on code
structure
Functional requirements can be…
• Formal
Software specification documents, user stories, etc.
• Informal
JIRA tickets, readme, API documentation, usage instructions, assumed, etc.
Every software has them, in one form or the other (yes, even yours)
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Guidelines
• Write tests that are as highly integrated as possible ⚙️
• Keep their speed, complexity, and stability acceptable 🚀
• Partition tests based on threads of behavior 🖱️
• Test suite should not mirror code structure 🔗
Example
Functional test suite for an ASP.NET Core application
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class LocationProvider
{
private readonly HttpClient _httpClient;
public LocationProvider(HttpClient httpClient) />
_httpClient = httpClient;
public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(IPAddress ip)
{
// If IP is local, just don't pass anything (useful when running on localhost)
var ipFormatted = !ip.IsLocal() ? ip.MapToIPv4().ToString() : "";
var json = await _httpClient.GetJsonAsync($"http://ip-api.com/json/{ipFormatted}");
var latitude = json.GetProperty("lat").GetDouble();
var longitude = json.GetProperty("lon").GetDouble();
return new Location
{
Latitude = latitude,
Longitude = longitude
};
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class SolarCalculator
{
private readonly LocationProvider _locationProvider;
public SolarCalculator(LocationProvider locationProvider) />
_locationProvider = locationProvider;
private static TimeSpan CalculateSolarTimeOffset(Location location, DateTimeOffset instant,
double zenith, bool isSunrise)
{
/* //. //
}
public async Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(IPAddress ip, DateTimeOffset date)
{
var location = await _locationProvider.GetLocationAsync(ip);
var sunriseOffset = CalculateSolarTimeOffset(location, date, 90.83, true);
var sunsetOffset = CalculateSolarTimeOffset(location, date, 90.83, false);
var sunrise = date.ResetTimeOfDay().Add(sunriseOffset);
var sunset = date.ResetTimeOfDay().Add(sunsetOffset);
return new SolarTimes
{
Sunrise = sunrise,
Sunset = sunset
};
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
[ApiController, Route("solartimes")]
public class SolarTimeController : ControllerBase
{
private readonly SolarCalculator _solarCalculator;
private readonly CachingLayer _cachingLayer;
public SolarTimeController(SolarCalculator solarCalculator, CachingLayer cachingLayer)
{
_solarCalculator = solarCalculator;
_cachingLayer = cachingLayer;
}
[HttpGet("by_ip")]
public async Task<IActionResult> GetByIp(DateTimeOffset? date)
{
var ip = HttpContext.Connection.RemoteIpAddress;
var cacheKey = $"{ip},{date}";
var cachedSolarTimes = await _cachingLayer.TryGetAsync<SolarTimes>(cacheKey);
if (cachedSolarTimes != null)
return Ok(cachedSolarTimes);
var solarTimes = await _solarCalculator.GetSolarTimesAsync(ip, date ?? DateTimeOffset.Now);
await _cachingLayer.SetAsync(cacheKey, solarTimes);
return Ok(solarTimes);
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class CachingLayer
{
private readonly IConnectionMultiplexer _redis;
public CachingLayer(IConnectionMultiplexer connectionMultiplexer) =>
_redis = connectionMultiplexer;
public async Task<T> TryGetAsync<T>(string key) where T : class
{
var result = await _redis.GetDatabase().StringGetAsync(key);
if (result.HasValue)
return JsonSerializer.Deserialize<T>(result.ToString());
return null;
}
public async Task SetAsync<T>(string key, T obj) where T : class =>
await _redis.GetDatabase().StringSetAsync(key, JsonSerializer.Serialize(obj));
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class Startup
{
// //.
