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A New Look to
Leadership
XP2023 Amsterdam
What psychology tells us about
leadership in complex world
Sami Lilja
Agile Coach, Certified Scrum Trainer (CST)
Reaktor
Hello! We are
Reaktor
€113M
ABOUT
We help todayʼs forward
thinking companies become
tomorrowʼs digital leaders.
9 750+
2000
Revenue in 2022 Year founded
Offices across 3 continents Top talent
We are based in Helsinki, Amsterdam, Lisbon, New York,
Seinäjoki, Stockholm, Tampere, Tokyo & Turku
ABOUT
Our offering
For businesses looking to pursue the
blue ocean or differentiate where it
matters most, we make custom digital
products that break market boundaries.
Pioneering
digital products
We help you smoothly transition from
outdated systems to contemporary
technologies, careful to preserve and
utilize all the valuable data you’ve
collected over the years
Platform & product
modernization
Keep up with changing customer needs
and drastically improve your
operational efficiency by recreating
your most business-critical processes
in the digital.
Digitizing core
business processes
Our advisory services range from
strategic design and technology
strategy to business design, technology
due diligence, and solution
architecture.
Digital
advising
Reaktor Creative is a creative studio
that helps future-driven companies
become the talk of the town.
Brand design &
marketing
We help you make the calls necessary
to innovate and operate like the best
digital natives, from top down and
bottom up.
Future-proofing
organizations
4
A New Look to
Leadership
XP2024 Bolzano
What psychology tells us about
leadership in complex world
XP2024, Bolzano
Sami Lilja
Agile Coach, Certified Scrum Trainer (CST)
Reaktor
Who am I?
Sami Lilja
Agile Coach, Certified Scrum Trainer®
Working for Reaktor in Helsinki, Finland.
Hobbies include reading, football*), tennis**),
snooker**) and travelling.
Passionate about Teamwork, Leadership.
Motto: Make your work work.
*) Kids are playing, I am watching.
**) Not playing, just watching on TV
A New Look to Leadership: Topics today
1) Set the stage: Current models about leadership are wrong!
2) What is the New psychology of Leadership
3) Anthro-complexity and leadership
4) What does this mean for us?
#define Leadership
❞Leadership is not about getting people to do things.
It is about getting them to want to do things. Leadership,
then, is about shaping beliefs, desires, and priorities. It is
about achieving influence, not securing compliance.
S. A. Haslam, S. D. Reicher and M. J. Platow:The
New Psychology of Leadership: Identity, Influence
and Power.
Power over
Power with
What makes a leader?
- Self-Awareness
- Respect
- Compassion
- Vision
- Communication
- Learning Agility
- Collaboration
- Influence
- Integrity
- Courage
- Gratitude
- Resilience
- Integrity
- Self-Awareness
- Empathy
- Communication
- Active Listening
- Growth Mindset
- Patience
- Visionary Thinking
- Integrity
- Communication
Skills
- Empathy
- Decisiveness
- Adaptability
- Inspiration
- Accountability
- Resilience
What makes a leader?
- Self-Awareness
- Respect
- Compassion
- Vision
- Communication
- Learning Agility
- Collaboration
- Influence
- Integrity
- Courage
- Gratitude
- Resilience
- Integrity
- Self-Awareness
- Empathy
- Communication
- Active Listening
- Growth Mindset
- Patience
- Visionary Thinking
- Integrity
- Communication
Skills
- Empathy
- Decisiveness
- Adaptability
- Inspiration
- Accountability
- Resilience
These are useful skills, but there is something
else behind leadership.
There is no leadership without followers.
Leadership emerges from a dynamic
relationship between the leader and the
followers. There is no leader when there is no
us.
Social identity is a key to understand
leadership.
Failures in the current view on Leadership
Many people are denied
leadership positions
because they “do not have
leadership character”
Leadership development
programs fail, because they
focus on individual skills -
separated from the social
context.
Myth #1: Leadership is individualistic
- Actually, leadership issocial
- Ignoring followers leaves a big, unanswered gap in our
understanding of leadership
- The social nature of leadership helps to explain phenomena that
are otherwise difficult to understand
Myth #2: “The Great Man”
- Literature tries to find characteristics or personality traits that
explain leadership
- Unfortunately, research does not support this. There is very weak
correlation between “great man traits” and success as a leader
The secrets of Leadership?
