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ENERGY AUDIT
        AND ENERGY CERTIFICATION

        Author: Luca Vecchiato (Energol)




Energy audit and energy certification                                     1




                                           Energy: general overview


Directive 2006/32/EC                            Directive 2012/27/CE
                                                “White certificates”

                                                UNI 11339: Energy expert
D. Lgs. 115/2008                                UNI 11352: ESCo
                                                UNI 11428: Energy audit



   Energy Management System certification: ISO 50001
Energy audit and energy certification
Directive 2012/27/CE
       “Energy efficiency”




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Share of greenhouse gas emissions in 2010

       • The use of energy is
         responsible for the
         majority of
                                                                     Agriculture
         greenhouse gas                                                 10%

         emissions, with the                                                   Industry
                                                                              Processes

         energy sector                                                           8%       Waste
                                                                                           3%
         representing 31%,                                                                Other

         transport 19%,                                    Energy                          0%

                                                            79%
         industry 13%,
         households 9% and
         others 7%.


Energy audit and energy certification
Meeting all three “20-20-20 by 2020” goals
                                                                                    becomes a matter of urgency
                                                    Reduce greenhouse                    Increase share of     Reduce energy
                                                     gas levels by 20%                  renewables to 20%    consumption by 20%
                                                                                                                                    100%
                                               Current                                                    Current
                                              trend to
                                                 2020
                                                                              -20%                       trend to          -10%
                                                                                                            2020




                                                                                     Current
                                                                                    trend to
                                                                                       2020
                                                                                                      20%


                                    Energy audit and energy certification




                                                                            So far the EU is not on track to meet its 20% energy
                                                                                            saving target by 2020

                                    1900
                                                         Projections from 2007                                                     business
                                    1850                                                                             1842 Mtoe
                                                         Projections from 2009                                                        as
                                                         20% Energy saving objective
Primary energy consumption*, Mtoe




                                                                                                                                    usual
                                    1800

                                    1750

                                    1700                                                                             1678 Mtoe      Status
                                    1650
                                                                                                                                    today

                                    1600
                                                                                                                      GAP
                                    1550
                                                                                                                     1474 Mtoe
                                    1500                                                                                            -20%
                                                                                                                                   objective
                                    1450

                                    1400
                                       2005                                      2010                 2015                  2020
                                    Energy audit and energy certification
          * Gross inland consumption minus non-energy uses
Despite its crucial benefits for europe …

                                                             Reduce EU’s energy bill by about € 200 bn annualy in 2020
                                                             Create up to 2 million new jobs by 2020
                                                             Boost R&D & markets for EU global leadership

                               Competitiveness



                       Security
                          of                  Sustainability             Reduce CO2 emissions
                        supply                                           Limit environmental degradation




   Reduce EU’s energy dependence
   Reduce investments in energy infrastructures
   Improve the energy trade balance
Energy audit and energy certification




                                          And the comprehensive set of european policies &
                                         measures in place to address energy efficiency in all its
                                                                aspects

                                             EUROPEAN ENERGY EFFICIENCY
                                                POLICIES & MEASURES


                                                    Energy Efficiency Plan

                                                        International    Programmes
                                        Targets                           & networks
                                                        cooperation

                                        Financial
                                                                                 R&D
                                        tools
                                                          Energy
                                                         efficiency
                                                        legislation
                                        “Soft” laws                        Fiscal tools


Energy audit and energy certification
Combined with national intentions will not suffice




              in 400
              Mtoe
                 350
                    300                                      EU 20%

                    250
                    200
                    150
                                               Existing
                    100                        national EE
                                               targets as
                      50                       of 2011
                         0



Energy audit and energy certification




                                          To tap the remaining economic energy saving
                                           potentials for 2020 throughout the sectors

                                                                   Savings expected to be achieved with already
                                                                   existing measures

                                                                   Remaining saving potential to be addressed with
                                                                   new measures




                                                                                                29%
                                                                               11%
                                                             16%
                              2%

                                             5%




Energy audit and energy certification
A new impetus is needed: commission puts
                                              forward a new energy efficiency directive


                                        Public    Sectoral       House-                Energy
                                                                            Services            Industry
                                        sector    measures        holds                supply




                  Indicative                                            General
                 national EE                           New            measures
                    targets                            EED           promoting EE




                                                 Monitoring &
                                                  Reporting
Energy audit and energy certification




                                                  Public sector to lead by example

                                    Status                                EED proposals

                             • Public sector
                 19%           consumption makes                • Purchase of products, services
                               important share of                 & buildings with high energy
                               EU’s GDP                           efficiency standards


                 12%         • Share of public
                                                                • Annual renovation target of 3%
                               buildings in building
                                                                  for public buildings above 250
                               stock
                                                                  m²

                             • Low average energy
                               performance of                   • More systematic use of Energy
                               existing buildings                 Performance Contracting
                               stock, incl. public
                               buildings
                             • Cost optimal
                                 renovation can bring
                                 up to 60% energy
Energy audit and energy certification
                                 savings
Creating benefits for consumers through the
                                       provision of tailored energy services and
                                                      information

                      Status                                      EED proposals
                            • Considerable saving        • National energy efficiency
                                potential unused in        obligation scheme for utilities
                                the residential and
                                services sectors
                                                         • Obligation for individual energy
                            • Slow uptake of market        meters, reflecting actual energy
                                for energy efficiency      consumption & information on
                                services                   actual time of use
                            • Lack of awareness &
                                access to appropriate
                                information on EE        • Ensure accuracy & frequency of
                                benefits                   billing based on actual
                            • Technological                consumption
                                developments (e.g.
                                smart meters/ grids)
                                                         • Appropriate information with the
                                not sufficiently
                                                           bill providing comprehensive
                                reflecting households
                                                           account of current energy costs
                                interests
Energy audit and energy certification




                                      Improving energy efficiency in transformation
                                               and distribution of energy


                     Status                                       EED proposals

                   • Fragmented                         • 10-year national heat & cooling plans:
                     regulations &                        transparency, predictability &
         Remaining   incentives to address                alignment of policies for
         potential
                     waste across supply                  investments
                     chain
         Achieved
                                                        • Waste heat recovery (CHP)
         savings    • CHP uses 30% less fuel              obligation for new and existing
                      for the same amount of              power & industrial plants
                      heat & power but level of
                      use in EU low: 11% vs.            • Network tariffs design to encourage
                      21%.                                offering services for consumers
                                                          allowing them to save energy &
                                                          control consumption
                        • New generation
                            installations not
                            systematically              • National annual inventories of
                            reflecting level of Best      generation installations to monitor
Energy audit and energy certification
                            Available Technologies        efficiency levels
Increase awareness for benefits stemming from
                                          energy efficiency improvements in industry

                             Status                                   EED proposals

                             • Important share in             • Member States to create
               28%             overall final energy             incentives for SMEs to undergo
                               consumption                      energy audits



           Remaining         • Considerable                   • Dissemination of best practices on
           potential
                               progress made but                benefits of energy management
                               potential remaining              systems for SME businesses
              Achieved
              savings




                              • Energy efficient              • Mandatory audits for large
                                technologies and                companies & incentives for the
                                EE best practices               implementation of recommended
                                readily available               measures and the introduction of
Energy audit and energy certification
                                                                Energy Management Systems




                                              Possible time planning after adoption

                                  • European Parliament to nominate a rapporteur
                                  • First presentation & discussions in the Council Energy
     July 2011                      Working Group under Polish Presidency

     September                    • Continuation of discussions in the Council Energy
     - December                     Working Group
     2011                         • Discussion in the EP
                                  • Energy Council (November)
     January –                    • Achieving of political agreement
     June 2012
     June –                       • Finalization of the legislative text under the Cyprus
     December                       Presidency
     2012                         • Entering into for force of Energy Efficiency Directive
                                    by the end of 2012
     December                     • Implementation of the new Directive in the MS
     2013
     June 2014                    • Assessment        of   progress   towards    20%     saving
                                    objective
Energy audit and energy certification
Certificates for energy savings
       (“white certificates”)




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Establishing long-term synergies between the
                                           energy sector liberalization and end-use
                                                       energy efficiency
              A possible market-based policy portfolio oriented towards end-
              use energy efficiency could comprise energy-savings quota for
              some category of operators (distributors, suppliers, consumers,
              etc.) coupled with a trading system for energy-efficiency
              measures resulting in energy savings. The savings would be
              verified by the regulator and certified by means of the so-called
              “white” certificates (tradable certificates for energy savings).




