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Dr. KRVS Chaitanya
EXPECTORANTS
AND
ANTITUSSIVES
Dr. Koppala RVS Chaitanya
Department of Pharmacology
Dr. KRVS Chaitanya
EXPECTORANTS AND ANTITUSSIVES
EXPECTORANTS ANTITUSSIVES
Expectorants are medications or natural
ingredients that help clear mucus from a
person's airways. Uses include alleviating
congestion due to the common cold or flu.
Expectorants are available as a stand-alone
drug or as an ingredient in all-in-one cold and
flu medications
Antitussives are medicines that suppress
coughing, also known as cough suppressants.
Antitussives are thought to work by
inhibiting a coordinating region for coughing
located in the brain stem, disrupting the
cough reflex arc; although the exact
mechanism of action is unknown.
EXAMPLES
BRONCHIAL SECRETIONS ENHANCER OPIOIDS
Sodium citrate
Potassium citrate
Potassium iodide
Guaiphenesin
Balsum of Tolu
Vasaka
Ammonium chloride
Codeine
Ethylmorphine
Phocodeine
NON OPIOIDS
Noscapine
Dextromethorphan
Chlorphenidol
ANTIHISTAMINICS
MUCOLYTICS
Chlorpheniramine
Diphenhydramine
Promethazine
Bromohexine
Amborxol
Acetyl cysteine
Carbocisteine
PERIPHERALLY ACTING ANTITIUSSIVES
Prenoxidiazine
BRONCHODILATORS
Salbutamol
Terbutaline
Dr. KRVS Chaitanya
Dr. KRVS Chaitanya
DEMULCENTS AND EXPECTORANTS
 Pharyngeal demulcents sooth the throat and reduce afferent impulses from the
inflamed/ irritated pharyngeal mucosa, thus provide symptomatic relief in dry cough
arising from throat.
 Expectorants (Mucokinetics) are drugs believed to increase bronchial secretion or
reduce its viscosity, facilitating its removal by coughing.
Mucolytic
 Bromhexine A derivative of the alkaloid vasicine obtained from Adhatoda vasica
(Vasaka), is a Potent mucolytic and mucokinetic, capable of inducing thin copious
bronchial secretion.
ANTITUSSIVES
 Antitussives act centrally by suppressing the neurons located in the brainstem’s cough
center. Antitussives are often used with tracheitis, tracheobronchitis. When coughing
worsens the inflammation that is already present and stimulates more coughing, it
needs to be suppressed.
DEMULCENTS AND EXPECTORANTS
 Pharyngeal demulcents sooth the throat and reduce afferent impulses from the
inflamed/ irritated pharyngeal mucosa, thus provide symptomatic relief in dry cough
arising from throat.
 Expectorants (Mucokinetics) are drugs believed to increase bronchial secretion or
reduce its viscosity, facilitating its removal by coughing.
 Sodium and potassium citrate are considered to increase bronchial secretion by salt
action.
 Potassium iodide is secreted by bronchial glands and can irritate the airway mucosa.
 Prolonged use can affect thyroid function and produce iodism. It is rarely used now.
 Guaiphenesin, vasaka, tolu balsum are plant products which are supposed to enhance
bronchial secretion and mucociliary function while being secreted by
tracheobronchial glands.
Opioids
 Codeine: An opium alkaloid similar to but less potent than morphine
 It is more selective for cough centre and is treated as the standard antitussive;
suppresses cough for about 6 hours.
Non Opioids
Dr. KRVS Chaitanya
 Noscapine (Narcotine) An opium alkaloid of the benzoisoquinoline series. It
depresses cough but has no narcotic, analgesic or dependence inducing properties.
Mucolytics
 Bromhexine A derivative of the alkaloid Hysosicine obtained from (Vasaka), is a
potent mucolytic and Mucokinetics, capable of inducing thin copious bronchial
secretion.
 It depolymerises mucopolvsaccharides directly as well as by liberating lysosomal
enzymes network of fibres in tenacious sputum is broken.