- (Airport) Books about leadership
qualities are very confusing
- Dead people have 2x more leadership
secrets than people alive
- Men have more leadership secrets than
women
- Did Jesus have 58 secrets or only 7?
The Great Man?
Sir Winston Churchill
- Historians widely attribute Churchill with being “the greatest statesman of
the 20th century.”
- In 2002 the BBC broadcast a series called 100 Greatest Britons. After each
programme in which particular figures were proposed and examined [...] viewers
were invited to vote. In the end, there was no doubt about their verdict - SirWinston
Churchill was the greatest Briton.
How did such a Great Man lose the elections 1945?
- Just few months after peaking with his greatness
- “It was one of the biggest electoral swings of the twentieth century”
https://winstonchurchill.org/the-life-of-churchill/life/churchill-leader-and-statesman/
https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30934629
https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/how-winston-churchill-and-the-conservative-party-lost-the-1945-elect
ion
Both the Conservatives and the
Labour Party we driving social
reform, but the Labour Partyʼs
emphasis clearly appealed to
many voters.
Leadership and Agile?
Agile movement is surprisingly quiet about Leadership
- Agile Manifesto has zero mentions about leadership, leader or
leading
Scrum?
- Scrum Guide: “Scrum Masters are true leaders who serve the Scrum
Team and the larger organization.” and
- “The Scrum Master serves the organization [...] Leading, training, and
coaching the organization in its Scrum adoption”
So what?
- Misunderstanding, diminishing or ignoring leadership paves ways
to all kinds of “snake oil” solutions
Leadership vs Management
From https://locelle.com/leadership-vs-management/, based on Three Differences Between
Managers and Leaders at https://hbr.org/2013/08/tests-of-a-leadership-transiti
Dave Snowden, Rewilding leadership:
https://thecynefin.co/rewilding-leadership-2-of-3/
The constant promulgation of two-column tables (often with pretty pictures) in which
the evil past is set out on [one side] and the idealised future on the [other]. Aside from
the fact that most leadership involves, in different contexts, both the left and the right,
this type of Manichæism creates a lack of pragmatism and an impossible tension
between reality and the ideal.
We need a new view to Leadership
- Most of leadership research and theories are leader-based
- We must start taking followers into account
- New view must avoid idealism, wishful thinking, and biases
In complexity connections and context matter more than things or actions, which
is not to mean the actor does not have power, but they only have power insofar as
the affordances of the system permit it.
[...] The context remains critical in everything. It, therefore, follows that creating
a process and interaction-based context is more important than leadership
development per se.
Dave Snowden, An apophatic view of leadership:https://thecynefin.co/an-apophatic-view-of-leadership/
New Psychology of
Leadership
What makes a leader?
Social Identity (Tajfel, Turner 1979)
Lähdeviite
Key concepts
- Social identity: Our sense of self can be derived from the group we
belong to and the meaning we associate with that belonging
- Who we are depends on the group we belong to
- Self-categorization: Cognitive process where we classify ourselves into
a group
- Depersonalisation: We define ourselves according to the groupʼs social
identity
- We see other people as representatives of their group (both for ingroup and
outgroup members) rather than individuals
- Not loss of self, but re-defining self as a member of group
- This is essential for coordinating action with(in) a group
Key concepts
- Social stereotyping: Group has a shared social identity
- We assume ingroup members agree on important topics
- We actively seek agreement among ingroup members
- We also assume that outgroup members disagree with us on important
issues
- Shared social identity and social stereotyping allow coordination
- Shared social identity is the source of collective social power
DEPERSONALISATION
US
Power Dynamics
- Power is a key element in order to understand leadership
- The fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same sense in which
Energy is the fundamental concept in physics. (B Russell, 1938)
- Power is not taken, it is given.
- The same applies to Leadership: We choose to be lead by someone and
we project our group prototypical behavior in that leader
- Power bases (by French and Raven)
- Coercive - Reward - Legitimate - Referent - Expert
Power Dynamics
- Power over: Leaderʼs power is based on the resources they have
- For example rewards and punishments
- Resource-based power decreases over time
- Power with: Leaderʼs power is based on shared identity
- Leader creates a shared social identity and are embodiments of this
identity
- Followers internalize the identity and create a coherent social force
Decreasing feeling
of shared identity
between the leader
and the followers
Increasing feeling of
shared identity
between the leader
and the followers
“..make people do
things..”
