SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Competition and Regulation in
Professions and Occupations
10 June 2024
Secretariat Presentation
Percentage of workforce subject to
professional regulation and
occupational licensing
Context
• There are high levels of variation between
countries and within countries of what is regulated
• Several member countries have launched major
policy reform initiatives to assess the issue and its
impact on the economy
• There is also renewed interest from competition
authorities to be involved in pro-competitive
advocacy initiatives across professions and
occupations
In recent decades and across the OECD, the number of jobs subject to
professional regulation or occupational licensing has grown significantly
29%
USA
22%
EU
18%
AUS
Profession
A job deemed to
be of sufficient
importance to
require advanced
training, enjoy
exclusive rights,
and in some
cases to be
regulated by their
own membership
Licensed
occupation
A job which
requires individuals
who wish to
perform certain
services to obtain
permission from
the government or
a state authority
• There is no universally accepted
definition of what constitutes a
profession or a licensed
occupation
• We use the terms
interchangeably to refer to any
job subject to rules that
regulates market entry and
behaviour
Definitions of key terms
What does regulation include?
Market entry
• Training and
qualifications
• Compulsory
membership
of association
• Limits on
numbers
• Minimum
distance
between
providers
Exclusive
rights
• Restrictions
on who can
perform
activities and
services
• Reserved use
of titles
Behavioural
rules
• Advertising
bans or limits
• Set fees and
discounting
bans
• Proscribed
business
structure
• Liability and
insurance
obligations
Oversight
• State
oversight of
misconduct
• Self-
regulation of
misconduct
• Blended
model
Why regulate?
• Characterises professions and occupations
as focused on rent-seeking, lobbying and
regulatory capture
• Service providers monitor each other, erect
barriers to entry and place rules on
behaviour – undermining competition
• Compared to consumer outcomes which are
diffuse, professions and occupations are able
to lobby on narrow issues, biasing
policymakers towards their interests
• Information asymmetries as the services
provided are experience goods or credence
goods
• Risk that low quality service will create
negative externalities for third parties (e.g.
poor medical care creating risk of contagion)
• Some public goods may require the ability to
access the services of a professional (e.g.
conveyancers and the public good of well
defined and enforceable property rights)
Public interest approach Private interest approach
Outline
6
The empirical evidence on professions and
occupations
Competition advocacy efforts on professions
and occupations
Technological innovation and new competition
in the professions and occupations
Scan the QR code to read the background paper

More Related Content

Similar to Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion

GPG Procurement - V5
GPG Procurement - V5GPG Procurement - V5
GPG Procurement - V5
RichardTanat
 
Achieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best Practices
Achieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best PracticesAchieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best Practices
Achieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best Practices
Modern Healthcare
 
Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading
Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading
Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading
Tatawan Plengsirivat
 
BA220 Week two chapter 2 ppt
BA220 Week two   chapter 2 pptBA220 Week two   chapter 2 ppt
BA220 Week two chapter 2 ppt
BealCollegeOnline
 
Business and Legislation
Business and LegislationBusiness and Legislation
Business and Legislation
tutor2u
 
Competition Assessment: The OECD Toolkit
Competition Assessment: The OECD ToolkitCompetition Assessment: The OECD Toolkit
Competition Assessment: The OECD Toolkit
OECD Governance
 
A future for regulation in the UK
A future for regulation in the UKA future for regulation in the UK
A future for regulation in the UK
Tom Kiedrowski
 
The Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital Finance
The Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital FinanceThe Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital Finance
The Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital Finance
John Owens
 
Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013
Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013
Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013
William Byrnes
 
Regulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics course
Regulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics courseRegulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics course
Regulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics course
William Byrnes
 
2. mt chp lessons from other sectors-v6
2. mt   chp lessons from other sectors-v62. mt   chp lessons from other sectors-v6
2. mt chp lessons from other sectors-v6
Mike Thorogood
 
service marketing environment
service marketing environmentservice marketing environment
Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning
Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning
Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning
SWF
 
Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...
Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...
Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...
Ahmed Qadir
 
A perfect storm? Regulation funding and education in the English legal servi...
A perfect storm? Regulationfunding and education in the English legal servi...A perfect storm? Regulationfunding and education in the English legal servi...
A perfect storm? Regulation funding and education in the English legal servi...
Julian Webb
 
Chris Coxon - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017
Chris Coxon  - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017Chris Coxon  - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017
Chris Coxon - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017
OECD Governance
 
Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...
Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...
Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01
Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01
Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01
Mudit Sharma
 
telecommunication standard strategy policy
telecommunication standard  strategy policytelecommunication standard  strategy policy
telecommunication standard strategy policy
MdSharifUddinShajib
 
Chapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptx
Chapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptxChapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptx
Chapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptx
Erum50
 

Similar to Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion (20)

GPG Procurement - V5
GPG Procurement - V5GPG Procurement - V5
GPG Procurement - V5
 
Achieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best Practices
Achieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best PracticesAchieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best Practices
Achieving Sustainable Savings in Purchased Services Through Best Practices
 
Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading
Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading
Course Brochure on Anti-Manipulation Compliance in Energy Trading
 
BA220 Week two chapter 2 ppt
BA220 Week two   chapter 2 pptBA220 Week two   chapter 2 ppt
BA220 Week two chapter 2 ppt
 
Business and Legislation
Business and LegislationBusiness and Legislation
Business and Legislation
 
Competition Assessment: The OECD Toolkit
Competition Assessment: The OECD ToolkitCompetition Assessment: The OECD Toolkit
Competition Assessment: The OECD Toolkit
 
A future for regulation in the UK
A future for regulation in the UKA future for regulation in the UK
A future for regulation in the UK
 
The Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital Finance
The Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital FinanceThe Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital Finance
The Role of Regulations in the Development of Digital Finance
 
Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013
Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013
Regulatory Impact Analysis Lectures (Law & Econ Course) 2013
 
Regulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics course
Regulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics courseRegulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics course
Regulatory Impact Analysis - Law & Economics course
 
2. mt chp lessons from other sectors-v6
2. mt   chp lessons from other sectors-v62. mt   chp lessons from other sectors-v6
2. mt chp lessons from other sectors-v6
 
service marketing environment
service marketing environmentservice marketing environment
service marketing environment
 
Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning
Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning
Katie Pratt Equality and Commissioning
 
Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...
Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...
Day 2 Presentation 2 Role of stakeholders in promoting competition and consum...
 
A perfect storm? Regulation funding and education in the English legal servi...
A perfect storm? Regulationfunding and education in the English legal servi...A perfect storm? Regulationfunding and education in the English legal servi...
A perfect storm? Regulation funding and education in the English legal servi...
 
Chris Coxon - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017
Chris Coxon  - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017Chris Coxon  - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017
Chris Coxon - Evidence informed policy making - 26 June 2017
 
Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...
Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...
Competition law and state-owned enterprises – OECD Secretariat – November 201...
 
Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01
Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01
Competitionact2002 090902133438-phpapp01
 
telecommunication standard strategy policy
telecommunication standard  strategy policytelecommunication standard  strategy policy
telecommunication standard strategy policy
 
Chapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptx
Chapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptxChapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptx
Chapter 3 SERVICE AREA COMPETITION ANALYSIS.pptx
 

More from OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs

The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussionPro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussionPro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussionArtificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussionArtificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...
Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...
Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...
Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...
Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
OECD Competition Trends 2024 - Highlights
OECD Competition Trends 2024 - HighlightsOECD Competition Trends 2024 - Highlights
OECD Competition Trends 2024 - Highlights
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussion
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 

More from OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs (20)

The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – KEMP – June 2024 OECD...
 
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – COLANGELO – June 2024...
 
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – CAPEL – June 2024 OEC...
 
