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Chapter 4 deep foundation ( bi )


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Chapter 4 deep foundation ( bi )

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Deep Foundation BSD150 – BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ll
  2. 2. Introduction   A foundation in the base on which a building rests and its purpose is to safely transfer the load of a building to a suitable subsoils. The building regulation require all foundation of a building to;    Safely sustain and transmit to the ground the combined dead and imposed loads so as not a cause any settlement or other movement in any part of the building or of any part of the building or of any adjoining building or works. Be such as depth or be so constructed, as to void damage by swelling, shrinkage, or freezing otf the subsoil. Be capable of resisting attack by deleterious material, such as sulphates in the subsoil.
  3. 3. Factors affecting design  The total loads of the building    All loads including dead load, live load and other loads should be known and calculated in detail and carefully. It is because to know the size of the foundation. The nature and bearing capacity of the subsoil    The nature of the subsoils has be known to choose the types of foundation. Different type of subsoil has different bearing capacity. This will influence the design and types of foundation.
  4. 4. DEEP FOUNDATION Those, which transfer the loads to subsoil that in some distance below the ground floor of the building such as pile.  Are those funding too deeply below the finished ground surface for their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions.  Usually at depth > 3m below finished ground level. 
  5. 5. Pile foundation Can be defined as a column inserted in the ground to transmit the structural loads to a lower level of subsoil.  Pile foundation is the most popular to be used because the method of construction is easier and faster.  The main problem by using this pile foundation are;    The condition of the pile that has been driven in the subsoil Problem such as crack is difficult to identify.
  6. 6. Cont… Today a wide variety of materials are available such as timber, steel, and concrete (precast or in-situ concrete)  The types of pile foundation to built a building are depending on the     building loads Types of soils The method of construction
  7. 7. Classification of piles  Piles may be classified by the way in which they transmit their loads to the subsoils or by the way they are formed. Piles may transmit their loads to a lower level by;  End bearing (point bearing piles)  The shafts of the piles act as column carrying the loads through the overlaying weak subsoils to strata or layer of firm sand and gravel which has been compacted by the displacement and vibration encountered during the driving.
  8. 8. Cont….  Friction (cohesion piles )  Any foundation imposes on the ground a pressure which spreads out to form a bulb of pressure. If a suitable load bearing strata cannot be found at an acceptable level, particularly in stiff clay soils, it is possible to use pile to carry this bulb of pressure to lower level where a higher bearing capacity is found.
  9. 9. Choice of type of foundation Solid chalk, sands and gravels or sand and gravels with only small proportions of clay, dense silty sands Uniform, firm and stiff clays -Where vegetation is insignificant -Where trees and shrubs are growing or to be planted close to the site -Where trees are felled to clear the site and construction is due to start soon afterward Shallow strip or pad footings as appropriate to the load bearing members of the building -Bored piles and ground beams, or strip foundations at least 1m deep -Bored piles and ground beams -Reinforced bored piles of sufficient length with the top 3m sleeved from the surrounding ground and with suspended floor Soft clays, soft silty clays Strip footing up to 1m wide if bearing capacity is sufficient, or raft Peat Bored piles with temporary steel lining or precast or insitu piles driven to firm strata below Mining and other subsidence area Thin reinforced rafts for individuals houses with load bearing walls and for flexible building
  10. 10. TYPE OF PILES Displacement Piles  Replacement Piles  Sheet Piles 
  11. 11. Displacement Piles    Applied to the piles which are driven into the soils, includes those piles which are preformed, partially preformed or driven in situ piles Suitable for high rise building and easy to handle Timber piles ; usually square sawn hardwood or softwood,     length up to 12m sizes ranging from 225mm x 225mm to 600mm x 600m Easy to handle Can be driven by percussion with the minimum of experience
  12. 12. Cont…  Precast concrete Piles – used on medium to large contracts  Where soft soils overlying firm strata are encountered and at least 100 piles are required.  Length up to 18m  Sizes ranging from 250mm x 250mm to 450mm x 450mm Figure 1-4 a) concrete pile connecting detail. b) squared pre-cast concert p
  13. 13. Problem when using DP  Problem can be encountered when using this form of pile in urban or congested areas due to;    Transporting the complete length of piles through narrow and/or congested streets. The driving process, which is generally percussion, can set up unacceptable noise and vibration. Many urban sites area in themselves restricted or congested thus making it difficult to move the long pile lengths around the site.