“..make peoplewant to do
things..”
Resource
control
External social
regulation
Power over
Decreased
social identity
Resource
control
Identity
control
Internal social
regulation
Power with
Increased
resources
Identity control
Ingroup / Outgroup
- Ingroup: My current social identity, result of self-categorization
- Outgroup: Everyone else
- We constantly compare ourselves to our surroundings
- Our current social identity is situational
- Leaders shape social identity for their ingroup
- Leaders can use power with only in their ingroup
- For outgroup, power over is the only alternative
Antro-complexity and
Social identity
Lähdeviite
Characteristics of a complex system
- It involves large numbers ofinteracting elements.
- The interactions are nonlinear. Minor changes can produce
disproportionately major consequences.
- The system is dynamic, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and
solutions canʼt be imposed. rather, they arise from the circumstances.
- The system has a history, and the past is integrated with the present; the
elements evolve with one another and with the environment; and evolution
is irreversible.
- Unlike in ordered systems (where the system constrains the agents), or
chaotic systems (where there are no constraints), in a complex system the
agents and the system constrain one another, especially over time. This
means that we cannot forecast or predict what will happen.
Based on article A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making
by David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone
https://hbr.org/2007/11/a-leaders-framework-for-decision-making
Add human beings
- They have multiple identities and can fluidly switch between
them without conscious thought. For example*) a person can
be
- fan of Venezia FC,
- Member of the Labour Party,
- Project Manager at British Airways,
- mother,
- voluntary worker for homeless shelter,
- ..and much more..
*) Original text: For example, a person can be a respected member of the
community as well as a terrorist. Original text highlights external
evaluation for identity, whereas social identity is intrinsic and
without evaluation.
Social identity is fluid and
we can belong to many
groups simultaneously.
Social context (our
current ingroup) affects
our decisions.
Based on article A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making
by David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone
https://hbr.org/2007/11/a-leaders-framework-for-decision-making
- They make decisions based on past patterns of success and
failure, rather than on logical, definable rules.
https://thecynefin.co/kataphatic-aspects-of-leadership/
Leadership in complex domain
- Create safe-to-fail experiments
- Device experiments that could lead to a desired outcome
- Identify patterns
- Distribute decision making, centralise coordination
- Disintermediation: Remove interpretative layers between the
decision maker and the raw or finely-grained data on which a
decision is based.
- Distributed cognition: Allow weak signals to emerge locally.
- Leadership is collective
- [Group] has more cognitive capacity than individuals and can
delegate authority without loss of status and are better at sharing
failure
Complexity and social identity
- Create safe-to-fail experiments
- Device experiments that could lead to a desired outcome
- Identify patterns
- Distribute decision making, centralise coordination
- Disintermediation: Remove interpretative layers between the
decision maker and the raw / finely-grained data on which a
decision is based.
- Distributed cognition: Allow weak signals to emerge locally.
- Leadership is collective
- [Group] has more cognitive capacity than individuals and can
delegate authority without loss of status and are better at sharing
failure
This requires that people
want to do things. Power with
rather than Power over.
Device experiments and
also for Social Identity.
Shared social identity acts
as a basis for interpretation
and emergence
What makes a leader?
Be one of us
Leader is prototypical
representative of the
group
Do it for us
Leader acts in ways
that promote groupʼs
benefit
Craft a
sense of us
Leaders are
entrepreneurs of
identity
Make us
matter
Leaders are
engineers of identity
1. Be one of us
- Leader is prototypical representative of the group
- Prototypical: Represents what the group is or desires to be
- Prototypical characteristics for leader are not individual -
leader represents what is important for the group
Be one of us
Leader is prototypical
representative of the
group
- Leadership effectiveness decreases if leader is not part of ingroup
- Top management remuneration or selection process for leader could place
the selected leaders to outgroup
Be one of us
Be one of us
Leader is prototypical
representative of the
group
- Who is prototypical: Meta-contrast ratio
AVG (similarity of the individual to outgroup
members)
AVG (similarity of the individual to ingroup
members)
- Prototypicality depends on the situation. Introducing an extreme
(opposite) outgroup means that more extreme ingroup members
become prototypical
- For example: Peaceful protest may turn violent if an outgroup (e.g. police)behaves
in a way that highlight differences between groups
Extreme Moderate Extreme Extreme Moderate Extreme
Who is one of us?