Energy audit and energy certification
Systems with savings obligations and tradable
                                                   certificates for energy savings (TCES) in Europe


    • Four key elements

             – the creation and framing of the demand,
             – the tradable instrument (certificate) and the rules for trading,
             – Institutional infrastructure and processes (such as measurement and
               verification) to support the scheme.
             – the cost recovery mechanism in some cases.

             In Europe variations of this policy mix have been introduced in Italy, Great
                                                                              Italy
                Britain, and since July 2006, also in France. The Netherlands is
                Britain                               France
                currently considering the implementation of a white certificate
                system. In Flanders (Belgium) and in Ireland there are savings
                obligations imposed on electricity distributors without certificate
                trading option; saving obligations on electricity and heat distributors in
                Denmark.
                Denmark
Energy audit and energy certification




                                            White certificates mechanism




                                g   s
                            vin                                    Electricity and gas suppliers                       En
                         Sa                              e
                                                                                                                          er
                                                                                                                             g       yS
                     gy on                            su                                                      El
                   er ati                              s                                                         ec                    er
                 En blig                          t /I                                                                tri
                                                                                                                          ci
                                                                                                                                          vi   ce
                   O                            es C                                               Re                          ty/
                                            e qu W h                                                  d   uc                         Ga
                                        R                                                                   ed                          s
                                                                                                                 fee
              Regulatory                                                   White Certificates
               Authority                                                        market

                                                              sk
                                                           Ri                                                                             i ce
                                                                                                                                        rv
                                                                                                                                      Se
                                                                                                                                  y
                                                                                                                          e     rg
                                               Brokers                                                                  En
                                                                                             ESCO’s


                                                                                         Other participants

Energy audit and energy certification
European white certificate systems:
                                        general features of the Italian system


              • Targets in primary energy consumption on electricity and gas
                grid distribution companies with more than 50,000
                customers;
              • by the end of 2006 the Government is expected to set rules
                for distributors under this threshold; targets set on an annual
                basis 2009-2014.
              • The mechanism is planned to deliver energy savings
                equivalent to 5,8 millions toe in the five year target period.




Energy audit and energy certification




                                          Review of experiences with white certificate
                                                  schemes: eligible projects


     Italy: all end-use sectors eligible (but “50 % constraint”); an illustrative list of
        eligible projects; projects contribute to the achievement of targets for up
        to 5 years (with only some exceptions).
     So far: generation and distribution systems for various energy carriers (29%);
        households electricity consumption (28%); energy consumption for
        heating purposes in the households and the commercial sector (20%) and
        public lighting (19%). Targets achieved (mostly early action), surplus
        banked.




Energy audit and energy certification
Different systems in europe
                                    UK (EEC 2, 2005-2008)                               Italy                              France

Unit of target            TWh fuel weighted energy benefits          toe, annual                                    TWh

  Duration                2005-2014                                  2005-2014                                      2006-2014
current phase

                          Residential consumers only                 All consumers                                  All consumers
   Sectoral
   coverage
                          50 % from ‘priority group’ (low income     50 % from reduction in own energy
 Restrictions             consumers on social benefits).             vector (electricity and gas).


Obliged parties           Electricity and gas suppliers above        Electricity and gas distributors above         Electricity, gas, LPG,
                          50,000 residential customers served        100,000 customers served                       heat, cold and heating
                                                                                                                    fuel above 0.4 TWh/y

    Trading               No certificates; Obligations can be        Certificate trade;
                          traded; Savings can be traded after own    Spot market sessions;                          only         bilateral
                          obligation met; No spot market; One-way    OTC trading;                                   exchange
                          trade in national emission trading
                          scheme;
 Institutional                                                       Energy regulator AEEG + electricity            Ministry of Industry
   structure                                                         market operator GME                            + ADEME
                          Energy regulator OFGEM

 Energy audit and energy certification
    Penalty               No specific guidance on how penalty        Fixed by the Regulator according to            0.02 Euro/kWh
                          would be calculated;                       criteria such as: the actual possibility to
                          The penalty can arrive up to 10 % of the   meet the target, the magnitude of the non-
                          supplier’s turnover.                       compliance, the state of affairs of the non-




                                             Review of experiences with white certificate
                                                   schemes: evaluation of savings




             • Baseline definition

             • Evaluation approaches




 Energy audit and energy certification
Saving objectives




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Baseline definition



             • Present regulation;

             • Sales average and performance of the most commonly used
               appliance on the market “average-on-the-market” (appliances
               and equipment);

             • Average consumption of installed stock;

             • Building stock or equipment stock (e.g. in insulation measures
               in France);

Energy audit and energy certification
Measurement and verification: Italy


      3 valuation (measurement and verification, M&V) approaches:

      •         deemed savings approach with default factors for free riding, delivery
                mechanism and persistence: no on-field measurements required;
      •         engineering approach, with some on-field measurement,
      •         a third approach based on monitoring plans: comparison of measured or
                calculated consumptions before and after the project, taking into account
                changed framework conditions (e.g. climatic conditions, occupancy levels,
                production levels); all monitoring plans must be submitted for pre-approval to
                the AEEG and must conform with pre-determined criteria (e.g. sample size,
                criteria to choose the measurement technology, etc.)

      Most of the projects submitted to date are of the deemed saving and engineering
          method variety. There is ex-post verification and certification of actual energy
          savings achieved (yearly)
Energy audit and energy certification




                                               Watt-hour (Wh) meters &
                                        What Would Have Happened (WWHH) meters

                                           What Would Have Happened Meter
                                        WWHH meter

                   1,000,000



                      750,000
                kWh




                      500,000


                                             Baseline Period        Performance Period
                      250,000

                                                       Watt-hour Meter


Energy audit and energy certification
Types of TEE

 There are 3 different types of White Certificates

I type: reduction in the final use of EE;

II type: reduction in the final use of nautral gas;

III type: reduction in the final use of energy for transportation.




                                 Types of projects
                                   (definizione )

  Standard projects
(according to a technical schede decided by the authority)
  The saving are calcolated for number of devices (UFR) that
are object of the intervention (es.: number of burners
installed, m2 of windows replaced);
  Analytical projects
   (according to a technical schede decided by the authority)
  The savings are calculated with a simple algorithm and
some few operating parameters.
  Non-standard project
   (according to a proposal of measurement plan (pppm)
presented by the ESCO)
Minimum dimensions of a project


                        Every project must demonstrate a minimum account of
                        savinf in order to obtain the TEE

                        Tipologia di
                                          Soggetti obbligati   Soggetti volontari
                        progetto
                        Standard          25 tep/anno
                        Analytical        100 tep              50 tep
                        Non standard      200 tep              100 tep

                        Il rispetto della dimensione minima viene verificato solo
                        nell’ambito della prima richiesta di verifica e
                        certificazione dei risparmi energetici (RVC).
Energy audit and energy certification




                                                   TEE duration


               La vita utile, definita nell’ambito dei decreti 20.7.04 è
             pari a:
               10 years for high efficiency cogeneration, (art. 30
             comma 11 della Legge 23 luglio 2009, n. 99);
               8 years for saving in civil application (windows,
             insulation, bioclimatization, and so on);
               5 years in other cases.




Energy audit and energy certification
Some example of standard schede

•Scheda tecnica n. 17* Installazione di regolatori di flusso luminoso per lampade a vapori di
                    mercurio e lampade a vapori di sodio ad alta pressione negli impianti adibiti ad
                      illuminazione esterna;
 •Scheda tecnica n. 5* Sostituzione di vetri semplici con doppi vetri;
 •Scheda tecnica n. 6* Isolamento delle pareti e delle coperture;
 •Scheda tecnica n. 7* Impiego di impianti fotovoltaici di potenza elettrica inferiore a 20
 kW;
 •Scheda tecnica n. 8* Impiego di collettori solari per la produzione di acqua calda
 sanitaria;

•Scheda tecnica n. 19* Installazione di condizionatori ad aria esterna ad alta efficienza con
                                 potenza frigorifera inferiore a 12 kWf;
•Scheda tecnica n. 20* Isolamento termico delle pareti e delle coperture per il raffrescamento
                                 estivo in ambito domestico e terziario;
•Scheda tecnica n. 23 Sostituzione di lampade semaforiche a incandescenza con lampade
                                semaforiche a LED;
• Scheda tecnica n. 24 Sostituzione di lampade votive a incandescenza con lampade votive a
LED;
Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Laste standard schedes (2011)



            Scheda tecnica n. 28 - Realizzazione di sistemi ad alta
           efficienza per l’illuminazione di gallerie autostradali ed
           extraurbane principali;

             Scheda tecnica n. 29a - Realizzazione di nuovi sistemi di
           illuminazione ad alta efficienza per strade destinate al
           traffico motorizzato;

            Scheda tecnica n. 29b - Installazione di corpi illuminanti ad
           alta efficienza in sistemi di illuminazione esistente per strade
           destinate al traffico motorizzato.