  14. 14. Cont….. In situ cast which has been made from concrete also can be classified as displacement piles.  Casing made from steel will be driven sand concrete will be poured into the casing. This type of pile known as Insitu Cast Displacement Piles 
  15. 15. Replacement Piles Sometimes referred to as bored piled and formed by removing a column of soil and replacing with in situ concrete.  These types of piles are considered for sites where piling is being carried out in close proximity to existing buildings or where vibration and noise restricted.  The formation of this type of piles can be considered under 2 general calssification;    Percussion bored Rotary bored
  16. 16. Cont….  Percussion bored piles ; suitable for small and medium sizes of building    Piles diameter usually from 300mm to 950mm designed to carry loads up to 1500kN. Steel cube made up from length (1.00m to 1.40m). Rotary bored piles ; these can range from the short bored piles used in domestic dwellings to the very large diameter piles used for concentrated loads in multi-storey and bridge construction.  Suitable for cohesive soils such as clay and is formed using auger.
  17. 17. The following are replacement piles: Augered  Cable percussion drilling  Large-diameter under-reamed  Types incorporating pre caste concrete unite  Drilled-in tubes  Mini piles 
  18. 18. Composite piles    Combination of different materials in the same of pile. As indicated earlier, part of a timber pile which is installed above ground water could be vulnerable to insect attack and decay. To avoid this, concrete or steel pile is used above the ground water level, whilst wood pile is installed under the ground water level (see figure 1.7). Figure 1-7 Protecting timber piles from decay: a) by pre-cast concrete upper section above water level. b) by extending pile cap below water level
  19. 19. Classification of pile with respect to effect on the soil A simplified division into driven or bored piles is often employed  Driven piles   Driven piles are considered to be displacement piles. In the process of driving the pile into the ground, soil is moved radially as the pile shaft enters the ground. There may also be a component of movement of the soil in the vertical direction.
  20. 20. Driven piles                                                                                                                                                                                                                
  21. 21. Advantages and disadvantages of different pile material  Wood piles       + The piles are easy to handle + Relatively inexpensive where timber is plentiful. + Sections can be joined together and excess length easily removed. -- The piles will rot above the ground water level. Have a limited bearing capacity. -- Can easily be damaged during driving by stones and boulders. -- The piles are difficult to splice and are attacked by marine borers in salt water.
