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Enterprise Knowledge Graphs:
The Importance of Semantics
Heather Hedden
Senior Consultant
Enterprise Knowledge, LLC
Data Summit
May 9, 2024
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
About the Speaker
Heather Hedden
Senior Consultant, Enterprise Knowledge
⬢ Leads the design and development of
taxonomies and ontologies for varied use cases
for diverse clients.
⬢ Taxonomist for over 28 years in various corporate
and consulting roles.
⬢ Instructor of taxonomy design & creation
workshops and courses.
⬢ Author of the book, The Accidental Taxonomist,
3rd edition (Information Today, Inc., 2022).
⬢ Blogs at accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com
Enterprise Knowledge at a Glance
10AREAS OF EXPERTISE
KM STRATEGY & DESIGN TAXONOMY & ONTOLOGY DESIGN
TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS AGILE, DESIGN THINKING, & FACILITATION
CONTENT & BRAND STRATEGY KNOWLEDGE GRAPHS, DATA MODELING, & AI
ENTERPRISE SEARCH INTEGRATED CHANGE MANAGEMENT
ENTERPRISE LEARNING CONTENT MANAGEMENT
80+
EXPERT
CONSULTANTS
HEADQUARTERED IN WASHINGTON, DC,
USA
ESTABLISHED 2013 – OUR FOUNDERS AND PRINCIPALS HAVE BEEN PROVIDING
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CONSULTING TO GLOBAL CLIENTS FOR OVER 20 YEARS.
KMWORLD’S
100 COMPANIES THAT MATTER IN KM (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018,
2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024)
TOP 50 TRAILBLAZERS IN AI (2020, 2021, 2022)
CIO REVIEW’S
20 MOST PROMISING KM SOLUTION PROVIDERS (2016)
INC MAGAZINE
#2,343 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2021)
#2,574 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2020)
#2,411 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2019)
#1,289 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2018)
INC MAGAZINE
BEST WORKPLACES (2018, 2019, 2021, 2022)
WASHINGTONIAN MAGAZINE’S
TOP 50 GREAT PLACES TO WORK (2017)
WASHINGTON BUSINESS JOURNAL’S
BEST PLACES TO WORK (2017, 2018, 2019, 2020)
ARLINGTON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT’S
FAST FOUR AWARD FASTEST GROWING COMPANY (2016)
VIRGINIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE’S
FANTASTIC 50 AWARD – FASTEST GROWING COMPANY (2019,
2020)
AWARD-WINNING
CONSULTANCY
PRESENCE IN BRUSSELS, BELGIUM
STABLE CLIENT BASE
Outline
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Why Knowledge
Graphs
Components of a
Knowledge Graph
Knowledge Graph Defined
Taxonomies
Ontologies
Graph Database
Building a Knowledge Graph
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Why Enterprise Knowledge Graphs
⬢ In enterprises, structured data lives in multiple siloed data
repositories in separate data applications.
⬢ Combining them into a data lake or data warehouse,
mixed data does not fully share the same original structure.
⬢ A data lake or data warehouse also brings in unstructured data.
⬢ The combined data can be searched, but not comprehensively
analyzed, compared, multi-step queried, discovered, or inferenced.
⬢ Data users need to go beyond merely “finding” data to obtaining
insights and knowledge from the data.
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Why Enterprise Knowledge Graphs
Problems:
● Data silos
● Heterogeneous data sources
● Mix of unstructured and structured data
● Same things with different names
● Localized meanings for the same thing
Solutions:
● Semantic links across data
● Shared data and content
● Unified vocabulary
● Unified application view
Causing:
● Inefficiencies
● Missed opportunities
● Poor decisions Provided by:
● Knowledge graphs
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Why Enterprise Knowledge Graphs
Intuitive Interactions
Information in a machine
readable yet human
understandable way.
Discovery of Hidden
Facts and Patterns
Large scale analysis.
Aggregation
and Reasoning
Aggregation of information
from multiple disparate
solutions.
Understanding Context
Adding knowledge to
data through how things
fit together.
.
Knowledge graphs enable:
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge Graph Defined
⬢ A model of a knowledge domain combined with instance data.
⬢ Represents unified information across a domain or an organization,
enriched with context and semantics.
⬢ Contains business objects and topics that are closely linked, classified,
and connected to existing data and documents.
⬢ A layer between the actual data/content and the querying layer.
⬢ Both machine-readable and human-readable through some form of
display.
⬢ Gets its name from knowledge base + graph database and optional
graph visualizations.