- Example: Football Euro 2004 (Portugal)
- Police behavior was changed from zero tolerance & threatening
presence to considerate behavior & fulfilling fansʼ needs
- As a result, moderate fans started to self-regulate hooligans
- Ingroup prototype was a football fan, not a hooligan
Crowd dynamics, policing and ‘hooliganism’ at ‘Euro2004’ (Dr. Clifford Stott, Prof. Dr. Otto Adang)
https://doc.ukdataservice.ac.uk/doc/5300/mrdoc/pdf/5300userguide.pdf
2. Do it for us
- Leaderʼs behavior and actions must promote groupʼs benefit
- Especially when compared to outgroup
- Benefit is always contextual, not always money or resources
Do it for us
Leader acts in ways
that promote groupʼs
benefit
- Example: Fairness, one of the most important characteristic of a great
leader and the foundational principle in social and economical thinking
- Leaderʼs perceived fairness is ingroup opinion, not leaderʼs personal
characteristics.
- The same principle can be applied to any other characteristic of a leader
- SCARF as an example
2. Do it for us: Leadership and SCARF
- Our survival mechanism is approach-avoid response to stimuli
- Response is equally strong for both physical and social situations
- SCARF model is widely used in organisational and leadership context
- Avoid threats - provide rewards → Create a conflict-friendly environment
SCARF: a model
to understand
our social brain
BUT
- We need to take into consideration social context: ingroup and
outgroup
- SCARF rewards have stronger impact with ingroup members and SCARF
violations are stronger from outgroup members
- SCARF reward to outgroup member can be perceived as a SCARF violation for
ingroup
- SCARF rewards and violations defines who belongs to ingroup
3. Craft the “sense of us”
- Only when we can draw a boundary, we caninstitute
a culture and a common mobilization.
- Leaders define and adjust boundaries for the group
Craft a
sense of us
Leaders are
entrepreneurs of
identity
- Leader must be a representative of the ingroup
- Language, actions or even clothing is signal if leader is part of the ingroup or not
- In extreme cases, boundaries can mean life or
death
- Germany 1930s: Nationhood belongs to “ethnic
comrades” → minorities are a threat to “us”
- Bulgaria 1940s: Extended citizenship included Jews →
Attacking minorities was considered an attack against
“us”
4. Make us matter
- Who we are and who do we want to be
- Leaders are identity-artists and identity-engineers
- Artist: Eloquent speak and storytelling is useful*)
- Engineer: Parades, events, uniforms, naming conventions
- Leaders as identity-engineers create structures
- Structures represent norms, values and beliefs of the ingroup
Make us
matter
Leaders are
engineers of identity
- Twist: Majority of intra-group conflicts are a result of an ingroup internal
conflict
- Weak leaders use external conflict to gain support in their ingroup
- Identity-artistry and identity-engineering are targeted against outgroup
*) Remember:
ingroup prototypical
behaviour
Closing thoughts
Lähdeviite
Ingroup, outgroup and dark patterns
- New Psychology of Leadership by Haslam et.al does not evaluate if leadership
in a situation is good or bad
- It only describes what it takes to become leader
- Some of the examples in the book are from dictators or otherwise not-democratic
leaders
- Should we have moral considerations about leadership?
- Social identity is tightly related to division between ingroup and outgroup
- Could this lead to stronger polarization between us and them
- Current politics - at least viewed from Europe - seem to support this
- Social manipulation to acquire power? Demonizing outgroup to support leaderʼs
agenda?
Key takeaways
- Leadership truly is about us, not about me
- We must look both at leaders and followers to understand and develop
leadership
- Social identity, ie. belonging to a group, is a significant factor in leadership
-
- To understand leadership, we must understand the underlying social
processes
- Combining anthro-complexity with social view of leadership gives deeper
understanding of what a leader can do
- Just as politics is too important to leave only to politicians, so too leadership is
far too important a matter to be left only to leaders.
- Everyone must understand sociology of leadership to protect us from
manipulation and dark patterns of leadership
44
Thank you!