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...
The Intersection between Competition and Data Privacy – OECD – June 2024 OECD...
 
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussionPro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – LANE – June 2024 OECD discussion
 
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussionPro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Pro-competitive Industrial Policy – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – ČORBA – June 2024 OECD discus...
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussionArtificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussionArtificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussion
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – LIM – June 2024 OECD discussion
 
Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...
Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...
Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – ROBSON – June 202...
 
Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...
Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...
Competition and Regulation in Professional Services – KLEINER – June 2024 OEC...
 
OECD Competition Trends 2024 - Highlights
OECD Competition Trends 2024 - HighlightsOECD Competition Trends 2024 - Highlights
OECD Competition Trends 2024 - Highlights
 
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – CAMACHO – December 2023 OECD discu...
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KOVACIC – December 2023 OECD discussion
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – KWOKA – December 2023 OECD discussion
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – FLETCHER – December 2023 OECD discussion
 
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussionEx-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussion
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Remedies – OECD – December 2023 OECD discussion
 
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – DAVIES – December 2023 OECD discus...
 
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...
Use of Economic Evidence in Cartel Cases – ROBERTS – December 2023 OECD discu...
 

Recently uploaded

Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
parichopra4
 
Trapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis Jr
Trapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis JrTrapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis Jr
Trapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis Jr
MarcusDavisJr1
 
VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
shalvikaprincessparv
 
VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...
VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...
VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...
satpalsheravatmumbai
 
Flinders Cert degree offer diploma
Flinders Cert degree offer diploma Flinders Cert degree offer diploma
Flinders Cert degree offer diploma
popecap
 
Colorfcul Presentation - Public Relations
Colorfcul Presentation - Public RelationsColorfcul Presentation - Public Relations
Colorfcul Presentation - Public Relations
StephanieFeliciano8
 
2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx
2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx
2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx
Dale Wells
 
Chapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdf
Chapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdfChapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdf
Chapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdf
Adroit PMC
 
Chapter 1 A - Introduction to Arbitration
Chapter 1 A - Introduction to ArbitrationChapter 1 A - Introduction to Arbitration
Chapter 1 A - Introduction to Arbitration
Adroit PMC
 
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
sankisogandhi
 
VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
saroohilakhatariroy
 
ulcerative colitis case presentation
ulcerative colitis case presentation ulcerative colitis case presentation
ulcerative colitis case presentation
anshu reddy
 
Conflict resolution in corporate worlds
Conflict resolution in corporate  worldsConflict resolution in corporate  worlds
Conflict resolution in corporate worlds
artemacademy2
 
Curtin Cert degree offer diploma
Curtin Cert degree offer diploma Curtin Cert degree offer diploma
Curtin Cert degree offer diploma
popecap
 
VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
sukaniyasunnu
 
Integrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptx
Integrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptxIntegrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptx
Integrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptx
Sayan Bachaspati
 
NAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION 2024.pptx
NAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION  2024.pptxNAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION  2024.pptx
NAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION 2024.pptx
VeluSureshKumar
 
VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
satpalsheravatmumbai
 
CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.
CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.
CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.
RIYAPAWASHE
 
Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate with new exam dumps 2024
Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate  with new exam dumps 2024Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate  with new exam dumps 2024
Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate with new exam dumps 2024
SkillCertProExams
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Varanasi Girls Call Varanasi 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
 
Trapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis Jr
Trapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis JrTrapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis Jr
Trapbone Routing Plan created by Marcus Davis Jr
 
VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Kolkata Girls Call Kolkata 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
 
VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...
VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...
VIP Ahmedabad Girls Call Ahmedabad 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Serv...
 