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge Graph Defined
Different definitions from different perspectives:
(based on The Knowledge Graph Cookbook)
Data Architects:
Structured as an additional
virtual data layer, the KG lies
on top of existing databases
or datasets to link all your
data together at scale.
Data Engineers:
A KG provides a structure and
common interface for all of your
data and enables the creation of
smart multilateral relations
throughout your databases.
Knowledge Engineers:
A KG is a model of a
knowledge domain created by
subject matter experts with
the help of intelligent machine
learning algorithms.
Knowledge graph - “A knowledge base that uses a graph-structured data model or
topology to represent and operate on data.”
Knowledge base - “A technology used to store complex structured and unstructured
information used by a computer system.”
- Wikipedia
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Semantic
Knowledge
Models
Semantic
Search Analytics Recommendation Chatbots
CMS
Data Lake
Data &
Content
Sources
Presentation
Applications
APIs
Shared
Drives
ETL
Extracted/
Virtualized
Data
Controlled
Metadata
Taxonomies Ontology
Data stored in a graph
database or search index
Knowledge
Graph
Data
Warehouse
Structured
Content
CRM
Knowledge Graph Defined - As a Layer
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge Graph History
1. “Knowledge Graphs” project for mathematics by researchers of the University of Groningen and
University of Twente, Netherlands, 1982
2. Rise of topic-specific knowledge bases: e.g. Wordnet in 1985; Geonames in 2005
3. General graph-based knowledge repositories, DBpedia (based on linked data) in 2006, Freebase in
2007
4. Google introduced its Knowledge Graph (based on Freebase) to improve search results value in 2012.
5. Large data-heavy companies adopted knowledge graphs: Airbnb, Amazon, Apple, Bank of America,
6. Bloomberg, Facebook, Genentech, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, LinkedIn, Microsoft, Uber,
Wells Fargo
7. Knowledge graphs became a topic at various conferences by 2019
8. Enterprise knowledge graphs become the focus
Google web searches on “knowledge graph”
worldwide, April 2016 - April 2024
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge Graph Components
A knowledge graph comprises:
1. Extracted data stored or virtualized in either:
a. A graph database, of either:
i. RDF-based triple store
ii. Labeled property graph (LPG)
b. A search index (if not large)
2. Which are tagged/classified/annotated with metadata:
a. as concepts in controlled vocabularies (including taxonomies),
to label and organize the data
b. as attributes managed in an ontology to enrich the data
3. Which are semantically linked to each other with ontology-based
semantic relationships, to represent conceptual relationships
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge Graph Components
Graph Database
Data & Content Sources
Business Ontology
Business Taxonomy
Enterprise
Knowledge Graph
extracted
tagged
linked
integrated
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Data From tabular/relational data
to a graph…
Metadata
Data
Class Relation to a class Relation to a class Attribute Attribute
Volkswagen
Automotive
Germany
belongs to
industry
headquartered
in
$293 b
680,000
has
revenue
has
employees
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Data in a Graph Database
Graph databases structure data in the form of graphs, comprising nodes (points,
vertices) and edges (lines, links), not as tables of rows and columns, as relational
database are.
Undirected
graph
Directed
graph
node
edge
Two kinds of graph databases: RDF Triple Stores and Labeled Property Graphs (LPGs)
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Data in a Graph Database
RDF Triple Store Labeled Property Graph
Standardization World Wide Web Consortium Different vendors
Designed for Linked Open Data, publishing and linking data
with formal semantics and no central control
Graph representation for analytics
Processing strengths Set analysis operations Graph traversal
Data management
strengths
Interoperability via global identifiers and a
standard
Data validation, data type support
Compact serialization
Shorter learning curve
Main use cases Data-driven architecture, data integrations,
metadata management, knowledge
representation
Graph analytics, path search,
network analysis
Additional options Inferencing Shortest path calculations
Formal semantics Yes No
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Data in a Graph Database
RDF Triple Store Graph Databases
⬢ Store data
⬢ Store links to content
⬢ Store metadata, controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, ontologies
Based on RDF: Resource Description Framework
⬢ A World Wide Web (W3C) recommendation www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts
⬢ “A standard model for data interchange on the Web”
⬢ Requires the use of URIs to specify things and to specify relations
⬢ Models information as subject – predicate – object triples
⬢ Taxonomies are
controlled, organized
sets of concepts.
⬢ Concepts are used to
tag/categorize content to
make finding and
retrieving specific
content easier.
⬢ This enables better
findability than search
alone.
⬢ The taxonomy is an
intermediary that links
users to the desired
content.