Energy audit and energy certification
Obatained savings




       From 1° january 2005 to 31 december 2010:
           - 8,0 milions T.e.p. saved.
           - 21,5 milions tonn CO2 avoided.



     “The authority estimates that every white certificate has obtained
   saviongs from 118 to 587 euro/Tep, with a cost from 89,92 to 100
   euro/Tep.”




Energy audit and energy certification




       Energy Service Companies
       (ESCo)




Energy audit and energy certification
Definition of Energy saving

       • 'energy service'
          – means the physical benefit, utility or good derived from a
            combination of energy with energy-efficient technology or
            with action, which may include the operations, maintenance
            and control necessary to deliver the service, which is delivered
            on the basis of a contract and in normal circumstances has
            proven to result in verifiable and measurable or estimable
            energy efficiency improvement or primary energy savings;




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Definition of Energy performance company

       • 'energy performance contracting'
           – means a contractual arrangement between the beneficiary and
             the provider of an energy efficiency improvement measure,
             verified and monitored during the whole term of the contract,
             where investments (work, supply or service) in that measure
             are paid for in relation to a contractually agreed level of
             energy efficiency improvement or other agreed energy
             performance criterion, such as financial savings.
       'energy service provider'
              means a natural or legal person who delivers energy services or
              other energy efficiency improvement measures in a final
              customer's facility or premises;
Energy audit and energy certification
FTT with financing by the client




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        FTT with financing by the ESCO




Energy audit and energy certification
Build-Own-Operate & Transfer (BOOT) contract



                                            Customer &
                                            Power Grid

                                              Special
                                             Purpose
                                            Corporation

                         Asset                                    Equity &
                      Ownership &             ESCO              Non-recourse
                      Management                               Debt Repayment

                                                     Turnkey Plant Design/Build

                                                      Performance Guarantees

                                                          Fuel Procurement

                                                            Plant O & M
Energy audit and energy certification




                                              Italian requirements for ESCo

       • For the italian law the requirements ne3cessary to become an
         'energy service provider' are very low: a company has only to
         have the phrase “energy service” on its Chamber of Commerce
         company registration
       • In order to increase the professional level of the ESCo the UNI
         (Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione) has introduced a specifica
         standard:

       • UNI CEI 11352 "Società che forniscono servizi energetici (ESCO) -
         Requisiti generali e lista di controllo per la verifica dei requisiti“

       • (general requirements and check list)
Energy audit and energy certification
UNI 11352:2010

       • At the moment there are about 20 ESCo certified according to this
         standards
       • A new law of march 2012 obblige the Public administration to buy
         energy services only by ESCo that have the requirement specified
         in the UNI 11352;
       • (if an ESCO is certified the requirements are automatically
         verified)




Energy audit and energy certification




       Energy manager
       (D. Lgs. 10/1991)
       and Energy expert


Energy audit and energy certification
Energy Manager

       • From the law 10/1991 every firm with a total consuption of
                – More than 10.000 TOE for the industrial firm;
                – More than 1.000 TOE for other sector;
       • must nominate an Energy Manager.

       • The Energy Manager is in charge for the rational (=efficient)
         use of the energy and must support the high management in
         every decision regarding the energy production and use.




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Calculation of the total consuption

       • The conversion factors for                •Gasolio 1 t =                            1,08 tep
                                                   •Olio combustibile 1 t =                  0,98 tep
         the calculation of the total
                                                   •Gas di petrolio liquefatto (GPL) 1 t=    1,10 tep
         energy consuption are                     •Benzine 1 t =                            1,20 tep
         established by law:                       •Carbon fossile 1 t =                     0,74 tep
                                                   •Carbone di legna 1 t =                   0,75 tep
                                                   •Antracite e prodotti antracinosi 1 t =   0,70 tep
                                                   •Legna da ardere 1 t =                    0,45 tep
                                                   •Lignite 1 t =                            0,25 tep
                                                   •Gas naturale 1000 Nm3 (*) =              0,82 tep



                                                     Consumo in tep = 0,23 x consumo in MWh (*) se in alta o media tensione
                                                     Consumo in tep = 0,25 x consumo in MWh (*) se in bassa tensione



Energy audit and energy certification
Calculation example




Energy audit and energy certification




                                                    Calculation example
Uso                          Consumo EE    Consumo      Consumo      Consumo      Totale
                             (TEP/anno)     metano       gasolio       pellet    (TEP/a    incidenza
                                          (TEP/anno)   (TEP/anno)   (TEP/anno)   nno)

Produzione                          3,4      75,6                                 79,0     40,7%
vapore                                                 ----         ----
Produzione                        40,9                                            40,9     21,1%
Linea 1                                   ----         ----         ----
Produzione                        38,0                                            38,0     19,6%
Linea 2                                   ----         ----         ----
Produzione                        23,0                                            23,0     11,9%
Linea 3                                   ----         ----         ----
Logistica                                                 6,7                     6,7       3,5%
                            ----          ----                      ----
Uffici                              2,1                                4,3        6,4       3,3%
                                          ----         ----
Energy audit and energy certification
                                                                    Totale       194,0      100%
Energy Expert

       • Furthermore to the traditional Energy Manager (that is usually a
         worker of the company) the UNI has introduces also a new figure,
         an “energy expert”, a professional that has certified his knowledge
         with a specific exam.
       • UNI CEI 11339:2009 "Gestione dell'energia. Esperti in gestione
         dell'energia. Requisiti generali per la qualificazione
       • (Energy management expert. Requirements for the qualification)




Energy audit and energy certification




                                         Energy expert

       • At the moment there are 40 energy expert certified in Italy.
       • The professional value of the certification is little recognized from
         the market
       • Nevertheless in the short future they could have a strong
         development: for istance the ESCo certified according to UNI
         11352 must have a certified Energy Expert in their organization
         chart




Energy audit and energy certification
Energy expert in an ESCo




Energy audit and energy certification




       Certification of the Energy
         Management System
       ISO 50001:2011



Energy audit and energy certification
The new ISO 50001 standard

        • In June 2011, the International Organization for Standardization
          released ISO 50001, a standard for energy management systems
        • The standard aims to help organizations establish the systems
          and processes to improve their energy performance, including
          efficiency and consumption. The standard is applicable to all types
          and sizes of organizations.
        • The standard has replaced the european standard EN 16001:2009.




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        What can an Energy Management System
                                                 do for your company?


    •      Save money with improved operational efficiencies
    •      Decrease your energy intensity
    •      Provide data for fact based decisions
    •      Give support for organizational and cultural change
    •      Reduced environmental impact
    •      Visible demonstration of corporate social responsibility
    •      Positioning for future carbon accounting, regulations and taxes
    •      Positioning for future supply chain requirements




Energy audit and energy certification
                                            Copyright (Purdue Research Foundation 2010)
Industrial Energy Efficiency Benefits

Energy efficiency has demonstrated, time and again, that
               It saves industrial firms money
               It increase reliability of operations
               It has a positive effect on productivity and competitiveness
               It can offer attractive financial and economic returns
               Reduces exposure to rising energy prices
               Increases security of supply
               ….
                                                  then



                                        Why it is not happening?
Energy audit and energy certification




                                          Barriers to greater energy efficiency

       • Management focus is on production and not on energy efficiency
       • Lack of information and understanding of financial and qualitative
         benefits
       • First costs are more important than recurring costs disconnection
         between capital and operating budgets
       • Lack of technical training on systems energy efficiency (energy and
         management)
       • Technical knowledge exists resides with
         individuals rather than with the organization
            sustainability risk
       • Poor monitoring system and data for
         overall operations

Energy audit and energy certification
Barriers to greater energy efficiency

       • Management focus is on production and not on energy efficiency
       • Lack of information and understanding of financial and qualitative
         benefits
       • First costs are more important than recurring costs disconnection
         between capital and operating budgets
       • Lack of technical training on systems energy efficiency (energy and
         management)
       • Technical knowledge exists resides with
         individuals rather than with the organization
            sustainability risk
       • Poor monitoring system and data for
         overall operations