Sami Lilja
Agile Coach
Certified Scrum Trainer
sami.lilja@reaktor.com
(FIN) +358 50 3620177
S. A. Haslam, S. D. Reicher and M. J. Platow:The New Psychology of
Leadership: Identity, Influence and Power.(Psychology Press 2010)
David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone: A Leaderʼs Framework for
Decision Making (Harvard Business Review Nov 2007)
David Rock: Managing with the Brain in Mind (strategy+business
Magazine, issue 56, Autumn 2009), SCARF model explained
Background material
XP2023 Amsterdam

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XP 2024 presentation: A New Look to Leadership

  • 1. A New Look to Leadership XP2023 Amsterdam What psychology tells us about leadership in complex world Sami Lilja Agile Coach, Certified Scrum Trainer (CST) Reaktor
  • 3. €113M ABOUT We help todayʼs forward thinking companies become tomorrowʼs digital leaders. 9 750+ 2000 Revenue in 2022 Year founded Offices across 3 continents Top talent We are based in Helsinki, Amsterdam, Lisbon, New York, Seinäjoki, Stockholm, Tampere, Tokyo & Turku
  • 4. ABOUT Our offering For businesses looking to pursue the blue ocean or differentiate where it matters most, we make custom digital products that break market boundaries. Pioneering digital products We help you smoothly transition from outdated systems to contemporary technologies, careful to preserve and utilize all the valuable data you’ve collected over the years Platform & product modernization Keep up with changing customer needs and drastically improve your operational efficiency by recreating your most business-critical processes in the digital. Digitizing core business processes Our advisory services range from strategic design and technology strategy to business design, technology due diligence, and solution architecture. Digital advising Reaktor Creative is a creative studio that helps future-driven companies become the talk of the town. Brand design & marketing We help you make the calls necessary to innovate and operate like the best digital natives, from top down and bottom up. Future-proofing organizations 4
  • 5. A New Look to Leadership XP2024 Bolzano What psychology tells us about leadership in complex world XP2024, Bolzano Sami Lilja Agile Coach, Certified Scrum Trainer (CST) Reaktor
  • 6. Who am I? Sami Lilja Agile Coach, Certified Scrum Trainer® Working for Reaktor in Helsinki, Finland. Hobbies include reading, football*), tennis**), snooker**) and travelling. Passionate about Teamwork, Leadership. Motto: Make your work work. *) Kids are playing, I am watching. **) Not playing, just watching on TV
  • 7. A New Look to Leadership: Topics today 1) Set the stage: Current models about leadership are wrong! 2) What is the New psychology of Leadership 3) Anthro-complexity and leadership 4) What does this mean for us?
  • 8. #define Leadership ❞Leadership is not about getting people to do things. It is about getting them to want to do things. Leadership, then, is about shaping beliefs, desires, and priorities. It is about achieving influence, not securing compliance. S. A. Haslam, S. D. Reicher and M. J. Platow:The New Psychology of Leadership: Identity, Influence and Power. Power over Power with
  • 9. What makes a leader? - Self-Awareness - Respect - Compassion - Vision - Communication - Learning Agility - Collaboration - Influence - Integrity - Courage - Gratitude - Resilience - Integrity - Self-Awareness - Empathy - Communication - Active Listening - Growth Mindset - Patience - Visionary Thinking - Integrity - Communication Skills - Empathy - Decisiveness - Adaptability - Inspiration - Accountability - Resilience
  • 10. What makes a leader? - Self-Awareness - Respect - Compassion - Vision - Communication - Learning Agility - Collaboration - Influence - Integrity - Courage - Gratitude - Resilience - Integrity - Self-Awareness - Empathy - Communication - Active Listening - Growth Mindset - Patience - Visionary Thinking - Integrity - Communication Skills - Empathy - Decisiveness - Adaptability - Inspiration - Accountability - Resilience These are useful skills, but there is something else behind leadership. There is no leadership without followers. Leadership emerges from a dynamic relationship between the leader and the followers. There is no leader when there is no us. Social identity is a key to understand leadership.