Taxonomy
focus on
organized
Taxonomy
focus on
controlled
KG Components: Taxonomies
A taxonomy is a knowledge
organization system (KOS)
that is…
1. Controlled:
A kind of controlled
vocabulary, based on
unambiguous concepts, not
just words
(things, not strings).
2. Organized:
Concepts are organized in a
structure of hierarchies,
categories, or facets to make
them easier to find and
understand.
Controlled Organized
KG Components: Taxonomies
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Taxonomies
What you can do with a taxonomy:
⬢ Consistent tagging: Enable comprehensive and accurate content retrieval
⬢ Normalization: Bring together different names, localizations, languages for concepts
⬢ Standard search: Find content about…. (search string matches taxonomy concepts)
⬢ Topic browse: Explore subjects arranged in a hierarchy and then content on the
subject
⬢ Faceted (filtering/refining) search: Find content meeting a combination of basic
criteria
⬢ Discovery: Find other content tagged with same concepts as tagged to found
content; explore broader, narrower, and (sometimes) related taxonomy topics
⬢ Content curation: Create feeds or alerts based on pre-set search terms
⬢ Metadata management: Support identification, comparison, mapping, analysis, etc.
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Taxonomies
Standard: SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System)
⬢ A data model (“standard”) to represent knowledge organization systems
⬢ A World Wide Web (W3C) recommendation (initial version 2004 - revised 2009)
⬢ “A common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the
Web” www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference
⬢ To enable easy publication and use of such vocabularies as linked data
⬢ Based on RDF (Resource Description Framework), and encoded in XML, JSON, JSON-LD, etc.
⬢ Concepts and relations are resources with URIs
⬢ A KOS built on SKOS is machine-readable and interchangeable
⬢ Different KOS types (name authority, glossary, classification scheme, thesaurus, taxonomy)
can all be built in SKOS
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Taxonomies
SKOS Principles and Elements
⬢ A KOS is a group of concepts identified with URIs
⬢ Concepts can be grouped hierarchically into concept schemes
⬢ Concepts can be labeled with any number of lexical strings (labels) in any natural language
⬢ Concepts have one preferred label in any natural language, and any number of alternative labels
and hidden labels
⬢ Concepts can be linked to each other using hierarchical and associative semantic relations:
⬢ broader/narrower and related
⬢ Concepts of different concept schemes can be linked using various mapping relations
⬢ Concepts can be documented with notes:
⬢ scope note, definition, editorial note, and history note
⬢ Concepts can additionally be members of collections, which can be labeled or ordered
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Taxonomies
⬢ Centrally managed taxonomies (not a taxonomy built in a siloed application),
now tend to be built on the SKOS data-exchange model.
⬢ Since SKOS is based on RDF, SKOS taxonomies are easily managed in RDF
graph databases, and connect to the data, other taxonomies, and ontologies,
in addition to linking to content.
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Ontologies
Ontology
⬢ A model of a knowledge domain
⬢ Similar to (most of) a knowledge graph, but doesn’t include all actual instance data
⬢ A formal naming and definition of the types (classes), attribute properties, and
interrelationships of entities in a particular domain
⬢ Relations contain meaning, or are “semantic”
⬢ Properties are customized attributes of entities
⬢ Standards provided by W3C: Web Ontology Language (OWL) and RDF-Schema
⬢ A set of of precise descriptive statements about a particular domain
⬢ Statements are expressed as subject-predicate-object triples
⬢ Comprises classes, relations, and attributes, which are linked in statements of triples
Antibiotic
Bacterial
infection
treats
Subject Predicate Object
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Ontologies
Classes: Employee, Country, Organization
Relations: headquartered in < > home of
employed by < > employs
Attributes: Email address, Job title, HQ city, NAICS codes, Currency, Language
Ontology model example:
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Ontologies
RDF (Resource Description
Framework)
www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts
“A standard model for data
interchange on the Web” modeled
in triples
RDFS (RDF-Schema)
www.w3org/2001/sw/wiki/RDFS
“A general-purpose language for
representing simple RDF
vocabularies on the Web”
- Goes beyond RDF to designate
classes and properties of RDF
resources, as ontology basics
OWL (Web Ontology Language)
www.w3.org/OWL
“A Semantic Web language
designed to represent rich and
complex knowledge about things,
groups of things, and relations
between things”
- An extension of RDFS
SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol and
RDF Query Language)
https://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-r
df-sparql-query-20080115/
Language to query and updated
RDF data
W3C Standards and Guidelines for for Ontologies
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Ontologies
OWL-Specific Ontology Components
⬢ Entities – subjects (domains) or objects (ranges) of triples - graph nodes
⬢ Classes
⬢ Named sets of concepts that share characteristics and relations
⬢ May group subclasses or individuals (instances of the class)
⬢ Individuals
⬢ Members or instances of a class (may be managed in a linked taxonomy)
⬢ Properties – predicates of triples, about individuals - graph edges
⬢ Object properties
⬢ Relations between individuals
⬢ May be directed, symmetric, or with an inverse
⬢ Datatype properties
⬢ Attributes or characteristics of individuals
⬢ The object of a datatype property is a value
⬢ Literals – values of attributes (metadata values)
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Ontologies + Taxonomies
An ontology is a semantic layer that links to and enhances other controlled vocabularies.