public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
services.AddMvc(o /> o.EnableEndpointRouting = false);
services.AddSingleton<IConnectionMultiplexer>(
ConnectionMultiplexer.Connect(GetRedisConnectionString()));
services.AddSingleton<CachingLayer>();
services.AddHttpClient<LocationProvider>();
services.AddTransient<SolarCalculator>();
}
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
if (env.IsDevelopment())
app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
app.UseMvcWithDefaultRoute();
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class FakeApp : IDisposable
{
private readonly WebApplicationFactory<Startup> _appFactory;
public HttpClient Client { get; }
public FakeApp()
{
_appFactory = new WebApplicationFactory<Startup>();
Client = _appFactory.CreateClient();
}
public void Dispose()
{
Client.Dispose();
_appFactory.Dispose();
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Runs the entire HTTP
pipeline in-memory
Get a client to talk to
our app
public class RedisFixture : IAsyncLifetime
{
private string _containerId;
public async Task InitializeAsync()
{
var result = await Cli.Wrap("docker")
.WithArguments("run -d -p 6379:6379 redis")
.ExecuteBufferedAsync();
_containerId = result.StandardOutput.Trim();
}
public async Task ResetAsync() />
await Cli.Wrap("docker")
.WithArguments($"exec {_containerId} redis-cli FLUSHALL")
.ExecuteAsync();
public async Task DisposeAsync() />
await Cli.Wrap("docker")
.WithArguments($"container kill {_containerId}")
.ExecuteAsync();
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Ideally should bind
to a random port
Can also use:
• Docker.NET
• .NET TestContainers
public class SolarTimeSpecs : IClassFixture<RedisFixture>, IAsyncLifetime
{
private readonly RedisFixture _redisFixture;
public SolarTimeSpecs(RedisFixture redisFixture) =>
_redisFixture = redisFixture;
public async Task InitializeAsync() => await _redisFixture.ResetAsync();
[Fact]
public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_for_their_location_by_ip()
{
// Arrange
using var app = new FakeApp();
// Act
var response = await app.Client.GetStringAsync("/solartimes/by_ip");
var solarTimes = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<SolarTimes>(response);
// Assert
solarTimes.Sunset.Should().BeWithin(TimeSpan.FromDays(1)).After(solarTimes.Sunrise);
solarTimes.Sunrise.Should().BeCloseTo(DateTimeOffset.Now, TimeSpan.FromDays(1));
solarTimes.Sunset.Should().BeCloseTo(DateTimeOffset.Now, TimeSpan.FromDays(1));
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Redis is reset
between tests
Requirement-driven test
Property-based assertions
public class FakeIpStartupFilter : IStartupFilter
{
public IPAddress Ip { get; set; } = IPAddress.Parse("::1");
public Action<IApplicationBuilder> Configure(Action<IApplicationBuilder> nextFilter)
{
return app =>
{
app.Use(async (ctx, next) =>
{
ctx.Connection.RemoteIpAddress = Ip;
await next();
});
nextFilter(app);
};
}
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
public class FakeApp : IDisposable
{
private readonly WebApplicationFactory<Startup> _appFactory;
private readonly FakeIpStartupFilter _fakeIpStartupFilter = new FakeIpStartupFilter();
public HttpClient Client { get; }
public IPAddress ClientIp
{
get => _fakeIpStartupFilter.Ip;
set => _fakeIpStartupFilter.Ip = value;
}
public FakeApp()
{
_appFactory = new WebApplicationFactory<Startup>().WithWebHostBuilder(o =>
{
o.ConfigureServices(s =>
{
s.AddSingleton<IStartupFilter>(_fakeIpStartupFilter);
});
});
Client = _appFactory.CreateClient();
}
// ...
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Inject fake IP provider
into pipeline
[Fact]
public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_for_their_location_by_ip()
{
// Arrange
using var app = new FakeApp
{
ClientIp = IPAddress.Parse("20.112.101.1")
};
var date = new DateTimeOffset(2020, 07, 03, 0, 0, 0, TimeSpan.FromHours(-5));
var expectedSunrise = new DateTimeOffset(2020, 07, 03, 05, 20, 37, TimeSpan.FromHours(-5));
var expectedSunset = new DateTimeOffset(2020, 07, 03, 20, 28, 54, TimeSpan.FromHours(-5));
// Act
var query = new QueryBuilder
{
{"date", date.ToString("O", CultureInfo.InvariantCulture)}
};
var response = await app.Client.GetStringAsync($"/solartimes/by_ip{query}");
var solarTimes = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<SolarTimes>(response);
// Assert
solarTimes.Sunrise.Should().BeCloseTo(expectedSunrise, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1));
solarTimes.Sunset.Should().BeCloseTo(expectedSunset, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1));
}
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Strict assertions
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
✓ No mocks
✓ Real infrastructural dependencies
✓ Full HTTP pipeline
✓ High confidence
✓ Reasonable cost & speed
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
The goal is not to cover everything end-to-end,
but to gain the highest return on investment
If you can test at the highest level, do it.