  22. 22. Cont…  Prefabricated concrete piles (reinforced) and pre stressed concrete piles. (driven) affected by the ground water conditions.  + Do not corrode or rot.  + Are easy to splice. Relatively inexpensive.  + The quality of the concrete can be checked before driving.  + Stable in squeezing ground, for example, soft clays, silts and peats pile material can be inspected before piling.  + Can be re driven if affected by ground heave. Construction procedure unaffected by ground water.  + Can be driven in long lengths. Can be carried above ground level, for example, through water for marine structures.  + Can increase the relative density of a granular founding stratum.  -- Relatively difficult to cut.  -- Displacement, heave, and disturbance of the soil during driving.  -- Can be damaged during driving. Replacement piles may be required.  -- Sometimes problems with noise and vibration.  -- Cannot be driven with very large diameters or in condition of limited headroom
  23. 23. Cont…  Driven and cast-in-place concrete piles  Permanently cased (casing left in the ground)  Temporarily cased or uncased (casing retrieved)  + Can be inspected before casting can easily be cut or extended to the desired length.  + Relatively inexpensive.  + Low noise level.  + The piles can be cast before excavation.  + Pile lengths are readily adjustable.  + An enlarged base can be formed which can increase the relative density of a granular founding stratum leading to much higher end bearing capacity.  + Reinforcement is not determined by the effects of handling or driving stresses.  + Can be driven with closed end so excluding the effects of GW
  24. 24. Cont….           -- Heave of neighbouring ground surface, which could lead to re consolidation and the development of negative skin friction forces on piles. -- Displacement of nearby retaining walls. Lifting of previously driven piles, where the penetration at the toe have been sufficient to resist upward movements. -- Tensile damage to unreinforced piles or piles consisting of green concrete, where forces at the toe have been sufficient to resist upward movements. -- Damage piles consisting of uncased or thinly cased green concrete due to the lateral forces set up in the soil, for example, necking or waisting. Concrete cannot be inspected after completion. Concrete may be weakened if artesian flow pipes up shaft of piles when tube is withdrawn. -- Light steel section or Precast concrete shells may be damaged or distorted by hard driving. -- Limitation in length owing to lifting forces required to withdraw casing, nose vibration and ground displacement may a nuisance or may damage adjacent structures. -- Cannot be driven where headroom is limited. -- Relatively expensive. -- Time consuming. Cannot be used immediately after the installation. -- Limited length.
  25. 25. Cont…  Bored and cast in -place (non -displacement piles)                 + Length can be readily varied to suit varying ground conditions. + Soil removed in boring can be inspected and if necessary sampled or in- situ test made. + Can be installed in very large diameters. + End enlargement up to two or three diameters are possible in clays. + Material of piles is not dependent on handling or driving conditions. + Can be installed in very long lengths. + Can be installed with out appreciable noise or vibrations. + Can be installed in conditions of very low headroom. + No risk of ground heave. -- Susceptible to "waisting" or "necking" in squeezing ground. -- Concrete is not placed under ideal conditions and cannot be subsequently inspected. -- Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing out cement. -- Enlarged ends cannot be formed in cohesionless materials without special techniques. -- Cannot be readily extended above ground level especially in river and marine structures. -- Boring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils requiring base grouting to achieve economical base resistance. -- Sinking piles may cause loss of ground I cohesion-less leading to settlement of adjacent structures.
  26. 26. Cont…  Steel piles (Rolled steel section)          + The piles are easy to handle and can easily be cut to desired length. + Can be driven through dense layers. The lateral displacement of the soil during driving is low (steel section H or I section piles) can be relatively easily spliced or bolted. + Can be driven hard and in very long lengths. + Can carry heavy loads. + Can be successfully anchored in sloping rock. + Small displacement piles particularly useful if ground displacements and disturbance critical. -- The piles will corrode, -- Will deviate relatively easy during driving. -- Are relatively expensive.
  27. 27. Pile Installation Methods    The installation process and method of installations are equally important factors as of the design process of pile foundations. In this section we will discuss the two main types of pile installation methods; installation by pile hammer and boring by mechanical auger. In order to avoid damages to the piles, during design, installation Methods and installation equipment should be carefully selected. If installation is to be carried out using pile-hammer, then the following factors should be taken in to consideration:      the size and the weight of the pile the driving resistance which has to be overcome to achieve the design penetration the available space and head room on the site the availability of cranes and the noise restrictions which may be in force in the locality.