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
KG Components: Ontologies + Taxonomies
What you cannot do with a taxonomy alone,
but can with an added ontology:
⬢ Model complex interrelationships (e.g. in product approval or supply chain processes)
and also connect to content
⬢ Perform complex multi-part searches: e.g. find contacts in a specific location, who are
employed by companies which belong to certain industries
⬢ Search on more specific criteria that vary based on category (class)
⬢ Explore explicit relationships between concepts (not just broader, narrower, related)
⬢ Visualize concepts and semantic relationships
⬢ Perform reasoning and inferencing across data
⬢ Search across datasets, not just search for content
⬢ Connect across siloed content and data repositories across the enterprise
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Building a Knowledge Graph
Steps to building a knowledge graph:
1. Identify use cases, or problems to be solved.
2. Inventory and organize relevant data and content.
3. Identify and map relationships across data: design and implement an ontology.
4. Incorporate sample data in a graph database.
5. Connect to the ontology/taxonomy, as a test proof of concept.
6. Connect to or build user applications and interfaces.
7. Automate and scale with data pipelines, auto-tagging, and AI.
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Building a Knowledge Graph:
Sample Infrastructure
Graph Data
Storage &
Query
Data
Orchestration
& ETL
Ontology
Management
Web API to
Development Data
SQL Connection to
Production Data
RDF Extraction of
Production Data
Ontology
Model
Integrated
Ontology
Data
Integration Needs
Source Systems Core Tools End User Apps
Interactive
Data
Visualization
Ontology
Managers
ElasticSearch to
Data Lake
Source
System 1
Source
System 2
Source
System 3
Source
System 4
Querying
Portal
Front End
Application
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Building a Knowledge Graph
Core software and technology needed:
⬢ Graph database management software
⬢ Taxonomy/ontology management software based on W3C standards
⬢ Search software (such as Solr or Elasticsearch)
⬢ Front-end (web) application
Also important:
⬢ Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tool to extract data
⬢ Text mining/natural language processing/entity extraction tool
⬢ Machine-learning auto-classification tool
⬢ Capabilities (such as algorithms for weighting/scoring relations) specified in SPARQL
query language for RDF
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Building a Knowledge Graph
Collaboration of roles:
Challenges/Requirements:
⬢ A specific business/use case, not just curiosity to try new technologies
⬢ Implementation expertise with software tools and guidance from consultants
⬢ Commitment from all stakeholders
⬢ Sufficient time, effort, and expertise to deal with a very complex project
⬢ Data quality
⬢ Knowledge engineers
⬢ Taxonomists
⬢ Ontologists
⬢ Content strategists
⬢ Solutions architects
⬢ Software engineers
⬢ Web developers
⬢ Information architects
⬢ Data engineers
⬢ Data scientists
⬢ Data analysts
⬢ Data architects
ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge Graph Applications
⬢ Semantic search
⬢ Recommendation
⬢ Compliance and risk prediction
⬢ Question answering engines
An organization typically builds its
own web-browser-based knowledge
graph application.