  • 11. Failures in the current view on Leadership Many people are denied leadership positions because they “do not have leadership character” Leadership development programs fail, because they focus on individual skills - separated from the social context. Myth #1: Leadership is individualistic - Actually, leadership issocial - Ignoring followers leaves a big, unanswered gap in our understanding of leadership - The social nature of leadership helps to explain phenomena that are otherwise difficult to understand Myth #2: “The Great Man” - Literature tries to find characteristics or personality traits that explain leadership - Unfortunately, research does not support this. There is very weak correlation between “great man traits” and success as a leader
  • 12. The secrets of Leadership? - (Airport) Books about leadership qualities are very confusing - Dead people have 2x more leadership secrets than people alive - Men have more leadership secrets than women - Did Jesus have 58 secrets or only 7?
  • 13. The Great Man? Sir Winston Churchill - Historians widely attribute Churchill with being “the greatest statesman of the 20th century.” - In 2002 the BBC broadcast a series called 100 Greatest Britons. After each programme in which particular figures were proposed and examined [...] viewers were invited to vote. In the end, there was no doubt about their verdict - SirWinston Churchill was the greatest Briton. How did such a Great Man lose the elections 1945? - Just few months after peaking with his greatness - “It was one of the biggest electoral swings of the twentieth century” https://winstonchurchill.org/the-life-of-churchill/life/churchill-leader-and-statesman/ https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30934629 https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/how-winston-churchill-and-the-conservative-party-lost-the-1945-elect ion Both the Conservatives and the Labour Party we driving social reform, but the Labour Partyʼs emphasis clearly appealed to many voters.
  • 14. Leadership and Agile? Agile movement is surprisingly quiet about Leadership - Agile Manifesto has zero mentions about leadership, leader or leading Scrum? - Scrum Guide: “Scrum Masters are true leaders who serve the Scrum Team and the larger organization.” and - “The Scrum Master serves the organization [...] Leading, training, and coaching the organization in its Scrum adoption” So what? - Misunderstanding, diminishing or ignoring leadership paves ways to all kinds of “snake oil” solutions
  • 15. Leadership vs Management From https://locelle.com/leadership-vs-management/, based on Three Differences Between Managers and Leaders at https://hbr.org/2013/08/tests-of-a-leadership-transiti Dave Snowden, Rewilding leadership: https://thecynefin.co/rewilding-leadership-2-of-3/ The constant promulgation of two-column tables (often with pretty pictures) in which the evil past is set out on [one side] and the idealised future on the [other]. Aside from the fact that most leadership involves, in different contexts, both the left and the right, this type of Manichæism creates a lack of pragmatism and an impossible tension between reality and the ideal.
  • 16. We need a new view to Leadership - Most of leadership research and theories are leader-based - We must start taking followers into account - New view must avoid idealism, wishful thinking, and biases In complexity connections and context matter more than things or actions, which is not to mean the actor does not have power, but they only have power insofar as the affordances of the system permit it. [...] The context remains critical in everything. It, therefore, follows that creating a process and interaction-based context is more important than leadership development per se. Dave Snowden, An apophatic view of leadership:https://thecynefin.co/an-apophatic-view-of-leadership/
  • 17. New Psychology of Leadership What makes a leader? Social Identity (Tajfel, Turner 1979) Lähdeviite
  • 18. Key concepts - Social identity: Our sense of self can be derived from the group we belong to and the meaning we associate with that belonging - Who we are depends on the group we belong to - Self-categorization: Cognitive process where we classify ourselves into a group - Depersonalisation: We define ourselves according to the groupʼs social identity - We see other people as representatives of their group (both for ingroup and outgroup members) rather than individuals - Not loss of self, but re-defining self as a member of group - This is essential for coordinating action with(in) a group
  • 19. Key concepts - Social stereotyping: Group has a shared social identity - We assume ingroup members agree on important topics - We actively seek agreement among ingroup members - We also assume that outgroup members disagree with us on important issues - Shared social identity and social stereotyping allow coordination - Shared social identity is the source of collective social power DEPERSONALISATION US