Energy audit and energy certification




                                             Industry and Energy Management

 • Most energy efficiency in industry is achieved through changes in
   how energy is managed in an industrial facility, rather than through
   installation of new technologies;
 • Actively managing energy requires an organizational change in
   culture
 • Top management needs to be engaged in the management of energy
   on an ongoing basis.
 • At its core, energy management requires a group of people to
   change their behavior and sustain the change

                                            Scope of energy management


         facilities                     equipment   personnel    systems   processes
Energy audit and energy certification
                                                                                       58
Business Benefits

          Implementation of an energy management plan assists a company to:
          •Actively managing energy use and costs, reducing exposure to rising
          energy costs
          •Reduce emissions without negative effect on operations
          •Continual improvement of energy intensity (energy use/product)
          •Document savings for internal and external use (e.g. emission credits)
          •Utilize company personnel and resources wisely




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Energy Management Results


   • Companies who have used energy management to achieve major
     energy intensity improvements1 include:
            – Dow Chemical achieved 22% improvement ($4B savings) between
              1994 and 2005, and is now seeking another 25% from 2005 to 2015
            – United Technologies Corp reduced global GHG emissions by 46% per
              dollar of revenue from 2001 to 2006, and is now seeking an
              additional 12% reduction from 2006 to 2010
            – Toyota’s North American (NA) Energy Management Organization has
              reduced energy use per unit by 23% since 2002; company-wide
              energy-saving efforts have saved $9.2 million in NA since 1999.


          1 Btu/lb of product
Energy audit and energy certification

                                                                                    60
Why an Energy Management Standard?


   An energy management system (EnMS):

   • Strengthens management focus on energy
   • Creates awareness /encourages commitment across a
     company/organization
   • Introduces and sustains a systematic approach to efficiency
   • Requires management commitment of resources appropriate to the
     goals of the EnMS
   • Is based on measurement
   • Provides continuity through changes in personnel




Energy audit and energy certification




                   Ad hoc approach to energy management…




Energy audit and energy certification                  Source: UNIDO 2010
Structured Approach

                      Senior management
                      commit to program

    Costs
                                            Initial savings
    +5%
                                              sustained
     0

    -5%                                                       Housekeeping first – then
                                                                    investment
  -10%
                                                                      Becomes company
  -15%                                                                    culture

  -20%                       Investment

  -25%
                 0                               Years                             3
Energy audit and energy certification                                        Source: UNIDO 2010




                                        What can an EnMS achieve?



       • Most industrial enterprises that have implemented EnMS
         achieved average annual energy intensity reductions of 2.0-
         3.0% against the 1.0% reduction of business as usual
         (Ireland, Netherlands, Denmark, USA)
       • However, for companies new to energy management,
         savings during the first 2 years are 10-20%
       • EnMS accelerate adoption of energy efficient best-practices
         and technology upgrades, enhancing productivity and
         competitiveness


                       An EnMS improves a company’s bottom line
Energy audit and energy certification
Benefits of a ISO 50001 system
       • Interoperability - ISO 50001 is based on the plan-do-check-act approach,
         as used in ISO 14001 and other management systems standards.
       • Promote Energy Management and Performance in organizations -
         Create transparency on the management of energy resources
       • Promote Energy Savings - Assist organizations in making better use of
         their existing energy-consuming assets




Energy audit and energy certification




                                                    The PDCA cycle




Energy audit and energy certification
Energy performance

                                                           • Energy performance
                                                             is a larger concept
                                                             than the simply
                                                             energy consumption




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Energy planning process




Energy audit and energy certification
Energy review: some examples
       • Evaluate existing power consumption and metrics
                –    Utility bill analysis
                –    Benchmarking
                –    HVAC/Mechanical system audit
                –    Evaluate gas requirements (process & heating systems)
                –    Evaluate ventilation (efficiency & effectiveness)
                –    Controls (programmable thermostats, etc.)




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Energy review: some examples
       • Electrical system audit
          – Motor efficiency / type
          – Variable frequency drives
          – Lighting (systems, bulb type, controls)
       • Process system audit
          – Process improvement
          – Operations optimization
          – Efficiency planning




Energy audit and energy certification
Energy audit according the
        UNI/TR 11428




Energy audit and energy certification




                                            UNI 11428

       • Following the other standards on energy management (UNI
         11339, UNI 11352, and so on) UNI has decided to introduce a
         specific standard on energy audit
       • UNI CEI/TR 11428:2011 "Gestione dell'energia - Diagnosi
         energetiche - Requisiti generali del servizio di diagnosi energetica“
       • (Energy audit – general requirements for energy audit service)

       • In the following slides there will be a brief description of the
         energy audit requirements.




Energy audit and energy certification
Types of Energy Audits
                                         DEMAND vs SUPPLY

          • UNI 11428 and ASHRAE Energy Audits
                   – Level I (Walk-Through Analysis)
                   – Level II (Energy Survey & Analysis)
                   – Level III (Detailed Analysis of Capital – Intensive Modifications, aka
                     Process Audit)
          • Renewable Energy Assessments
                   – Simple Discussion of Alternatives
                   – Desktop Analysis
                   – Feasibility Study




Energy audit and energy certification                                                     73




                                                     THE GOALS:
                                            Address both Demand & Supply

       • Possibly all facilities will have Level II or Level III audit
                – Uncover operational and equipment changes for efficiency
                – These audits are NOT free, but have very fast paybacks
       • Possibly all facilities will discuss renewable energy options and
         have a desktop analysis of promising alternatives
                – Feasibility studies performed where potential exists for significant
                  energy production
       • All facilities will use BOTH to develop a prioritized action list to
         guide their next steps




Energy audit and energy certification                                                     74
Other names/types of audits

       • Evaluate existing power consumption and metrics
                – Utility bill analysis
                – Benchmarking
       • HVAC/Mechanical system audit
                – Evaluate gas requirements (process & heating systems)
                – Evaluate ventilation (efficiency & effectiveness)
                – Controls (programmable thermostats, etc.)
       • Electrical system audit
                – Motor efficiency / type
                – Variable frequency drives
                – Lighting (systems, bulb type, controls)
       • Process system audit
                – Process improvement
                – Operations optimization
                – Efficiency planning
Energy audit and energy certification                                                          75




                                              The Auditor’s Toolkit

       • Building Loads Analysis and                   •    eQuest
         Systems                                       •    Elite CHVAC
       • Steam System Scoping Tool                     •    3E Plus
       • GENLYTE GENESIS II                            •    SKM Power Tools
       • COM Check-E2 3.0 Release I                    •    Cummins Power Generation Power
                                                            Suite
       • Motor Master + 3.0
                                                       •    Caterpillar Electric Power Design Pro
       • Pumping Assessment Tool (PSAT)                •    NYSERDA Checklists
       • AIR Master +                                  •    EPA audit tool (draft)
       • InfoWater Scheduler




Energy audit and energy certification                                                          76

                                                                                                    76
Important Terms in Mass

       • Utility = The energy (electric or gas) provider.
       • PA = Program Administrator = MA investor-owned utilities (not
         MLPs). Required by Green Communities Act to identify and
         implement efficiency projects.
       • Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities = ~ Level I audits




Energy audit and energy certification




                                        Walk Through Audit (Level I)



        • DURATION: Several hours in the facility

        • PRODUCT: Usually suggestions for low cost improvements to
          lights/HVAC

        • RESULTS: Quick payback projects that take advantage of utility
          rebates




Energy audit and energy certification                                           78
Energy Survey and Analysis
                                                 (Level II)


          • DURATION: Several hours in facility plus additional time to review
            energy bills, etc.
          • PRODUCT: Suggestions for low cost improvements to lights/HVAC
            and equipment upgrades in existing processes (e.g., VFDs,
            premium efficiency motors)
          • RESULTS: Quick payback projects that take advantage of utility
            rebates




Energy audit and energy certification                                        79




                                         Process Energy Audit
                                              (Level III)


           • DURATION: One or more days in the facility, time to analyze
             energy bills, develop pump curves, and possibly several weeks
             of data gathering
           • PRODUCT:
              – Energy use in existing processes, alternative processes
              – Potential design modifications
              – Optimization of processes, equipment, design modifications
           • RESULTS: Detailed operational and process suggestions with
             both short and long paybacks, some capital-intensive projects
             may require outside funding sources. Most likely to result in
             significant savings

Energy audit and energy certification                                        80
Renewable Energy Assessments

       • Start small (discussion) and end large (€ 100k+ feasibility studies)
       • Some energy auditors will do some level of renewable energy
         assessment, usually discussion and desktop analysis with
         recommendations for further study
       • Renewable energy projects usually only cost-effective AFTER all
         energy efficiency projects are completed.