⬢ Chatbots
⬢ Insight engines
⬢ Expert finder
⬢ Customer 360
Enterprise Knowledge White Papers:
⬢ “How to Optimize Data Governance with Enterprise Knowledge Graphs” August 22, 2019
⬢ “Using Knowledge Graph Data Models to Solve Real Business Problems” June 10, 2019
Enterprise Knowledge Blog Articles:
⬢ “How a Knowledge Graph Supports AI: Technical Considerations” September 26, 2023
⬢ “How a Knowledge Graph Can Accelerate Data Mesh Transformation” July 11, 2023
⬢ “Elevating Your Point Solution to an Enterprise Knowledge Graph” November 16, 2022
⬢ “Digital Twins and Knowledge Graphs” May 5, 2022
⬢ “Where Does a Knowledge Graph Fit Within the Enterprise?” April 21, 2022
⬢ “Integrating Search and Knowledge Graphs” October 19, 2020
⬢ “How to Build a Knowledge Graph in Four Steps: The Roadmap From Metadata to AI”
September 9, 2019
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Enterprise Knowledge Graphs - Data Summit 2024

  • 1. Enterprise Knowledge Graphs: The Importance of Semantics Heather Hedden Senior Consultant Enterprise Knowledge, LLC Data Summit May 9, 2024
  • 2. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE About the Speaker Heather Hedden Senior Consultant, Enterprise Knowledge ⬢ Leads the design and development of taxonomies and ontologies for varied use cases for diverse clients. ⬢ Taxonomist for over 28 years in various corporate and consulting roles. ⬢ Instructor of taxonomy design & creation workshops and courses. ⬢ Author of the book, The Accidental Taxonomist, 3rd edition (Information Today, Inc., 2022). ⬢ Blogs at accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com
  • 3. Enterprise Knowledge at a Glance 10AREAS OF EXPERTISE KM STRATEGY & DESIGN TAXONOMY & ONTOLOGY DESIGN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS AGILE, DESIGN THINKING, & FACILITATION CONTENT & BRAND STRATEGY KNOWLEDGE GRAPHS, DATA MODELING, & AI ENTERPRISE SEARCH INTEGRATED CHANGE MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISE LEARNING CONTENT MANAGEMENT 80+ EXPERT CONSULTANTS HEADQUARTERED IN WASHINGTON, DC, USA ESTABLISHED 2013 – OUR FOUNDERS AND PRINCIPALS HAVE BEEN PROVIDING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CONSULTING TO GLOBAL CLIENTS FOR OVER 20 YEARS. KMWORLD’S 100 COMPANIES THAT MATTER IN KM (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024) TOP 50 TRAILBLAZERS IN AI (2020, 2021, 2022) CIO REVIEW’S 20 MOST PROMISING KM SOLUTION PROVIDERS (2016) INC MAGAZINE #2,343 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2021) #2,574 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2020) #2,411 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2019) #1,289 OF THE 5000 FASTEST GROWING COMPANIES (2018) INC MAGAZINE BEST WORKPLACES (2018, 2019, 2021, 2022) WASHINGTONIAN MAGAZINE’S TOP 50 GREAT PLACES TO WORK (2017) WASHINGTON BUSINESS JOURNAL’S BEST PLACES TO WORK (2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) ARLINGTON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT’S FAST FOUR AWARD FASTEST GROWING COMPANY (2016) VIRGINIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE’S FANTASTIC 50 AWARD – FASTEST GROWING COMPANY (2019, 2020) AWARD-WINNING CONSULTANCY PRESENCE IN BRUSSELS, BELGIUM STABLE CLIENT BASE
  • 4. Outline ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Why Knowledge Graphs Components of a Knowledge Graph Knowledge Graph Defined Taxonomies Ontologies Graph Database Building a Knowledge Graph
  • 5. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Why Enterprise Knowledge Graphs ⬢ In enterprises, structured data lives in multiple siloed data repositories in separate data applications. ⬢ Combining them into a data lake or data warehouse, mixed data does not fully share the same original structure. ⬢ A data lake or data warehouse also brings in unstructured data. ⬢ The combined data can be searched, but not comprehensively analyzed, compared, multi-step queried, discovered, or inferenced. ⬢ Data users need to go beyond merely “finding” data to obtaining insights and knowledge from the data.
  • 6. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Why Enterprise Knowledge Graphs Problems: ● Data silos ● Heterogeneous data sources ● Mix of unstructured and structured data ● Same things with different names ● Localized meanings for the same thing Solutions: ● Semantic links across data ● Shared data and content ● Unified vocabulary ● Unified application view Causing: ● Inefficiencies ● Missed opportunities ● Poor decisions Provided by: ● Knowledge graphs
  • 7. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Why Enterprise Knowledge Graphs Intuitive Interactions Information in a machine readable yet human understandable way. Discovery of Hidden Facts and Patterns Large scale analysis. Aggregation and Reasoning Aggregation of information from multiple disparate solutions. Understanding Context Adding knowledge to data through how things fit together. . Knowledge graphs enable:
  • 8. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Graph Defined ⬢ A model of a knowledge domain combined with instance data. ⬢ Represents unified information across a domain or an organization, enriched with context and semantics. ⬢ Contains business objects and topics that are closely linked, classified, and connected to existing data and documents. ⬢ A layer between the actual data/content and the querying layer. ⬢ Both machine-readable and human-readable through some form of display. ⬢ Gets its name from knowledge base + graph database and optional graph visualizations.