If not, reduce scope until the results are acceptable.
Confidence
Usability
Summary
1. Think critically and challenge best practices
2. Don’t rely on the test pyramid too much
3. Separate tests by functionality, rather than by classes or scope
4. Aim for highest level of integration with reasonable cost, speed, reliability
5. Avoid sacrificing software design for testability
6. Consider mocking only as a last resort
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Resources
• Unit Testing is Overrated (Alexey Golub)
https://tyrrrz.me/blog/unit-testing-is-overrated
• Write tests. Not too many. Mostly integration (Kent C. Dodds)
https://kentcdodds.com/blog/write-tests
• Mocking is a Code Smell (Eric Elliott)
https://medium.com/javascript-scene/mocking-is-a-code-smell-944a70c90a6a
• Test-induced design damage (David Heinemeier Hansson)
https://dhh.dk/2014/test-induced-design-damage.html
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
Thank you!
Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz

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Fallacies of unit testing

  • 1. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Fallacies of Unit Testing Road to reality-driven testing
  • 4. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Clarification Unit testing is not inherently bad, but the practices & beliefs surrounding it often lead to cargo cult mentality Some subjects in the talk may be opinionated and come from my own experience, which might not represent yours I will rely on “classic” definitions, where… • Unit tests target smallest separable parts of code • End-to-end tests target the application boundaries • Integration tests target everything in-between
  • 5. /whois ${speaker} Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz • Open-source developer ✨ • Conference speaker & blogger 🌐️ • C#, F#, JavaScript 💻 • Cloud & web ☁️ • Automation & DevOps ⚙️
  • 6. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Unit tests… Unit Small isolated part No formal definition Method of a class Function of a module
  • 7. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit tests must be isolated Dependency inversion
  • 8. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Unit Unit Unit Unit Abstraction Unit tests must be isolated
  • 9. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Unit tests must be pure Unit DB File system
  • 10. • Unit tests achieve isolation by stubbing dependencies • Unit tests don’t cover integrations between units • Unit tests mostly avoid exercising effectful code • Unit tests are primarily useful to verify business logic Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 11. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz public class LocationProvider : IDisposable { private readonly HttpClient _httpClient = new HttpClient(); // Gets location by query public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(string locationQuery) { /* ... */ } // Gets current location by IP public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync() { /* ... */ } public void Dispose() => _httpClient.Dispose(); } Design is fine, but not unit-testable public class SolarCalculator : IDiposable { private readonly LocationProvider _locationProvider = new LocationProvider(); // Gets solar times for current location and specified date public async Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(DateTimeOffset date) { /* //. // } public void Dispose() /> _locationProvider.Dispose(); }
  • 12. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz public interface ILocationProvider { Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(string locationQuery); Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(); } public class LocationProvider : ILocationProvider { private readonly HttpClient _httpClient; public LocationProvider(HttpClient httpClient) => _httpClient = httpClient; public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(string locationQuery) { /* ... */ } public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync() { /* ... */ } } public interface ISolarCalculator { Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(DateTimeOffset date); } public class SolarCalculator : ISolarCalculator { private readonly ILocationProvider _locationProvider; public SolarCalculator(ILocationProvider locationProvider) => _locationProvider = locationProvider; public async Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(DateTimeOffset date) { /* ... */ } } Isolation through dependency inversion
  • 13. Design influence • Isolation comes at the expense of fragmentation • Objects no longer encapsulate their dependencies • Abstractions for the sake of testing, not polymorphism • Design driven by testability, rather than domain Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 14. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz public class SolarCalculatorTests { [Fact] public async Task GetSolarTimesAsync_ForKyiv_ReturnsCorrectSolarTimes() { // Arrange var location = new Location(50.45, 30.52); var date = new DateTimeOffset(2019, 11, 04, 00, 00, 00, TimeSpan.FromHours(+2)); var expectedSolarTimes = new SolarTimes( new TimeSpan(06, 55, 00), new TimeSpan(16, 29, 00) ); var locationProvider = Mock.Of<ILocationProvider>(lp => lp.GetLocationAsync() == Task.FromResult(location) ); var solarCalculator = new SolarCalculator(locationProvider); // Act var solarTimes = await solarCalculator.GetSolarTimesAsync(date); // Assert solarTimes.Should().BeEquivalentTo(expectedSolarTimes); } } Implementation- aware testing Tight coupling to a specific class/method
  • 15. Consider the drawbacks • Unit tests rely on implementation details Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Unit Dep A Dep B Dep C Which method does it use? How is it used? When does it call it? How many times does it call it?