Energy audit and energy certification




                                                                  Audit Results:
                                                             One Size Does Not Fit All

           FACILITY                     AUDIT TYPE,          AUDIT COST (free       ANNUAL ENERGY    ANNUAL SAVINGS
           NAME                         LENGTH               audits no longer       COST
                                                             standard)


           Barnestable                  Level I-II, 8 pgs    Free via utility       Not calculated   $32,422



           Edgartown (audit 1)          Level II, 56 pgs     Free via utility       $209,328         $17,728



           Edgartown (audit 2)          Level II, 170 pgs    Free via utility       Not calculated   $42,082
                                        w/specs




           GLSD                         Level III, 117 pgs   ~$50,000 (split with   $3,286,000       $1,028,000
                                                             utility)




           Name Withheld (CT            Level III plus       ~$25,000               $319,000         $55,000 efficiency,
           Water Facility)              Desktop                                                      additional potential from
Energy audit and energy certification   Renewables                                                   up to 530 KW          82
                                                                                                     renewables
Two types of audits


                                                                            Projected Annual Savings

                                                                            Level II
                                                                         Building and
                                                                          Equipment      Level III (Process)
                                                                         Walkthrough           Audit
        Shut off computers, copiers nights/weekends                  $        600       $       600


        Use Energy saver mode on Computers, copiers                  $        250       $       250

        Lighting upgrades                                            $        500       $       500


        Upgrade Domestic HW system                                   $      2,000        $     3,000


        Install VFD on aeration blowers                              $     20,000        .


        Redesign Aeration system, install DO controls                                    $    50,000
Energy audit and energy certification                                                                      83




                                                        Level II audit results



      –    Estimates of power usage by equipment type
      –    No detailed analysis of equipment specs and performance
      –    Estimates of implementation cost and payback
      –    Simple low cost solutions but less savings




Energy audit and energy certification                                                                      84
Level III (Process) Audit Results

       • Process Energy Audit report includes:
                – Review of energy                                                                                       use
                  and rates
                – Energy balance
                – Pump systems evaluation
                – Process systems evaluation
                – Recommendations: Operational & Energy Conservation
                – Cost benefit analysis of proposed projects
                – Higher cost savings




Energy audit and energy certification                                                                                          85




                                                             Energy Balance example


                                                            WWTF Electric Energy Breakdown




                                                                      Building Systems   Prelim/Primary Treatment
                                            Plant Water & Disinfection      2%                   7%
                                                    8%
                                        Sludge Drying
                                           11%



                  Sludge Thickening/Dewatering
                          12%                                                                              Biological System
                                                                                                                37%



                                                    Digestion
                                                     14%                     Secondary/RAS Pumps
                                                                                   9%


Energy audit and energy certification                                                                                          86
Cost saving




Energy audit and energy certification                                  87




                                         Review

       • All facilities will benefit from an audit
       • Audits vary in size, scope, complexity, and cost
       • PAs will help you fund audits and projects
       • Renewable energy assessments are important but should come
         after efficiency projects
       • Audits that don’t lead to completed projects don’t save any
         energy




Energy audit and energy certification
Thank you!




Energy audit and energy certification

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Energy audit an energy certification