  • 9. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Graph Defined Different definitions from different perspectives: (based on The Knowledge Graph Cookbook) Data Architects: Structured as an additional virtual data layer, the KG lies on top of existing databases or datasets to link all your data together at scale. Data Engineers: A KG provides a structure and common interface for all of your data and enables the creation of smart multilateral relations throughout your databases. Knowledge Engineers: A KG is a model of a knowledge domain created by subject matter experts with the help of intelligent machine learning algorithms. Knowledge graph - “A knowledge base that uses a graph-structured data model or topology to represent and operate on data.” Knowledge base - “A technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.” - Wikipedia
  • 10. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Semantic Knowledge Models Semantic Search Analytics Recommendation Chatbots CMS Data Lake Data & Content Sources Presentation Applications APIs Shared Drives ETL Extracted/ Virtualized Data Controlled Metadata Taxonomies Ontology Data stored in a graph database or search index Knowledge Graph Data Warehouse Structured Content CRM Knowledge Graph Defined - As a Layer
  • 11. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Graph History 1. “Knowledge Graphs” project for mathematics by researchers of the University of Groningen and University of Twente, Netherlands, 1982 2. Rise of topic-specific knowledge bases: e.g. Wordnet in 1985; Geonames in 2005 3. General graph-based knowledge repositories, DBpedia (based on linked data) in 2006, Freebase in 2007 4. Google introduced its Knowledge Graph (based on Freebase) to improve search results value in 2012. 5. Large data-heavy companies adopted knowledge graphs: Airbnb, Amazon, Apple, Bank of America, 6. Bloomberg, Facebook, Genentech, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, LinkedIn, Microsoft, Uber, Wells Fargo 7. Knowledge graphs became a topic at various conferences by 2019 8. Enterprise knowledge graphs become the focus Google web searches on “knowledge graph” worldwide, April 2016 - April 2024
  • 12. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Graph Components A knowledge graph comprises: 1. Extracted data stored or virtualized in either: a. A graph database, of either: i. RDF-based triple store ii. Labeled property graph (LPG) b. A search index (if not large) 2. Which are tagged/classified/annotated with metadata: a. as concepts in controlled vocabularies (including taxonomies), to label and organize the data b. as attributes managed in an ontology to enrich the data 3. Which are semantically linked to each other with ontology-based semantic relationships, to represent conceptual relationships
  • 13. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Graph Components Graph Database Data & Content Sources Business Ontology Business Taxonomy Enterprise Knowledge Graph extracted tagged linked integrated
  • 14. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Data From tabular/relational data to a graph… Metadata Data Class Relation to a class Relation to a class Attribute Attribute Volkswagen Automotive Germany belongs to industry headquartered in $293 b 680,000 has revenue has employees
  • 15. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Data in a Graph Database Graph databases structure data in the form of graphs, comprising nodes (points, vertices) and edges (lines, links), not as tables of rows and columns, as relational database are. Undirected graph Directed graph node edge Two kinds of graph databases: RDF Triple Stores and Labeled Property Graphs (LPGs)
  • 16. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Data in a Graph Database RDF Triple Store Labeled Property Graph Standardization World Wide Web Consortium Different vendors Designed for Linked Open Data, publishing and linking data with formal semantics and no central control Graph representation for analytics Processing strengths Set analysis operations Graph traversal Data management strengths Interoperability via global identifiers and a standard Data validation, data type support Compact serialization Shorter learning curve Main use cases Data-driven architecture, data integrations, metadata management, knowledge representation Graph analytics, path search, network analysis Additional options Inferencing Shortest path calculations Formal semantics Yes No
  • 17. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Data in a Graph Database RDF Triple Store Graph Databases ⬢ Store data ⬢ Store links to content ⬢ Store metadata, controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, ontologies Based on RDF: Resource Description Framework ⬢ A World Wide Web (W3C) recommendation www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts ⬢ “A standard model for data interchange on the Web” ⬢ Requires the use of URIs to specify things and to specify relations ⬢ Models information as subject – predicate – object triples
  • 18. ⬢ Taxonomies are controlled, organized sets of concepts. ⬢ Concepts are used to tag/categorize content to make finding and retrieving specific content easier. ⬢ This enables better findability than search alone. ⬢ The taxonomy is an intermediary that links users to the desired content. Taxonomy focus on organized Taxonomy focus on controlled KG Components: Taxonomies
  • 19. A taxonomy is a knowledge organization system (KOS) that is… 1. Controlled: A kind of controlled vocabulary, based on unambiguous concepts, not just words (things, not strings). 2. Organized: Concepts are organized in a structure of hierarchies, categories, or facets to make them easier to find and understand. Controlled Organized KG Components: Taxonomies
  • 20. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Taxonomies What you can do with a taxonomy: ⬢ Consistent tagging: Enable comprehensive and accurate content retrieval ⬢ Normalization: Bring together different names, localizations, languages for concepts ⬢ Standard search: Find content about…. (search string matches taxonomy concepts) ⬢ Topic browse: Explore subjects arranged in a hierarchy and then content on the subject ⬢ Faceted (filtering/refining) search: Find content meeting a combination of basic criteria ⬢ Discovery: Find other content tagged with same concepts as tagged to found content; explore broader, narrower, and (sometimes) related taxonomy topics ⬢ Content curation: Create feeds or alerts based on pre-set search terms ⬢ Metadata management: Support identification, comparison, mapping, analysis, etc.