  • 16. Consider the drawbacks • Unit tests often lead to more complicated design Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit
  • 17. Consider the drawbacks • Unit tests can get quite expensive Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz UnitDep Mock A Mock B Mock C
  • 18. Consider the drawbacks • Unit tests are limited in purpose Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Payroll System CRUD application Business logic (%)
  • 19. Consider the drawbacks • Unit tests don’t exercise user behavior Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz User API UI CLI Unit Unit Unit Unit
  • 22. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Development tests need to be • Fast • Cheap • Predictable • Stable
  • 23. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz High-level tests are • Not Fast • Not Cheap • Not Predictable • Not Stable (allegedly)
  • 24. Handled by QAs Often avoided entirely Development testing Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Someone else’s problem
  • 25. Integration tests are not slow • Just because they can be, doesn’t mean they should be • Technologies make things easier • Architecture dictates testability Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 26. Return on investment is not linear • Isolation isn’t free • Higher-level tests are often cheaper • Cheap & fast tests aren’t automatically valuable Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 27. Business logic is not a constant • Value of unit testing is contingent on the amount of business logic • Modern software contains a lot of “glue” code • Depending on the project, the pyramid may be misleading Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 28. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Development testing Unit testing≠
  • 30. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Component System Confidence (value) User Systemboundary Unit level End-to-end levelIntegration scope
  • 31. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz User needs to be able get solar times for their location User needs to be able get solar times during periods of midnight sun User needs to be able get solar times even if their location cannot be determined Functional requirements
  • 32. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz public class SolarTimesSpecs { [Fact] public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_automatically_for_their_location() { /* //. // } [Fact] public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_during_periods_of_midnight_sun() { /* //. // } [Fact] public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_if_their_location_cannot_be_determined() { /* //. // } } Functional tests
  • 33. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Functional tests Powered by xUnit’s test display options ✓ Live documentation ✓ Human-readable test names ✓ No dependency on code structure
  • 34. Functional requirements can be… • Formal Software specification documents, user stories, etc. • Informal JIRA tickets, readme, API documentation, usage instructions, assumed, etc. Every software has them, in one form or the other (yes, even yours) Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 35. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Guidelines • Write tests that are as highly integrated as possible ⚙️ • Keep their speed, complexity, and stability acceptable 🚀 • Partition tests based on threads of behavior 🖱️ • Test suite should not mirror code structure 🔗
  • 36. Example Functional test suite for an ASP.NET Core application Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 37. public class LocationProvider { private readonly HttpClient _httpClient; public LocationProvider(HttpClient httpClient) /> _httpClient = httpClient; public async Task<Location> GetLocationAsync(IPAddress ip) { // If IP is local, just don't pass anything (useful when running on localhost) var ipFormatted = !ip.IsLocal() ? ip.MapToIPv4().ToString() : ""; var json = await _httpClient.GetJsonAsync($"http://ip-api.com/json/{ipFormatted}"); var latitude = json.GetProperty("lat").GetDouble(); var longitude = json.GetProperty("lon").GetDouble(); return new Location { Latitude = latitude, Longitude = longitude }; } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 38. public class SolarCalculator { private readonly LocationProvider _locationProvider; public SolarCalculator(LocationProvider locationProvider) /> _locationProvider = locationProvider; private static TimeSpan CalculateSolarTimeOffset(Location location, DateTimeOffset instant, double zenith, bool isSunrise) { /* //. // } public async Task<SolarTimes> GetSolarTimesAsync(IPAddress ip, DateTimeOffset date) { var location = await _locationProvider.GetLocationAsync(ip); var sunriseOffset = CalculateSolarTimeOffset(location, date, 90.83, true); var sunsetOffset = CalculateSolarTimeOffset(location, date, 90.83, false); var sunrise = date.ResetTimeOfDay().Add(sunriseOffset); var sunset = date.ResetTimeOfDay().Add(sunsetOffset); return new SolarTimes { Sunrise = sunrise, Sunset = sunset }; } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 39. [ApiController, Route("solartimes")] public class SolarTimeController : ControllerBase { private readonly SolarCalculator _solarCalculator; private readonly CachingLayer _cachingLayer; public SolarTimeController(SolarCalculator solarCalculator, CachingLayer cachingLayer) { _solarCalculator = solarCalculator; _cachingLayer = cachingLayer; } [HttpGet("by_ip")] public async Task<IActionResult> GetByIp(DateTimeOffset? date) { var ip = HttpContext.Connection.RemoteIpAddress; var cacheKey = $"{ip},{date}"; var cachedSolarTimes = await _cachingLayer.TryGetAsync<SolarTimes>(cacheKey); if (cachedSolarTimes != null) return Ok(cachedSolarTimes); var solarTimes = await _solarCalculator.GetSolarTimesAsync(ip, date ?? DateTimeOffset.Now); await _cachingLayer.SetAsync(cacheKey, solarTimes); return Ok(solarTimes); } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 40. public class CachingLayer { private readonly IConnectionMultiplexer _redis; public CachingLayer(IConnectionMultiplexer connectionMultiplexer) => _redis = connectionMultiplexer; public async Task<T> TryGetAsync<T>(string key) where T : class { var result = await _redis.GetDatabase().StringGetAsync(key); if (result.HasValue) return JsonSerializer.Deserialize<T>(result.ToString()); return null; } public async Task SetAsync<T>(string key, T obj) where T : class => await _redis.GetDatabase().StringSetAsync(key, JsonSerializer.Serialize(obj)); } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 41. public class Startup { // //. public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) { services.AddMvc(o /> o.EnableEndpointRouting = false); services.AddSingleton<IConnectionMultiplexer>( ConnectionMultiplexer.Connect(GetRedisConnectionString())); services.AddSingleton<CachingLayer>(); services.AddHttpClient<LocationProvider>(); services.AddTransient<SolarCalculator>(); } public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env) { if (env.IsDevelopment()) app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage(); app.UseMvcWithDefaultRoute(); } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 42. public class FakeApp : IDisposable { private readonly WebApplicationFactory<Startup> _appFactory; public HttpClient Client { get; } public FakeApp() { _appFactory = new WebApplicationFactory<Startup>(); Client = _appFactory.CreateClient(); } public void Dispose() { Client.Dispose(); _appFactory.Dispose(); } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Runs the entire HTTP pipeline in-memory Get a client to talk to our app
  • 43. public class RedisFixture : IAsyncLifetime { private string _containerId; public async Task InitializeAsync() { var result = await Cli.Wrap("docker") .WithArguments("run -d -p 6379:6379 redis") .ExecuteBufferedAsync(); _containerId = result.StandardOutput.Trim(); } public async Task ResetAsync() /> await Cli.Wrap("docker") .WithArguments($"exec {_containerId} redis-cli FLUSHALL") .ExecuteAsync(); public async Task DisposeAsync() /> await Cli.Wrap("docker") .WithArguments($"container kill {_containerId}") .ExecuteAsync(); } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Ideally should bind to a random port Can also use: • Docker.NET • .NET TestContainers