  • 1. ENERGY AUDIT AND ENERGY CERTIFICATION Author: Luca Vecchiato (Energol) Energy audit and energy certification 1 Energy: general overview Directive 2006/32/EC Directive 2012/27/CE “White certificates” UNI 11339: Energy expert D. Lgs. 115/2008 UNI 11352: ESCo UNI 11428: Energy audit Energy Management System certification: ISO 50001 Energy audit and energy certification
  • 2. Directive 2012/27/CE “Energy efficiency” Energy audit and energy certification Share of greenhouse gas emissions in 2010 • The use of energy is responsible for the majority of Agriculture greenhouse gas 10% emissions, with the Industry Processes energy sector 8% Waste 3% representing 31%, Other transport 19%, Energy 0% 79% industry 13%, households 9% and others 7%. Energy audit and energy certification
  • 3. Meeting all three “20-20-20 by 2020” goals becomes a matter of urgency Reduce greenhouse Increase share of Reduce energy gas levels by 20% renewables to 20% consumption by 20% 100% Current Current trend to 2020 -20% trend to -10% 2020 Current trend to 2020 20% Energy audit and energy certification So far the EU is not on track to meet its 20% energy saving target by 2020 1900 Projections from 2007 business 1850 1842 Mtoe Projections from 2009 as 20% Energy saving objective Primary energy consumption*, Mtoe usual 1800 1750 1700 1678 Mtoe Status 1650 today 1600 GAP 1550 1474 Mtoe 1500 -20% objective 1450 1400 2005 2010 2015 2020 Energy audit and energy certification * Gross inland consumption minus non-energy uses
  • 4. Despite its crucial benefits for europe … Reduce EU’s energy bill by about € 200 bn annualy in 2020 Create up to 2 million new jobs by 2020 Boost R&D & markets for EU global leadership Competitiveness Security of Sustainability Reduce CO2 emissions supply Limit environmental degradation Reduce EU’s energy dependence Reduce investments in energy infrastructures Improve the energy trade balance Energy audit and energy certification And the comprehensive set of european policies & measures in place to address energy efficiency in all its aspects EUROPEAN ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICIES & MEASURES Energy Efficiency Plan International Programmes Targets & networks cooperation Financial R&D tools Energy efficiency legislation “Soft” laws Fiscal tools Energy audit and energy certification
  • 5. Combined with national intentions will not suffice in 400 Mtoe 350 300 EU 20% 250 200 150 Existing 100 national EE targets as 50 of 2011 0 Energy audit and energy certification To tap the remaining economic energy saving potentials for 2020 throughout the sectors Savings expected to be achieved with already existing measures Remaining saving potential to be addressed with new measures 29% 11% 16% 2% 5% Energy audit and energy certification
  • 6. A new impetus is needed: commission puts forward a new energy efficiency directive Public Sectoral House- Energy Services Industry sector measures holds supply Indicative General national EE New measures targets EED promoting EE Monitoring & Reporting Energy audit and energy certification Public sector to lead by example Status EED proposals • Public sector 19% consumption makes • Purchase of products, services important share of & buildings with high energy EU’s GDP efficiency standards 12% • Share of public • Annual renovation target of 3% buildings in building for public buildings above 250 stock m² • Low average energy performance of • More systematic use of Energy existing buildings Performance Contracting stock, incl. public buildings • Cost optimal renovation can bring up to 60% energy Energy audit and energy certification savings
  • 7. Creating benefits for consumers through the provision of tailored energy services and information Status EED proposals • Considerable saving • National energy efficiency potential unused in obligation scheme for utilities the residential and services sectors • Obligation for individual energy • Slow uptake of market meters, reflecting actual energy for energy efficiency consumption & information on services actual time of use • Lack of awareness & access to appropriate information on EE • Ensure accuracy & frequency of benefits billing based on actual • Technological consumption developments (e.g. smart meters/ grids) • Appropriate information with the not sufficiently bill providing comprehensive reflecting households account of current energy costs interests Energy audit and energy certification Improving energy efficiency in transformation and distribution of energy Status EED proposals • Fragmented • 10-year national heat & cooling plans: regulations & transparency, predictability & Remaining incentives to address alignment of policies for potential waste across supply investments chain Achieved • Waste heat recovery (CHP) savings • CHP uses 30% less fuel obligation for new and existing for the same amount of power & industrial plants heat & power but level of use in EU low: 11% vs. • Network tariffs design to encourage 21%. offering services for consumers allowing them to save energy & control consumption • New generation installations not systematically • National annual inventories of reflecting level of Best generation installations to monitor Energy audit and energy certification Available Technologies efficiency levels
  • 8. Increase awareness for benefits stemming from energy efficiency improvements in industry Status EED proposals • Important share in • Member States to create 28% overall final energy incentives for SMEs to undergo consumption energy audits Remaining • Considerable • Dissemination of best practices on potential progress made but benefits of energy management potential remaining systems for SME businesses Achieved savings • Energy efficient • Mandatory audits for large technologies and companies & incentives for the EE best practices implementation of recommended readily available measures and the introduction of Energy audit and energy certification Energy Management Systems Possible time planning after adoption • European Parliament to nominate a rapporteur • First presentation & discussions in the Council Energy July 2011 Working Group under Polish Presidency September • Continuation of discussions in the Council Energy - December Working Group 2011 • Discussion in the EP • Energy Council (November) January – • Achieving of political agreement June 2012 June – • Finalization of the legislative text under the Cyprus December Presidency 2012 • Entering into for force of Energy Efficiency Directive by the end of 2012 December • Implementation of the new Directive in the MS 2013 June 2014 • Assessment of progress towards 20% saving objective Energy audit and energy certification
  • 9. Certificates for energy savings (“white certificates”) Energy audit and energy certification Establishing long-term synergies between the energy sector liberalization and end-use energy efficiency A possible market-based policy portfolio oriented towards end- use energy efficiency could comprise energy-savings quota for some category of operators (distributors, suppliers, consumers, etc.) coupled with a trading system for energy-efficiency measures resulting in energy savings. The savings would be verified by the regulator and certified by means of the so-called “white” certificates (tradable certificates for energy savings). Energy audit and energy certification
  • 10. Systems with savings obligations and tradable certificates for energy savings (TCES) in Europe • Four key elements – the creation and framing of the demand, – the tradable instrument (certificate) and the rules for trading, – Institutional infrastructure and processes (such as measurement and verification) to support the scheme. – the cost recovery mechanism in some cases. In Europe variations of this policy mix have been introduced in Italy, Great Italy Britain, and since July 2006, also in France. The Netherlands is Britain France currently considering the implementation of a white certificate system. In Flanders (Belgium) and in Ireland there are savings obligations imposed on electricity distributors without certificate trading option; saving obligations on electricity and heat distributors in Denmark. Denmark Energy audit and energy certification White certificates mechanism g s vin Electricity and gas suppliers En Sa e er g yS gy on su El er ati s ec er En blig t /I tri ci vi ce O es C Re ty/ e qu W h d uc Ga R ed s fee Regulatory White Certificates Authority market sk Ri i ce rv Se y e rg Brokers En ESCO’s Other participants Energy audit and energy certification
  • 11. European white certificate systems: general features of the Italian system • Targets in primary energy consumption on electricity and gas grid distribution companies with more than 50,000 customers; • by the end of 2006 the Government is expected to set rules for distributors under this threshold; targets set on an annual basis 2009-2014. • The mechanism is planned to deliver energy savings equivalent to 5,8 millions toe in the five year target period. Energy audit and energy certification Review of experiences with white certificate schemes: eligible projects Italy: all end-use sectors eligible (but “50 % constraint”); an illustrative list of eligible projects; projects contribute to the achievement of targets for up to 5 years (with only some exceptions). So far: generation and distribution systems for various energy carriers (29%); households electricity consumption (28%); energy consumption for heating purposes in the households and the commercial sector (20%) and public lighting (19%). Targets achieved (mostly early action), surplus banked. Energy audit and energy certification
  • 12. Different systems in europe UK (EEC 2, 2005-2008) Italy France Unit of target TWh fuel weighted energy benefits toe, annual TWh Duration 2005-2014 2005-2014 2006-2014 current phase Residential consumers only All consumers All consumers Sectoral coverage 50 % from ‘priority group’ (low income 50 % from reduction in own energy Restrictions consumers on social benefits). vector (electricity and gas). Obliged parties Electricity and gas suppliers above Electricity and gas distributors above Electricity, gas, LPG, 50,000 residential customers served 100,000 customers served heat, cold and heating fuel above 0.4 TWh/y Trading No certificates; Obligations can be Certificate trade; traded; Savings can be traded after own Spot market sessions; only bilateral obligation met; No spot market; One-way OTC trading; exchange trade in national emission trading scheme; Institutional Energy regulator AEEG + electricity Ministry of Industry structure market operator GME + ADEME Energy regulator OFGEM Energy audit and energy certification Penalty No specific guidance on how penalty Fixed by the Regulator according to 0.02 Euro/kWh would be calculated; criteria such as: the actual possibility to The penalty can arrive up to 10 % of the meet the target, the magnitude of the non- supplier’s turnover. compliance, the state of affairs of the non- Review of experiences with white certificate schemes: evaluation of savings • Baseline definition • Evaluation approaches Energy audit and energy certification
  • 13. Saving objectives Energy audit and energy certification Baseline definition • Present regulation; • Sales average and performance of the most commonly used appliance on the market “average-on-the-market” (appliances and equipment); • Average consumption of installed stock; • Building stock or equipment stock (e.g. in insulation measures in France); Energy audit and energy certification