 It is particularly useful if mucus plugs are present. Side effects are rhinorrhoea and
lacrimation, gastric irritation, hypersensitivity

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Expectorants and Antitussives.pdf

  • 1. Dr. KRVS Chaitanya EXPECTORANTS AND ANTITUSSIVES Dr. Koppala RVS Chaitanya Department of Pharmacology
  • 2. Dr. KRVS Chaitanya EXPECTORANTS AND ANTITUSSIVES EXPECTORANTS ANTITUSSIVES Expectorants are medications or natural ingredients that help clear mucus from a person's airways. Uses include alleviating congestion due to the common cold or flu. Expectorants are available as a stand-alone drug or as an ingredient in all-in-one cold and flu medications Antitussives are medicines that suppress coughing, also known as cough suppressants. Antitussives are thought to work by inhibiting a coordinating region for coughing located in the brain stem, disrupting the cough reflex arc; although the exact mechanism of action is unknown. EXAMPLES BRONCHIAL SECRETIONS ENHANCER OPIOIDS Sodium citrate Potassium citrate Potassium iodide Guaiphenesin Balsum of Tolu Vasaka Ammonium chloride Codeine Ethylmorphine Phocodeine NON OPIOIDS Noscapine Dextromethorphan Chlorphenidol ANTIHISTAMINICS MUCOLYTICS Chlorpheniramine Diphenhydramine Promethazine Bromohexine Amborxol Acetyl cysteine Carbocisteine PERIPHERALLY ACTING ANTITIUSSIVES Prenoxidiazine BRONCHODILATORS Salbutamol Terbutaline
  • 4. Dr. KRVS Chaitanya DEMULCENTS AND EXPECTORANTS  Pharyngeal demulcents sooth the throat and reduce afferent impulses from the inflamed/ irritated pharyngeal mucosa, thus provide symptomatic relief in dry cough arising from throat.  Expectorants (Mucokinetics) are drugs believed to increase bronchial secretion or reduce its viscosity, facilitating its removal by coughing. Mucolytic  Bromhexine A derivative of the alkaloid vasicine obtained from Adhatoda vasica (Vasaka), is a Potent mucolytic and mucokinetic, capable of inducing thin copious bronchial secretion. ANTITUSSIVES  Antitussives act centrally by suppressing the neurons located in the brainstem’s cough center. Antitussives are often used with tracheitis, tracheobronchitis. When coughing worsens the inflammation that is already present and stimulates more coughing, it needs to be suppressed. DEMULCENTS AND EXPECTORANTS  Pharyngeal demulcents sooth the throat and reduce afferent impulses from the inflamed/ irritated pharyngeal mucosa, thus provide symptomatic relief in dry cough arising from throat.  Expectorants (Mucokinetics) are drugs believed to increase bronchial secretion or reduce its viscosity, facilitating its removal by coughing.  Sodium and potassium citrate are considered to increase bronchial secretion by salt action.  Potassium iodide is secreted by bronchial glands and can irritate the airway mucosa.  Prolonged use can affect thyroid function and produce iodism. It is rarely used now.  Guaiphenesin, vasaka, tolu balsum are plant products which are supposed to enhance bronchial secretion and mucociliary function while being secreted by tracheobronchial glands. Opioids  Codeine: An opium alkaloid similar to but less potent than morphine  It is more selective for cough centre and is treated as the standard antitussive; suppresses cough for about 6 hours. Non Opioids
  • 5. Dr. KRVS Chaitanya  Noscapine (Narcotine) An opium alkaloid of the benzoisoquinoline series. It depresses cough but has no narcotic, analgesic or dependence inducing properties. Mucolytics  Bromhexine A derivative of the alkaloid Hysosicine obtained from (Vasaka), is a potent mucolytic and Mucokinetics, capable of inducing thin copious bronchial secretion.  It depolymerises mucopolvsaccharides directly as well as by liberating lysosomal enzymes network of fibres in tenacious sputum is broken.  It is particularly useful if mucus plugs are present. Side effects are rhinorrhoea and lacrimation, gastric irritation, hypersensitivity