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Dhruv Saxena
Assistant Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Scope
• Introduction
• Definition
• Classification & Types of Disasters
• Disaster Management
• Disaster Preparedness
• Medical and Public Health Response
• Public Health Impact of Disaster
• Disaster Mitigation
• Recent Disasters in India
• Disaster Management in India
• Areas of Concerns and Future
• References
2
Scope
• Disasters are as old as Mankind.
• The first description of Disaster and its management comes from
mythological “Noah” and his ark.
• Similar Flood tales are widespread in- Greek Mythology, Puranas,
Mesopotamian stories, and many cultures.
Introduction
3
Introduction
Etymology
Originated from Greek
dus = bad aster = star
Calamity due to position of a planet or a star.
Then evolved in Italian as disastro,
To become French désastre (de.zastʁ).
& then disaster .
4
Definition
5
Disaster -
Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of
human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale,
sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the
affected community or area.(WHO).
A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or
man made that causes human suffering and creates human needs
that victim cannot alleviate without assistance.
(American Red Cross)
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Definition
6
Hazard -
Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage
to people and their environment.
“A hazard is natural event while the disaster is its consequence. A hazard is
perceived natural event which threatens both life and property…
A disaster is a realization of this hazard.”
-John Whittow
• When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities and
capacities, they can turn into disasters.
• Hazards may be inevitable but disasters can be prevented.
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Vulnerability
Capacity to cope
High Low
Low High
Vulnerability
Very low Low
Exposure to
Hazard
High
Low
7
The propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard.
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Disaster occurs when hazards meet vulnerability
Progression of vulnerability
Root causes Dynamic pressures Unsafe conditions
Limited
Access to -
• Power
• Structure
• Resources
Ideologies-
• Political -
system
• Economic
- system
Lack of –
•Local institutes
•Training
•Appropriate skills
•Local investment
•Local market
•Media freedom
•Ethical standards
in public life
Macro forces-
•Rapid population
growth
•Rapid
urbanization
•Arms expenditure
•Debt repayments
•Deforestation
•Decline in soil
productivity
Fragile physical
environment
•Dangerous
locations
•Unprotected
buildings &
infrastructure
Fragile local -
economy
•Livelihoods at risk
•Low income levels
Vulnerable society
•Special groupsat
risk
Public actions
•Lack of
preparedness
•Endemic disease
Earthquake
High winds
Hurricane
Cyclone
Typhoon
Flood
Volcanic -
eruptions
Landslides
Drought
Virus
Bacteria
Pests
Fire
Chemicals
Radiation
Armed -
conflicts
Hazards
NOT PREVENTED
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
C la s s if i ca t i on o f Dis a sters
9
Natural
Disasters
Meteorological
T
opographical
Environmental
Man made
Disasters
T
echnological
Industrial
Warfare
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Meteorological
Disasters
• Floods
• Tsunami
• Cyclone
• Hurricane
• Typhoon
• Snow storm
• Blizzard
• Hail storm
T
opographical
Disasters
• Earthquake
• Volcanic
Eruptions
• Landslides
and
Avalanches
• Asteroids
• Limnic
eruptions
Environmental
Disasters
• Global
warming
• El Niño-
Southern
Oscillation
• Ozone
depletion-
UVB
Radiation
• Solar flare
10
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
T
echnological
• Transport
failure
• Public place
failure
• Fire
Industrial
• Chemical
spills
• Radioactive
spills
Warfare
11
• War
• Terrorism
• Internal
conflicts
• Civil unrest
• CBRNE
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Disaster Management
12
• The body of policy and administrative decisions and operational activities that
pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels.
• An applied science which seeks, by systemic observation and analysis
of disasters, to improve measures relating to prevention, emergency
response, recovery and mitigation.
• Encompasses all aspects of planning for, and responding to disasters,
including both pre and post disaster activities.
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Disaster Management
13
A continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing,
coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for-
● Prevention of danger or threat of anydisaster.
● Reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences.
● Capacity-building.
● Preparedness to deal with any disaster.
● Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.
● Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any
disaster.
● Evacuation, rescue and relief.
● Rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
Disaster management continuum
14
PROACTIVE STRATEGY
FUNDAMENTAL
OF PROMPT &
EFFECTIVE
RESPONSE
HOLISTIC
AND
CONTINUOS
PROCESS
Incident
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
15
Disaster Preparedness
Disaster Impact
Disaster Response
Disaster Recovery
Disaster Mitigation
Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)