  • 44. public class SolarTimeSpecs : IClassFixture<RedisFixture>, IAsyncLifetime { private readonly RedisFixture _redisFixture; public SolarTimeSpecs(RedisFixture redisFixture) => _redisFixture = redisFixture; public async Task InitializeAsync() => await _redisFixture.ResetAsync(); [Fact] public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_for_their_location_by_ip() { // Arrange using var app = new FakeApp(); // Act var response = await app.Client.GetStringAsync("/solartimes/by_ip"); var solarTimes = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<SolarTimes>(response); // Assert solarTimes.Sunset.Should().BeWithin(TimeSpan.FromDays(1)).After(solarTimes.Sunrise); solarTimes.Sunrise.Should().BeCloseTo(DateTimeOffset.Now, TimeSpan.FromDays(1)); solarTimes.Sunset.Should().BeCloseTo(DateTimeOffset.Now, TimeSpan.FromDays(1)); } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Redis is reset between tests Requirement-driven test Property-based assertions
  • 45. public class FakeIpStartupFilter : IStartupFilter { public IPAddress Ip { get; set; } = IPAddress.Parse("::1"); public Action<IApplicationBuilder> Configure(Action<IApplicationBuilder> nextFilter) { return app => { app.Use(async (ctx, next) => { ctx.Connection.RemoteIpAddress = Ip; await next(); }); nextFilter(app); }; } } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 46. public class FakeApp : IDisposable { private readonly WebApplicationFactory<Startup> _appFactory; private readonly FakeIpStartupFilter _fakeIpStartupFilter = new FakeIpStartupFilter(); public HttpClient Client { get; } public IPAddress ClientIp { get => _fakeIpStartupFilter.Ip; set => _fakeIpStartupFilter.Ip = value; } public FakeApp() { _appFactory = new WebApplicationFactory<Startup>().WithWebHostBuilder(o => { o.ConfigureServices(s => { s.AddSingleton<IStartupFilter>(_fakeIpStartupFilter); }); }); Client = _appFactory.CreateClient(); } // ... } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Inject fake IP provider into pipeline
  • 47. [Fact] public async Task User_can_get_solar_times_for_their_location_by_ip() { // Arrange using var app = new FakeApp { ClientIp = IPAddress.Parse("20.112.101.1") }; var date = new DateTimeOffset(2020, 07, 03, 0, 0, 0, TimeSpan.FromHours(-5)); var expectedSunrise = new DateTimeOffset(2020, 07, 03, 05, 20, 37, TimeSpan.FromHours(-5)); var expectedSunset = new DateTimeOffset(2020, 07, 03, 20, 28, 54, TimeSpan.FromHours(-5)); // Act var query = new QueryBuilder { {"date", date.ToString("O", CultureInfo.InvariantCulture)} }; var response = await app.Client.GetStringAsync($"/solartimes/by_ip{query}"); var solarTimes = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<SolarTimes>(response); // Assert solarTimes.Sunrise.Should().BeCloseTo(expectedSunrise, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1)); solarTimes.Sunset.Should().BeCloseTo(expectedSunset, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1)); } Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz Strict assertions
  • 48. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz ✓ No mocks ✓ Real infrastructural dependencies ✓ Full HTTP pipeline ✓ High confidence ✓ Reasonable cost & speed
  • 49. Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz The goal is not to cover everything end-to-end, but to gain the highest return on investment If you can test at the highest level, do it. If not, reduce scope until the results are acceptable. Confidence Usability
  • 50. Summary 1. Think critically and challenge best practices 2. Don’t rely on the test pyramid too much 3. Separate tests by functionality, rather than by classes or scope 4. Aim for highest level of integration with reasonable cost, speed, reliability 5. Avoid sacrificing software design for testability 6. Consider mocking only as a last resort Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 51. Resources • Unit Testing is Overrated (Alexey Golub) https://tyrrrz.me/blog/unit-testing-is-overrated • Write tests. Not too many. Mostly integration (Kent C. Dodds) https://kentcdodds.com/blog/write-tests • Mocking is a Code Smell (Eric Elliott) https://medium.com/javascript-scene/mocking-is-a-code-smell-944a70c90a6a • Test-induced design damage (David Heinemeier Hansson) https://dhh.dk/2014/test-induced-design-damage.html Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz
  • 52. Thank you! Speaker: Alexey Golub @Tyrrrz