  • 20. Power Dynamics - Power is a key element in order to understand leadership - The fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same sense in which Energy is the fundamental concept in physics. (B Russell, 1938) - Power is not taken, it is given. - The same applies to Leadership: We choose to be lead by someone and we project our group prototypical behavior in that leader - Power bases (by French and Raven) - Coercive - Reward - Legitimate - Referent - Expert
  • 21. Power Dynamics - Power over: Leaderʼs power is based on the resources they have - For example rewards and punishments - Resource-based power decreases over time - Power with: Leaderʼs power is based on shared identity - Leader creates a shared social identity and are embodiments of this identity - Followers internalize the identity and create a coherent social force Decreasing feeling of shared identity between the leader and the followers Increasing feeling of shared identity between the leader and the followers “..make people do things..” “..make peoplewant to do things..” Resource control External social regulation Power over Decreased social identity Resource control Identity control Internal social regulation Power with Increased resources Identity control
  • 22. Ingroup / Outgroup - Ingroup: My current social identity, result of self-categorization - Outgroup: Everyone else - We constantly compare ourselves to our surroundings - Our current social identity is situational - Leaders shape social identity for their ingroup - Leaders can use power with only in their ingroup - For outgroup, power over is the only alternative
  • 24. Characteristics of a complex system - It involves large numbers ofinteracting elements. - The interactions are nonlinear. Minor changes can produce disproportionately major consequences. - The system is dynamic, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and solutions canʼt be imposed. rather, they arise from the circumstances. - The system has a history, and the past is integrated with the present; the elements evolve with one another and with the environment; and evolution is irreversible. - Unlike in ordered systems (where the system constrains the agents), or chaotic systems (where there are no constraints), in a complex system the agents and the system constrain one another, especially over time. This means that we cannot forecast or predict what will happen. Based on article A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making by David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone https://hbr.org/2007/11/a-leaders-framework-for-decision-making
  • 25. Add human beings - They have multiple identities and can fluidly switch between them without conscious thought. For example*) a person can be - fan of Venezia FC, - Member of the Labour Party, - Project Manager at British Airways, - mother, - voluntary worker for homeless shelter, - ..and much more.. *) Original text: For example, a person can be a respected member of the community as well as a terrorist. Original text highlights external evaluation for identity, whereas social identity is intrinsic and without evaluation. Social identity is fluid and we can belong to many groups simultaneously. Social context (our current ingroup) affects our decisions. Based on article A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making by David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone https://hbr.org/2007/11/a-leaders-framework-for-decision-making - They make decisions based on past patterns of success and failure, rather than on logical, definable rules.
  • 26. https://thecynefin.co/kataphatic-aspects-of-leadership/ Leadership in complex domain - Create safe-to-fail experiments - Device experiments that could lead to a desired outcome - Identify patterns - Distribute decision making, centralise coordination - Disintermediation: Remove interpretative layers between the decision maker and the raw or finely-grained data on which a decision is based. - Distributed cognition: Allow weak signals to emerge locally. - Leadership is collective - [Group] has more cognitive capacity than individuals and can delegate authority without loss of status and are better at sharing failure
  • 27. Complexity and social identity - Create safe-to-fail experiments - Device experiments that could lead to a desired outcome - Identify patterns - Distribute decision making, centralise coordination - Disintermediation: Remove interpretative layers between the decision maker and the raw / finely-grained data on which a decision is based. - Distributed cognition: Allow weak signals to emerge locally. - Leadership is collective - [Group] has more cognitive capacity than individuals and can delegate authority without loss of status and are better at sharing failure This requires that people want to do things. Power with rather than Power over. Device experiments and also for Social Identity. Shared social identity acts as a basis for interpretation and emergence
  • 28. What makes a leader?