  28. 28. Pile driving methods (displacement piles)  Methods of pile driving can be categorised as follows:      Dropping weight Explosion Vibration Jacking (restricted to micro-pilling) Jetting
  29. 29. Drop hammers   A hammer with approximately the weight of the pile is raised a suitable height in a guide and released to strike the pile head. This is a simple form of hammer used in conjunction with light frames and test piling, where it may be uneconomical to bring a steam boiler or compressor on to a site to drive very limited number of piles. There are two main types of drop hammers:   Single-acting steam or compressed-air hammers Double-acting pile hammers
  30. 30. Cont…       Single-acting steam or compressed-air comprise a massive weight in the form of a cylinder (see fig.8-1). Steam or compressed air admitted to the cylinder raises it up the fixed piston rod. At the top of the stroke, or at a lesser height which can be controlled by the operator, the steam is cut off and the cylinder falls freely on the pile helmet. Double-acting pile hammers can be driven by steam or compressed air. A pilling frame is not required with this type of hammer which can be attached to the top of the pile by leg-guides, the pile being guided by a timber framework. When used with a pile frame, back guides are bolted to the hammer to engage with leaders, and only short leg-guides are used to prevent the hammer from moving relatively to the top of the pile. Double-acting hammers are used mainly for sheet pile driving.
  31. 31. Pile driving using hammer
  32. 32. Diesel hammers    Also classified as single and double-acting, in operation, the diesel hammer employs a ram which is raised by explosion at the base of a cylinder. Alternatively, in the case of double-acting diesel hammer, a vacuum is created in a separate annular chamber as the ram moves upward, and assists in the return of the ram, almost doubling the output of the hammer over the single-acting type. In favourable ground conditions, the diesel hammer provide an efficient pile driving capacity, but they are not effective for all types of ground.
  33. 33. Pile driving by vibrating     Vibratory hammers are usually electrically powered or hydraulically powered and consists of contra-rotating eccentric masses within a housing attaching to the pile head. The amplitude of the vibration is sufficient to break down the skin friction on the sides of the pile. Vibratory methods are best suited to sandy or gravelly soil. Jetting: to aid the penetration of piles in to sand or sandy gravel, water jetting may be employed. However, the method has very limited effect in firm to stiff clays or any soil containing much coarse gravel, cobbles, or boulders.
  34. 34. Boring methods ( non-displacement piles)  Continuous Flight Auger (CFA)       An equipment comprises of a mobile base carrier fitted with a hollowstemmed flight auger which is rotated into the ground to required depth of pilling. To form the pile, concrete is placed through the flight auger as it is withdrawn from the ground. The auger is fitted with protective cap on the outlet at the base of the central tube and is rotated into the ground by the top mounted rotary hydraulic motor which runs on a carrier attached to the mast. On reaching the required depth, highly workable concrete is pumped through the hollow stem of the auger, and under the pressure of the concrete the protective cap is detached. While rotating the auger in the same direction as during the boring stage, the spoil is expelled vertically as the auger is withdrawn and the pile is formed by filling with concrete. In this process, it is important that rotation of the auger and flow of concrete is matched that collapse of sides of the hole above concrete on lower flight of auger is avoided. This may lead to voids in filled with soil in concrete.
  35. 35. Cont…   The method is especially effective on soft ground and enables to install a variety of bored piles of various diameters that are able to penetrate a multitude of soil conditions. Still, for successful operation of rotary auger the soil must be reasonably free of tree roots, cobbles, and boulders, and it must be self-supporting. During operation little soil is brought upwards by the auger that lateral stresses is maintained in the soil and voiding or excessive loosening of the soil minimise. However, if the rotation of the auger and the advance of the auger is not matched, resulting in removal of soil during drilling-possibly leading to collapse of the side of the hole.
  36. 36. Cont…. CFA Process
  37. 37. Underreaming     A special feature of auger bored piles which is sometimes used to enable to exploit the bearing capacity of suitable strata by providing an enlarged base. The soil has to be capable of standing open unsupported to employ this technique. Stiff and to hard clays, such as the London clay, are ideal. In its closed position, the underreaming tool is fitted inside the straight section of a pile shaft, and then expanded at the bottom of the pile to produce the underream shown in fig. 8-3. Normally, after installation and before concrete is casted, a man carrying cage is lowered and the shaft and the underream of the pile is inspected.