  • 21. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Taxonomies Standard: SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) ⬢ A data model (“standard”) to represent knowledge organization systems ⬢ A World Wide Web (W3C) recommendation (initial version 2004 - revised 2009) ⬢ “A common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the Web” www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference ⬢ To enable easy publication and use of such vocabularies as linked data ⬢ Based on RDF (Resource Description Framework), and encoded in XML, JSON, JSON-LD, etc. ⬢ Concepts and relations are resources with URIs ⬢ A KOS built on SKOS is machine-readable and interchangeable ⬢ Different KOS types (name authority, glossary, classification scheme, thesaurus, taxonomy) can all be built in SKOS
  • 22. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Taxonomies SKOS Principles and Elements ⬢ A KOS is a group of concepts identified with URIs ⬢ Concepts can be grouped hierarchically into concept schemes ⬢ Concepts can be labeled with any number of lexical strings (labels) in any natural language ⬢ Concepts have one preferred label in any natural language, and any number of alternative labels and hidden labels ⬢ Concepts can be linked to each other using hierarchical and associative semantic relations: ⬢ broader/narrower and related ⬢ Concepts of different concept schemes can be linked using various mapping relations ⬢ Concepts can be documented with notes: ⬢ scope note, definition, editorial note, and history note ⬢ Concepts can additionally be members of collections, which can be labeled or ordered
  • 23. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Taxonomies ⬢ Centrally managed taxonomies (not a taxonomy built in a siloed application), now tend to be built on the SKOS data-exchange model. ⬢ Since SKOS is based on RDF, SKOS taxonomies are easily managed in RDF graph databases, and connect to the data, other taxonomies, and ontologies, in addition to linking to content.
  • 24. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Ontologies Ontology ⬢ A model of a knowledge domain ⬢ Similar to (most of) a knowledge graph, but doesn’t include all actual instance data ⬢ A formal naming and definition of the types (classes), attribute properties, and interrelationships of entities in a particular domain ⬢ Relations contain meaning, or are “semantic” ⬢ Properties are customized attributes of entities ⬢ Standards provided by W3C: Web Ontology Language (OWL) and RDF-Schema ⬢ A set of of precise descriptive statements about a particular domain ⬢ Statements are expressed as subject-predicate-object triples ⬢ Comprises classes, relations, and attributes, which are linked in statements of triples Antibiotic Bacterial infection treats Subject Predicate Object
  • 25. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Ontologies Classes: Employee, Country, Organization Relations: headquartered in < > home of employed by < > employs Attributes: Email address, Job title, HQ city, NAICS codes, Currency, Language Ontology model example:
  • 26. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Ontologies RDF (Resource Description Framework) www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts “A standard model for data interchange on the Web” modeled in triples RDFS (RDF-Schema) www.w3org/2001/sw/wiki/RDFS “A general-purpose language for representing simple RDF vocabularies on the Web” - Goes beyond RDF to designate classes and properties of RDF resources, as ontology basics OWL (Web Ontology Language) www.w3.org/OWL “A Semantic Web language designed to represent rich and complex knowledge about things, groups of things, and relations between things” - An extension of RDFS SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) https://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-r df-sparql-query-20080115/ Language to query and updated RDF data W3C Standards and Guidelines for for Ontologies
  • 27. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Ontologies OWL-Specific Ontology Components ⬢ Entities – subjects (domains) or objects (ranges) of triples - graph nodes ⬢ Classes ⬢ Named sets of concepts that share characteristics and relations ⬢ May group subclasses or individuals (instances of the class) ⬢ Individuals ⬢ Members or instances of a class (may be managed in a linked taxonomy) ⬢ Properties – predicates of triples, about individuals - graph edges ⬢ Object properties ⬢ Relations between individuals ⬢ May be directed, symmetric, or with an inverse ⬢ Datatype properties ⬢ Attributes or characteristics of individuals ⬢ The object of a datatype property is a value ⬢ Literals – values of attributes (metadata values)
  • 28. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Ontologies + Taxonomies An ontology is a semantic layer that links to and enhances other controlled vocabularies.