  • 14. Measurement and verification: Italy 3 valuation (measurement and verification, M&V) approaches: • deemed savings approach with default factors for free riding, delivery mechanism and persistence: no on-field measurements required; • engineering approach, with some on-field measurement, • a third approach based on monitoring plans: comparison of measured or calculated consumptions before and after the project, taking into account changed framework conditions (e.g. climatic conditions, occupancy levels, production levels); all monitoring plans must be submitted for pre-approval to the AEEG and must conform with pre-determined criteria (e.g. sample size, criteria to choose the measurement technology, etc.) Most of the projects submitted to date are of the deemed saving and engineering method variety. There is ex-post verification and certification of actual energy savings achieved (yearly) Energy audit and energy certification Watt-hour (Wh) meters & What Would Have Happened (WWHH) meters What Would Have Happened Meter WWHH meter 1,000,000 750,000 kWh 500,000 Baseline Period Performance Period 250,000 Watt-hour Meter Energy audit and energy certification
  • 15. Types of TEE There are 3 different types of White Certificates I type: reduction in the final use of EE; II type: reduction in the final use of nautral gas; III type: reduction in the final use of energy for transportation. Types of projects (definizione ) Standard projects (according to a technical schede decided by the authority) The saving are calcolated for number of devices (UFR) that are object of the intervention (es.: number of burners installed, m2 of windows replaced); Analytical projects (according to a technical schede decided by the authority) The savings are calculated with a simple algorithm and some few operating parameters. Non-standard project (according to a proposal of measurement plan (pppm) presented by the ESCO)
  • 16. Minimum dimensions of a project Every project must demonstrate a minimum account of savinf in order to obtain the TEE Tipologia di Soggetti obbligati Soggetti volontari progetto Standard 25 tep/anno Analytical 100 tep 50 tep Non standard 200 tep 100 tep Il rispetto della dimensione minima viene verificato solo nell’ambito della prima richiesta di verifica e certificazione dei risparmi energetici (RVC). Energy audit and energy certification TEE duration La vita utile, definita nell’ambito dei decreti 20.7.04 è pari a: 10 years for high efficiency cogeneration, (art. 30 comma 11 della Legge 23 luglio 2009, n. 99); 8 years for saving in civil application (windows, insulation, bioclimatization, and so on); 5 years in other cases. Energy audit and energy certification
  • 17. Some example of standard schede •Scheda tecnica n. 17* Installazione di regolatori di flusso luminoso per lampade a vapori di mercurio e lampade a vapori di sodio ad alta pressione negli impianti adibiti ad illuminazione esterna; •Scheda tecnica n. 5* Sostituzione di vetri semplici con doppi vetri; •Scheda tecnica n. 6* Isolamento delle pareti e delle coperture; •Scheda tecnica n. 7* Impiego di impianti fotovoltaici di potenza elettrica inferiore a 20 kW; •Scheda tecnica n. 8* Impiego di collettori solari per la produzione di acqua calda sanitaria; •Scheda tecnica n. 19* Installazione di condizionatori ad aria esterna ad alta efficienza con potenza frigorifera inferiore a 12 kWf; •Scheda tecnica n. 20* Isolamento termico delle pareti e delle coperture per il raffrescamento estivo in ambito domestico e terziario; •Scheda tecnica n. 23 Sostituzione di lampade semaforiche a incandescenza con lampade semaforiche a LED; • Scheda tecnica n. 24 Sostituzione di lampade votive a incandescenza con lampade votive a LED; Energy audit and energy certification Laste standard schedes (2011) Scheda tecnica n. 28 - Realizzazione di sistemi ad alta efficienza per l’illuminazione di gallerie autostradali ed extraurbane principali; Scheda tecnica n. 29a - Realizzazione di nuovi sistemi di illuminazione ad alta efficienza per strade destinate al traffico motorizzato; Scheda tecnica n. 29b - Installazione di corpi illuminanti ad alta efficienza in sistemi di illuminazione esistente per strade destinate al traffico motorizzato. Energy audit and energy certification
  • 18. Obatained savings From 1° january 2005 to 31 december 2010: - 8,0 milions T.e.p. saved. - 21,5 milions tonn CO2 avoided. “The authority estimates that every white certificate has obtained saviongs from 118 to 587 euro/Tep, with a cost from 89,92 to 100 euro/Tep.” Energy audit and energy certification Energy Service Companies (ESCo) Energy audit and energy certification
  • 19. Definition of Energy saving • 'energy service' – means the physical benefit, utility or good derived from a combination of energy with energy-efficient technology or with action, which may include the operations, maintenance and control necessary to deliver the service, which is delivered on the basis of a contract and in normal circumstances has proven to result in verifiable and measurable or estimable energy efficiency improvement or primary energy savings; Energy audit and energy certification Definition of Energy performance company • 'energy performance contracting' – means a contractual arrangement between the beneficiary and the provider of an energy efficiency improvement measure, verified and monitored during the whole term of the contract, where investments (work, supply or service) in that measure are paid for in relation to a contractually agreed level of energy efficiency improvement or other agreed energy performance criterion, such as financial savings. 'energy service provider' means a natural or legal person who delivers energy services or other energy efficiency improvement measures in a final customer's facility or premises; Energy audit and energy certification
  • 20. FTT with financing by the client Energy audit and energy certification FTT with financing by the ESCO Energy audit and energy certification
  • 21. Build-Own-Operate & Transfer (BOOT) contract Customer & Power Grid Special Purpose Corporation Asset Equity & Ownership & ESCO Non-recourse Management Debt Repayment Turnkey Plant Design/Build Performance Guarantees Fuel Procurement Plant O & M Energy audit and energy certification Italian requirements for ESCo • For the italian law the requirements ne3cessary to become an 'energy service provider' are very low: a company has only to have the phrase “energy service” on its Chamber of Commerce company registration • In order to increase the professional level of the ESCo the UNI (Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione) has introduced a specifica standard: • UNI CEI 11352 "Società che forniscono servizi energetici (ESCO) - Requisiti generali e lista di controllo per la verifica dei requisiti“ • (general requirements and check list) Energy audit and energy certification
  • 22. UNI 11352:2010 • At the moment there are about 20 ESCo certified according to this standards • A new law of march 2012 obblige the Public administration to buy energy services only by ESCo that have the requirement specified in the UNI 11352; • (if an ESCO is certified the requirements are automatically verified) Energy audit and energy certification Energy manager (D. Lgs. 10/1991) and Energy expert Energy audit and energy certification
  • 23. Energy Manager • From the law 10/1991 every firm with a total consuption of – More than 10.000 TOE for the industrial firm; – More than 1.000 TOE for other sector; • must nominate an Energy Manager. • The Energy Manager is in charge for the rational (=efficient) use of the energy and must support the high management in every decision regarding the energy production and use. Energy audit and energy certification Calculation of the total consuption • The conversion factors for •Gasolio 1 t = 1,08 tep •Olio combustibile 1 t = 0,98 tep the calculation of the total •Gas di petrolio liquefatto (GPL) 1 t= 1,10 tep energy consuption are •Benzine 1 t = 1,20 tep established by law: •Carbon fossile 1 t = 0,74 tep •Carbone di legna 1 t = 0,75 tep •Antracite e prodotti antracinosi 1 t = 0,70 tep •Legna da ardere 1 t = 0,45 tep •Lignite 1 t = 0,25 tep •Gas naturale 1000 Nm3 (*) = 0,82 tep Consumo in tep = 0,23 x consumo in MWh (*) se in alta o media tensione Consumo in tep = 0,25 x consumo in MWh (*) se in bassa tensione Energy audit and energy certification
  • 24. Calculation example Energy audit and energy certification Calculation example Uso Consumo EE Consumo Consumo Consumo Totale (TEP/anno) metano gasolio pellet (TEP/a incidenza (TEP/anno) (TEP/anno) (TEP/anno) nno) Produzione 3,4 75,6 79,0 40,7% vapore ---- ---- Produzione 40,9 40,9 21,1% Linea 1 ---- ---- ---- Produzione 38,0 38,0 19,6% Linea 2 ---- ---- ---- Produzione 23,0 23,0 11,9% Linea 3 ---- ---- ---- Logistica 6,7 6,7 3,5% ---- ---- ---- Uffici 2,1 4,3 6,4 3,3% ---- ---- Energy audit and energy certification Totale 194,0 100%
  • 25. Energy Expert • Furthermore to the traditional Energy Manager (that is usually a worker of the company) the UNI has introduces also a new figure, an “energy expert”, a professional that has certified his knowledge with a specific exam. • UNI CEI 11339:2009 "Gestione dell'energia. Esperti in gestione dell'energia. Requisiti generali per la qualificazione • (Energy management expert. Requirements for the qualification) Energy audit and energy certification Energy expert • At the moment there are 40 energy expert certified in Italy. • The professional value of the certification is little recognized from the market • Nevertheless in the short future they could have a strong development: for istance the ESCo certified according to UNI 11352 must have a certified Energy Expert in their organization chart Energy audit and energy certification
  • 26. Energy expert in an ESCo Energy audit and energy certification Certification of the Energy Management System ISO 50001:2011 Energy audit and energy certification
  • 27. The new ISO 50001 standard • In June 2011, the International Organization for Standardization released ISO 50001, a standard for energy management systems • The standard aims to help organizations establish the systems and processes to improve their energy performance, including efficiency and consumption. The standard is applicable to all types and sizes of organizations. • The standard has replaced the european standard EN 16001:2009. Energy audit and energy certification What can an Energy Management System do for your company? • Save money with improved operational efficiencies • Decrease your energy intensity • Provide data for fact based decisions • Give support for organizational and cultural change • Reduced environmental impact • Visible demonstration of corporate social responsibility • Positioning for future carbon accounting, regulations and taxes • Positioning for future supply chain requirements Energy audit and energy certification Copyright (Purdue Research Foundation 2010)
  • 28. Industrial Energy Efficiency Benefits Energy efficiency has demonstrated, time and again, that It saves industrial firms money It increase reliability of operations It has a positive effect on productivity and competitiveness It can offer attractive financial and economic returns Reduces exposure to rising energy prices Increases security of supply …. then Why it is not happening? Energy audit and energy certification Barriers to greater energy efficiency • Management focus is on production and not on energy efficiency • Lack of information and understanding of financial and qualitative benefits • First costs are more important than recurring costs disconnection between capital and operating budgets • Lack of technical training on systems energy efficiency (energy and management) • Technical knowledge exists resides with individuals rather than with the organization sustainability risk • Poor monitoring system and data for overall operations Energy audit and energy certification