Flinders Cert degree offer diploma
Flinders Cert degree offer diploma Flinders Cert degree offer diploma
Flinders Cert degree offer diploma
 
Colorfcul Presentation - Public Relations
Colorfcul Presentation - Public RelationsColorfcul Presentation - Public Relations
Colorfcul Presentation - Public Relations
 
2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx
2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx
2024-07-14 Transformed 07 (shared slides).pptx
 
Chapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdf
Chapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdfChapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdf
Chapter 1 - Comparsion of Dispute Resolution Technique - Reading Material.pdf
 
Chapter 1 A - Introduction to Arbitration
Chapter 1 A - Introduction to ArbitrationChapter 1 A - Introduction to Arbitration
Chapter 1 A - Introduction to Arbitration
 
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
 
VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Nashik Girls Call Nashik 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
 
ulcerative colitis case presentation
ulcerative colitis case presentation ulcerative colitis case presentation
ulcerative colitis case presentation
 
Conflict resolution in corporate worlds
Conflict resolution in corporate  worldsConflict resolution in corporate  worlds
Conflict resolution in corporate worlds
 
Curtin Cert degree offer diploma
Curtin Cert degree offer diploma Curtin Cert degree offer diploma
Curtin Cert degree offer diploma
 
VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Shimla Girls Call Shimla 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
 
Integrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptx
Integrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptxIntegrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptx
Integrated and localized Approach in Development Communication.pptx
 
NAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION 2024.pptx
NAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION  2024.pptxNAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION  2024.pptx
NAAC REFORMS IN ACCREDITATION 2024.pptx
 
VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
VIP Mysore Girls Call Mysore 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Ca...
 
CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.
CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.
CULTURE-The way of life for entire society.
 
Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate with new exam dumps 2024
Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate  with new exam dumps 2024Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate  with new exam dumps 2024
Pass AWS Certified Developer Associate with new exam dumps 2024
 

Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations – OECD – June 2024 OECD discussion

  • 1. Competition and Regulation in Professions and Occupations 10 June 2024 Secretariat Presentation
  • 2. Percentage of workforce subject to professional regulation and occupational licensing Context • There are high levels of variation between countries and within countries of what is regulated • Several member countries have launched major policy reform initiatives to assess the issue and its impact on the economy • There is also renewed interest from competition authorities to be involved in pro-competitive advocacy initiatives across professions and occupations In recent decades and across the OECD, the number of jobs subject to professional regulation or occupational licensing has grown significantly 29% USA 22% EU 18% AUS
  • 3. Profession A job deemed to be of sufficient importance to require advanced training, enjoy exclusive rights, and in some cases to be regulated by their own membership Licensed occupation A job which requires individuals who wish to perform certain services to obtain permission from the government or a state authority • There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes a profession or a licensed occupation • We use the terms interchangeably to refer to any job subject to rules that regulates market entry and behaviour Definitions of key terms
  • 4. What does regulation include? Market entry • Training and qualifications • Compulsory membership of association • Limits on numbers • Minimum distance between providers Exclusive rights • Restrictions on who can perform activities and services • Reserved use of titles Behavioural rules • Advertising bans or limits • Set fees and discounting bans • Proscribed business structure • Liability and insurance obligations Oversight • State oversight of misconduct • Self- regulation of misconduct • Blended model
  • 5. Why regulate? • Characterises professions and occupations as focused on rent-seeking, lobbying and regulatory capture • Service providers monitor each other, erect barriers to entry and place rules on behaviour – undermining competition • Compared to consumer outcomes which are diffuse, professions and occupations are able to lobby on narrow issues, biasing policymakers towards their interests • Information asymmetries as the services provided are experience goods or credence goods • Risk that low quality service will create negative externalities for third parties (e.g. poor medical care creating risk of contagion) • Some public goods may require the ability to access the services of a professional (e.g. conveyancers and the public good of well defined and enforceable property rights) Public interest approach Private interest approach
  • 6. Outline 6 The empirical evidence on professions and occupations Competition advocacy efforts on professions and occupations Technological innovation and new competition in the professions and occupations
  • 7. Scan the QR code to read the background paper