  • 29. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE KG Components: Ontologies + Taxonomies What you cannot do with a taxonomy alone, but can with an added ontology: ⬢ Model complex interrelationships (e.g. in product approval or supply chain processes) and also connect to content ⬢ Perform complex multi-part searches: e.g. find contacts in a specific location, who are employed by companies which belong to certain industries ⬢ Search on more specific criteria that vary based on category (class) ⬢ Explore explicit relationships between concepts (not just broader, narrower, related) ⬢ Visualize concepts and semantic relationships ⬢ Perform reasoning and inferencing across data ⬢ Search across datasets, not just search for content ⬢ Connect across siloed content and data repositories across the enterprise
  • 30. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Building a Knowledge Graph Steps to building a knowledge graph: 1. Identify use cases, or problems to be solved. 2. Inventory and organize relevant data and content. 3. Identify and map relationships across data: design and implement an ontology. 4. Incorporate sample data in a graph database. 5. Connect to the ontology/taxonomy, as a test proof of concept. 6. Connect to or build user applications and interfaces. 7. Automate and scale with data pipelines, auto-tagging, and AI.
  • 31. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Building a Knowledge Graph: Sample Infrastructure Graph Data Storage & Query Data Orchestration & ETL Ontology Management Web API to Development Data SQL Connection to Production Data RDF Extraction of Production Data Ontology Model Integrated Ontology Data Integration Needs Source Systems Core Tools End User Apps Interactive Data Visualization Ontology Managers ElasticSearch to Data Lake Source System 1 Source System 2 Source System 3 Source System 4 Querying Portal Front End Application
  • 32. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Building a Knowledge Graph Core software and technology needed: ⬢ Graph database management software ⬢ Taxonomy/ontology management software based on W3C standards ⬢ Search software (such as Solr or Elasticsearch) ⬢ Front-end (web) application Also important: ⬢ Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tool to extract data ⬢ Text mining/natural language processing/entity extraction tool ⬢ Machine-learning auto-classification tool ⬢ Capabilities (such as algorithms for weighting/scoring relations) specified in SPARQL query language for RDF
  • 33. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Building a Knowledge Graph Collaboration of roles: Challenges/Requirements: ⬢ A specific business/use case, not just curiosity to try new technologies ⬢ Implementation expertise with software tools and guidance from consultants ⬢ Commitment from all stakeholders ⬢ Sufficient time, effort, and expertise to deal with a very complex project ⬢ Data quality ⬢ Knowledge engineers ⬢ Taxonomists ⬢ Ontologists ⬢ Content strategists ⬢ Solutions architects ⬢ Software engineers ⬢ Web developers ⬢ Information architects ⬢ Data engineers ⬢ Data scientists ⬢ Data analysts ⬢ Data architects
  • 34. ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE Knowledge Graph Applications ⬢ Semantic search ⬢ Recommendation ⬢ Compliance and risk prediction ⬢ Question answering engines An organization typically builds its own web-browser-based knowledge graph application. ⬢ Chatbots ⬢ Insight engines ⬢ Expert finder ⬢ Customer 360
  • 35. Enterprise Knowledge White Papers: ⬢ “How to Optimize Data Governance with Enterprise Knowledge Graphs” August 22, 2019 ⬢ “Using Knowledge Graph Data Models to Solve Real Business Problems” June 10, 2019 Enterprise Knowledge Blog Articles: ⬢ “How a Knowledge Graph Supports AI: Technical Considerations” September 26, 2023 ⬢ “How a Knowledge Graph Can Accelerate Data Mesh Transformation” July 11, 2023 ⬢ “Elevating Your Point Solution to an Enterprise Knowledge Graph” November 16, 2022 ⬢ “Digital Twins and Knowledge Graphs” May 5, 2022 ⬢ “Where Does a Knowledge Graph Fit Within the Enterprise?” April 21, 2022 ⬢ “Integrating Search and Knowledge Graphs” October 19, 2020 ⬢ “How to Build a Knowledge Graph in Four Steps: The Roadmap From Metadata to AI” September 9, 2019 Further Reading