  38. 38. Cont…. a) hydraulic rotary drilling equipment b) C.F.A, c) undrreaming tool open position
  39. 39. C.H.D.P    Continuous helical displacement piles: a short, hollow tapered steel former complete with a larger diameter helical flange, the bullet head is fixed to a hallow drill pipe which is connected to a high torque rotary head running up and down the mast of a special rig. A hollow cylindrical steel shaft sealed at the lower end by a one-way valve and fitted with triangular steel fins is pressed into the ground by a hydraulic ram. There are no vibrations.
  40. 40. Cont…         Displaced soil is compacted in front and around the shaft. Once it reaches the a suitably resistant stratum the shaft is rotated. The triangular fins either side of its leading edge carve out a conical base cavity. At the same time concrete is pumped down the centre of the shat and through the one-way valve. Rotation of the fins is calculated so that as soil is pushed away from the pile base it is simultaneously replaced by in-flowing concrete. Rates of push, rotation and concrete injection are all controlled by an onboard computer. Torque on the shaft is also measured by the computer. When torque levels reach a constant low value the base in formed. The inventors claim that the system can install a typical pile in 12 minute. A typical 6m long pile with an 800mm diameter base and 350mm shaft founded on moderately dense gravel beneath soft overlaying soils can achieve an ultimate capacity of over 200t. The pile is suitable for embankments, hard standing supports and floor slabs, where you have a soft silty layer over a gravel strata.
  41. 41. Cont….
  42. 42. LOAD TEST ON PILES  Pile load test are usually carried out that one or some of the following reasons are fulfilled:      To obtain back-figured soil data that will enable other piles to be designed. To confirm pile lengths and hence contract costs before the client is committed to over all job costs. To counter-check results from geotechnical and pile driving formulae To determine the load-settlement behaviour of a pile, especially in the region of the anticipated working load that the data can be used in prediction of group settlement. To verify structural soundness of the pile.
  43. 43. Cont….  Test loading: There are four types of test loading:      compression test uplift test lateral-load test torsion-load test the most common types of test loading procedures are Constant rate of penetration (CRP) test and the maintained load test (MLT).
  44. 44. CRP (constant rate of penetration)     In the CRP (constant rate of penetration) method, test pile is jacked into the soil, the load being adjusted to give constant rate of downward movement to the pile. This is maintained until point of failure is reached. Failure of the pile is defined in to two ways that as the load at which the pile continues to move downward without further increase in load, or according to the BS, the load which the penetration reaches a value equal to one-tenth of the diameter of the pile at the base. Fig.9-2, In the cases of where compression tests are being carried out, the following methods are usually employed to apply the load or downward force on the pile: A platform is constructed on the head of the pile on which a mass of heavy material, termed "kentledge" is placed. Or a bridge, carried on temporary supports, is constructed over the test pile and loaded with kentledge. The ram of a hydraulic jack, placed on the pile head, bears on a cross-head beneath the bridge beams, so that a total reaction equal to the weight of the bridge and its load may be obtained.
  45. 45. Cont…  test being carried out
  46. 46. MLT - the maintained increment load test the maintained increment load test, kentledge or adjacent tension piles or soil anchors are used to provide a reaction for the test load applied by jacking(s) placed over the pile being tested.  The load is increased in definite steps, and is sustained at each level of loading until all settlements has either stop or does not exceed a specified amount of in a certain given period of time. 
  47. 47. Cont….  test load arrangement using kentledge
  48. 48. Task….  Task       Describe the main function of piles In the introduction, it is stated that piles transfer load to the bearing ground. State how this is achieved. Piles are made out of different materials. In short state the advantages and disadvantages of these materials. Piles can be referred as displacement and nondisplacement piles. State the differences and the similarities of these piles Piles can be classified as end-bearing piles cohesive or friction piles. Describe the differences and similarity of these piles. Piles can be classified as bored or driven state the differences.