  • 29. Barriers to greater energy efficiency • Management focus is on production and not on energy efficiency • Lack of information and understanding of financial and qualitative benefits • First costs are more important than recurring costs disconnection between capital and operating budgets • Lack of technical training on systems energy efficiency (energy and management) • Technical knowledge exists resides with individuals rather than with the organization sustainability risk • Poor monitoring system and data for overall operations Energy audit and energy certification Industry and Energy Management • Most energy efficiency in industry is achieved through changes in how energy is managed in an industrial facility, rather than through installation of new technologies; • Actively managing energy requires an organizational change in culture • Top management needs to be engaged in the management of energy on an ongoing basis. • At its core, energy management requires a group of people to change their behavior and sustain the change Scope of energy management facilities equipment personnel systems processes Energy audit and energy certification 58
  • 30. Business Benefits Implementation of an energy management plan assists a company to: •Actively managing energy use and costs, reducing exposure to rising energy costs •Reduce emissions without negative effect on operations •Continual improvement of energy intensity (energy use/product) •Document savings for internal and external use (e.g. emission credits) •Utilize company personnel and resources wisely Energy audit and energy certification Energy Management Results • Companies who have used energy management to achieve major energy intensity improvements1 include: – Dow Chemical achieved 22% improvement ($4B savings) between 1994 and 2005, and is now seeking another 25% from 2005 to 2015 – United Technologies Corp reduced global GHG emissions by 46% per dollar of revenue from 2001 to 2006, and is now seeking an additional 12% reduction from 2006 to 2010 – Toyota’s North American (NA) Energy Management Organization has reduced energy use per unit by 23% since 2002; company-wide energy-saving efforts have saved $9.2 million in NA since 1999. 1 Btu/lb of product Energy audit and energy certification 60
  • 31. Why an Energy Management Standard? An energy management system (EnMS): • Strengthens management focus on energy • Creates awareness /encourages commitment across a company/organization • Introduces and sustains a systematic approach to efficiency • Requires management commitment of resources appropriate to the goals of the EnMS • Is based on measurement • Provides continuity through changes in personnel Energy audit and energy certification Ad hoc approach to energy management… Energy audit and energy certification Source: UNIDO 2010
  • 32. Structured Approach Senior management commit to program Costs Initial savings +5% sustained 0 -5% Housekeeping first – then investment -10% Becomes company -15% culture -20% Investment -25% 0 Years 3 Energy audit and energy certification Source: UNIDO 2010 What can an EnMS achieve? • Most industrial enterprises that have implemented EnMS achieved average annual energy intensity reductions of 2.0- 3.0% against the 1.0% reduction of business as usual (Ireland, Netherlands, Denmark, USA) • However, for companies new to energy management, savings during the first 2 years are 10-20% • EnMS accelerate adoption of energy efficient best-practices and technology upgrades, enhancing productivity and competitiveness An EnMS improves a company’s bottom line Energy audit and energy certification
  • 33. Benefits of a ISO 50001 system • Interoperability - ISO 50001 is based on the plan-do-check-act approach, as used in ISO 14001 and other management systems standards. • Promote Energy Management and Performance in organizations - Create transparency on the management of energy resources • Promote Energy Savings - Assist organizations in making better use of their existing energy-consuming assets Energy audit and energy certification The PDCA cycle Energy audit and energy certification
  • 34. Energy performance • Energy performance is a larger concept than the simply energy consumption Energy audit and energy certification Energy planning process Energy audit and energy certification
  • 35. Energy review: some examples • Evaluate existing power consumption and metrics – Utility bill analysis – Benchmarking – HVAC/Mechanical system audit – Evaluate gas requirements (process & heating systems) – Evaluate ventilation (efficiency & effectiveness) – Controls (programmable thermostats, etc.) Energy audit and energy certification Energy review: some examples • Electrical system audit – Motor efficiency / type – Variable frequency drives – Lighting (systems, bulb type, controls) • Process system audit – Process improvement – Operations optimization – Efficiency planning Energy audit and energy certification
  • 36. Energy audit according the UNI/TR 11428 Energy audit and energy certification UNI 11428 • Following the other standards on energy management (UNI 11339, UNI 11352, and so on) UNI has decided to introduce a specific standard on energy audit • UNI CEI/TR 11428:2011 "Gestione dell'energia - Diagnosi energetiche - Requisiti generali del servizio di diagnosi energetica“ • (Energy audit – general requirements for energy audit service) • In the following slides there will be a brief description of the energy audit requirements. Energy audit and energy certification
  • 37. Types of Energy Audits DEMAND vs SUPPLY • UNI 11428 and ASHRAE Energy Audits – Level I (Walk-Through Analysis) – Level II (Energy Survey & Analysis) – Level III (Detailed Analysis of Capital – Intensive Modifications, aka Process Audit) • Renewable Energy Assessments – Simple Discussion of Alternatives – Desktop Analysis – Feasibility Study Energy audit and energy certification 73 THE GOALS: Address both Demand & Supply • Possibly all facilities will have Level II or Level III audit – Uncover operational and equipment changes for efficiency – These audits are NOT free, but have very fast paybacks • Possibly all facilities will discuss renewable energy options and have a desktop analysis of promising alternatives – Feasibility studies performed where potential exists for significant energy production • All facilities will use BOTH to develop a prioritized action list to guide their next steps Energy audit and energy certification 74
  • 38. Other names/types of audits • Evaluate existing power consumption and metrics – Utility bill analysis – Benchmarking • HVAC/Mechanical system audit – Evaluate gas requirements (process & heating systems) – Evaluate ventilation (efficiency & effectiveness) – Controls (programmable thermostats, etc.) • Electrical system audit – Motor efficiency / type – Variable frequency drives – Lighting (systems, bulb type, controls) • Process system audit – Process improvement – Operations optimization – Efficiency planning Energy audit and energy certification 75 The Auditor’s Toolkit • Building Loads Analysis and • eQuest Systems • Elite CHVAC • Steam System Scoping Tool • 3E Plus • GENLYTE GENESIS II • SKM Power Tools • COM Check-E2 3.0 Release I • Cummins Power Generation Power Suite • Motor Master + 3.0 • Caterpillar Electric Power Design Pro • Pumping Assessment Tool (PSAT) • NYSERDA Checklists • AIR Master + • EPA audit tool (draft) • InfoWater Scheduler Energy audit and energy certification 76 76
  • 39. Important Terms in Mass • Utility = The energy (electric or gas) provider. • PA = Program Administrator = MA investor-owned utilities (not MLPs). Required by Green Communities Act to identify and implement efficiency projects. • Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities = ~ Level I audits Energy audit and energy certification Walk Through Audit (Level I) • DURATION: Several hours in the facility • PRODUCT: Usually suggestions for low cost improvements to lights/HVAC • RESULTS: Quick payback projects that take advantage of utility rebates Energy audit and energy certification 78
  • 40. Energy Survey and Analysis (Level II) • DURATION: Several hours in facility plus additional time to review energy bills, etc. • PRODUCT: Suggestions for low cost improvements to lights/HVAC and equipment upgrades in existing processes (e.g., VFDs, premium efficiency motors) • RESULTS: Quick payback projects that take advantage of utility rebates Energy audit and energy certification 79 Process Energy Audit (Level III) • DURATION: One or more days in the facility, time to analyze energy bills, develop pump curves, and possibly several weeks of data gathering • PRODUCT: – Energy use in existing processes, alternative processes – Potential design modifications – Optimization of processes, equipment, design modifications • RESULTS: Detailed operational and process suggestions with both short and long paybacks, some capital-intensive projects may require outside funding sources. Most likely to result in significant savings Energy audit and energy certification 80
  • 41. Renewable Energy Assessments • Start small (discussion) and end large (€ 100k+ feasibility studies) • Some energy auditors will do some level of renewable energy assessment, usually discussion and desktop analysis with recommendations for further study • Renewable energy projects usually only cost-effective AFTER all energy efficiency projects are completed. Energy audit and energy certification Audit Results: One Size Does Not Fit All FACILITY AUDIT TYPE, AUDIT COST (free ANNUAL ENERGY ANNUAL SAVINGS NAME LENGTH audits no longer COST standard) Barnestable Level I-II, 8 pgs Free via utility Not calculated $32,422 Edgartown (audit 1) Level II, 56 pgs Free via utility $209,328 $17,728 Edgartown (audit 2) Level II, 170 pgs Free via utility Not calculated $42,082 w/specs GLSD Level III, 117 pgs ~$50,000 (split with $3,286,000 $1,028,000 utility) Name Withheld (CT Level III plus ~$25,000 $319,000 $55,000 efficiency, Water Facility) Desktop additional potential from Energy audit and energy certification Renewables up to 530 KW 82 renewables
  • 42. Two types of audits Projected Annual Savings Level II Building and Equipment Level III (Process) Walkthrough Audit Shut off computers, copiers nights/weekends $ 600 $ 600 Use Energy saver mode on Computers, copiers $ 250 $ 250 Lighting upgrades $ 500 $ 500 Upgrade Domestic HW system $ 2,000 $ 3,000 Install VFD on aeration blowers $ 20,000 . Redesign Aeration system, install DO controls $ 50,000 Energy audit and energy certification 83 Level II audit results – Estimates of power usage by equipment type – No detailed analysis of equipment specs and performance – Estimates of implementation cost and payback – Simple low cost solutions but less savings Energy audit and energy certification 84
  • 43. Level III (Process) Audit Results • Process Energy Audit report includes: – Review of energy use and rates – Energy balance – Pump systems evaluation – Process systems evaluation – Recommendations: Operational & Energy Conservation – Cost benefit analysis of proposed projects – Higher cost savings Energy audit and energy certification 85 Energy Balance example WWTF Electric Energy Breakdown Building Systems Prelim/Primary Treatment Plant Water & Disinfection 2% 7% 8% Sludge Drying 11% Sludge Thickening/Dewatering 12% Biological System 37% Digestion 14% Secondary/RAS Pumps 9% Energy audit and energy certification 86
  • 44. Cost saving Energy audit and energy certification 87 Review • All facilities will benefit from an audit • Audits vary in size, scope, complexity, and cost • PAs will help you fund audits and projects • Renewable energy assessments are important but should come after efficiency projects • Audits that don’t lead to completed projects don’t save any energy Energy audit and energy certification
  • 45. Thank you! Energy audit and energy certification