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4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 

Disaster Management Introduction & Classification

  • 2. Scope • Introduction • Definition • Classification & Types of Disasters • Disaster Management • Disaster Preparedness • Medical and Public Health Response • Public Health Impact of Disaster • Disaster Mitigation • Recent Disasters in India • Disaster Management in India • Areas of Concerns and Future • References 2
  • 3. Scope • Disasters are as old as Mankind. • The first description of Disaster and its management comes from mythological “Noah” and his ark. • Similar Flood tales are widespread in- Greek Mythology, Puranas, Mesopotamian stories, and many cultures. Introduction 3
  • 4. Introduction Etymology Originated from Greek dus = bad aster = star Calamity due to position of a planet or a star. Then evolved in Italian as disastro, To become French désastre (de.zastʁ). & then disaster . 4
  • 5. Definition 5 Disaster - Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area.(WHO). A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or man made that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victim cannot alleviate without assistance. (American Red Cross) Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 6. Definition 6 Hazard - Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people and their environment. “A hazard is natural event while the disaster is its consequence. A hazard is perceived natural event which threatens both life and property… A disaster is a realization of this hazard.” -John Whittow • When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities and capacities, they can turn into disasters. • Hazards may be inevitable but disasters can be prevented. Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 7. Vulnerability Capacity to cope High Low Low High Vulnerability Very low Low Exposure to Hazard High Low 7 The propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard. Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 8. Disaster occurs when hazards meet vulnerability Progression of vulnerability Root causes Dynamic pressures Unsafe conditions Limited Access to - • Power • Structure • Resources Ideologies- • Political - system • Economic - system Lack of – •Local institutes •Training •Appropriate skills •Local investment •Local market •Media freedom •Ethical standards in public life Macro forces- •Rapid population growth •Rapid urbanization •Arms expenditure •Debt repayments •Deforestation •Decline in soil productivity Fragile physical environment •Dangerous locations •Unprotected buildings & infrastructure Fragile local - economy •Livelihoods at risk •Low income levels Vulnerable society •Special groupsat risk Public actions •Lack of preparedness •Endemic disease Earthquake High winds Hurricane Cyclone Typhoon Flood Volcanic - eruptions Landslides Drought Virus Bacteria Pests Fire Chemicals Radiation Armed - conflicts Hazards NOT PREVENTED Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 9. C la s s if i ca t i on o f Dis a sters 9 Natural Disasters Meteorological T opographical Environmental Man made Disasters T echnological Industrial Warfare Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 10. Meteorological Disasters • Floods • Tsunami • Cyclone • Hurricane • Typhoon • Snow storm • Blizzard • Hail storm T opographical Disasters • Earthquake • Volcanic Eruptions • Landslides and Avalanches • Asteroids • Limnic eruptions Environmental Disasters • Global warming • El Niño- Southern Oscillation • Ozone depletion- UVB Radiation • Solar flare 10 Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 11. T echnological • Transport failure • Public place failure • Fire Industrial • Chemical spills • Radioactive spills Warfare 11 • War • Terrorism • Internal conflicts • Civil unrest • CBRNE Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 12. Disaster Management 12 • The body of policy and administrative decisions and operational activities that pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels. • An applied science which seeks, by systemic observation and analysis of disasters, to improve measures relating to prevention, emergency response, recovery and mitigation. • Encompasses all aspects of planning for, and responding to disasters, including both pre and post disaster activities. Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 13. Disaster Management 13 A continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for- ● Prevention of danger or threat of anydisaster. ● Reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences. ● Capacity-building. ● Preparedness to deal with any disaster. ● Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster. ● Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster. ● Evacuation, rescue and relief. ● Rehabilitation and reconstruction. Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 14. Disaster management continuum 14 PROACTIVE STRATEGY FUNDAMENTAL OF PROMPT & EFFECTIVE RESPONSE HOLISTIC AND CONTINUOS PROCESS Incident Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)
  • 15. PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT 15 Disaster Preparedness Disaster Impact Disaster Response Disaster Recovery Disaster Mitigation Dhruv Saxena, Asst. Professor (TEQIP-NPIU)