  • 29. Be one of us Leader is prototypical representative of the group Do it for us Leader acts in ways that promote groupʼs benefit Craft a sense of us Leaders are entrepreneurs of identity Make us matter Leaders are engineers of identity
  • 30. 1. Be one of us - Leader is prototypical representative of the group - Prototypical: Represents what the group is or desires to be - Prototypical characteristics for leader are not individual - leader represents what is important for the group Be one of us Leader is prototypical representative of the group - Leadership effectiveness decreases if leader is not part of ingroup - Top management remuneration or selection process for leader could place the selected leaders to outgroup
  • 31. Be one of us Be one of us Leader is prototypical representative of the group - Who is prototypical: Meta-contrast ratio AVG (similarity of the individual to outgroup members) AVG (similarity of the individual to ingroup members) - Prototypicality depends on the situation. Introducing an extreme (opposite) outgroup means that more extreme ingroup members become prototypical - For example: Peaceful protest may turn violent if an outgroup (e.g. police)behaves in a way that highlight differences between groups Extreme Moderate Extreme Extreme Moderate Extreme
  • 32. Who is one of us? - Example: Football Euro 2004 (Portugal) - Police behavior was changed from zero tolerance & threatening presence to considerate behavior & fulfilling fansʼ needs - As a result, moderate fans started to self-regulate hooligans - Ingroup prototype was a football fan, not a hooligan Crowd dynamics, policing and ‘hooliganism’ at ‘Euro2004’ (Dr. Clifford Stott, Prof. Dr. Otto Adang) https://doc.ukdataservice.ac.uk/doc/5300/mrdoc/pdf/5300userguide.pdf
  • 33. 2. Do it for us - Leaderʼs behavior and actions must promote groupʼs benefit - Especially when compared to outgroup - Benefit is always contextual, not always money or resources Do it for us Leader acts in ways that promote groupʼs benefit - Example: Fairness, one of the most important characteristic of a great leader and the foundational principle in social and economical thinking - Leaderʼs perceived fairness is ingroup opinion, not leaderʼs personal characteristics. - The same principle can be applied to any other characteristic of a leader - SCARF as an example
  • 34. 2. Do it for us: Leadership and SCARF - Our survival mechanism is approach-avoid response to stimuli - Response is equally strong for both physical and social situations - SCARF model is widely used in organisational and leadership context - Avoid threats - provide rewards → Create a conflict-friendly environment SCARF: a model to understand our social brain BUT - We need to take into consideration social context: ingroup and outgroup - SCARF rewards have stronger impact with ingroup members and SCARF violations are stronger from outgroup members - SCARF reward to outgroup member can be perceived as a SCARF violation for ingroup - SCARF rewards and violations defines who belongs to ingroup
  • 35. 3. Craft the “sense of us” - Only when we can draw a boundary, we caninstitute a culture and a common mobilization. - Leaders define and adjust boundaries for the group Craft a sense of us Leaders are entrepreneurs of identity - Leader must be a representative of the ingroup - Language, actions or even clothing is signal if leader is part of the ingroup or not - In extreme cases, boundaries can mean life or death - Germany 1930s: Nationhood belongs to “ethnic comrades” → minorities are a threat to “us” - Bulgaria 1940s: Extended citizenship included Jews → Attacking minorities was considered an attack against “us”
  • 36. 4. Make us matter - Who we are and who do we want to be - Leaders are identity-artists and identity-engineers - Artist: Eloquent speak and storytelling is useful*) - Engineer: Parades, events, uniforms, naming conventions - Leaders as identity-engineers create structures - Structures represent norms, values and beliefs of the ingroup Make us matter Leaders are engineers of identity - Twist: Majority of intra-group conflicts are a result of an ingroup internal conflict - Weak leaders use external conflict to gain support in their ingroup - Identity-artistry and identity-engineering are targeted against outgroup *) Remember: ingroup prototypical behaviour
  • 38. Ingroup, outgroup and dark patterns - New Psychology of Leadership by Haslam et.al does not evaluate if leadership in a situation is good or bad - It only describes what it takes to become leader - Some of the examples in the book are from dictators or otherwise not-democratic leaders - Should we have moral considerations about leadership? - Social identity is tightly related to division between ingroup and outgroup - Could this lead to stronger polarization between us and them - Current politics - at least viewed from Europe - seem to support this - Social manipulation to acquire power? Demonizing outgroup to support leaderʼs agenda?
  • 39. Key takeaways - Leadership truly is about us, not about me - We must look both at leaders and followers to understand and develop leadership - Social identity, ie. belonging to a group, is a significant factor in leadership - - To understand leadership, we must understand the underlying social processes - Combining anthro-complexity with social view of leadership gives deeper understanding of what a leader can do - Just as politics is too important to leave only to politicians, so too leadership is far too important a matter to be left only to leaders. - Everyone must understand sociology of leadership to protect us from manipulation and dark patterns of leadership
  • 40. 44 Thank you! Sami Lilja Agile Coach Certified Scrum Trainer sami.lilja@reaktor.com (FIN) +358 50 3620177
  • 41. S. A. Haslam, S. D. Reicher and M. J. Platow:The New Psychology of Leadership: Identity, Influence and Power.(Psychology Press 2010) David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone: A Leaderʼs Framework for Decision Making (Harvard Business Review Nov 2007) David Rock: Managing with the Brain in Mind (strategy+business Magazine, issue 56, Autumn 2009), SCARF model explained Background material XP2023 Amsterdam