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PUBLIC HEALTH
PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
KATTEY KATTEY A.
(mbbs, mph)
OUTLINE
•Introduction
•Definition of terms
•Classification and Impact of disasters
•Disaster Management
•Public Health Pre...
Introduction
• Disasters are of global interest because they cause a lot of
suffering and damage to human populations and ...
Introduction
•The impact of disasters on public health
is tremendous.
•Since disasters cannot be avoided or
easily reduced...
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either natural
or manmade that causes human suffering an...
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• HAZARD- A natural or man-made event that threatens to adversely
affect human life, property or activ...
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• VULNERABILITY - The predisposition to suffer damage due to
external factors e.g. rapid population gr...
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• RISK is the probability that a person will experience an event in a
specified period of time.
• It i...
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
The conceptual framework of elements considered with the
possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities...
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS
These can be done based on:
Speed of onset (sudden or slow onset)
Origin/Cause (natural or m...
CLASSIFICATION
BASED ON SPEED OF ONSET
• SUDDEN ONSET
• Natural (earthquakes, volcanic eruption, hurricane, typhoon,
tsuna...
CLASSIFICATION based on the cause
1. NATURAL DISASTERS occur as the result of action of the natural
forces and tend to be ...
CLASSIFICATION based on the cause
2. MAN-MADE (or technological) disasters are the threats having an element
of human inte...
CLASSIFICATION based on the scope
1. Minor Disaster: Any disaster that is within the response capabilities
of the Local Go...
Recent disasters in Nigeria
• Oil spillage (Niger Delta)
• Aviation disasters
• Inter-community conflicts (border disputes...
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD
Credit: University of Minnesota Center for Public Health Preparedness
FACTORS AFFECTING DISASTER
FACTORS AFFECTING DISASTER
• Age
• Immunization status
• Degree of mobility
• Emotional stability
Host factors
• Physical ...
Agent factors HAZARD
• Predictability
• Speed of onset
• Length of forewarning
• Scope and Intensity of impact
• Duration ...
Disaster
=
Hazard
+
Vulnerability
Relationship of vulnerability, hazard and disaster
Source: WHO/EHA, 2002
Credit: United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction
Effects of Disasters
Disasters result in losses or deprivation of:
• Life
• Health (temporary or permanent)
• Social welfa...
Effects of Disasters
• Risk of communicable diseases
• Mental Health effects
- Post disaster syndrome
-Anxiety, depression...
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
• Disaster management is the body of policies, administrative decisions
and operational activities whi...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
• Reduced (or total avoidance of, if possible) potential losses
from hazards
• Assurance of prompt and...
PHASES OF DISASTER
Pre-impact
phase
Impact
phase
Post-impact
phase
Phases of Management :
• Disaster Response
• Disaster Rehabilitation
• Disaster Reconstruction
• Disaster Mitigation
• Dis...
DISASTER- MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Emergency
(Alertness + Defense) Response/ Relief
Preparedness
Mitigation/ Rehabilitation
Preven...
Fundamental Aspects of Disaster Mgt.
Mitigation relates to those activities directed at eliminating or reducing
the degree...
Policy formulation (government commitment)
Vulnerability assessment (risk or hazard analysis)
Emergency prevention and ...
1. Policy formulation
• Existence of a Policy document (with constitutional backing)
• Existence of an Enforcement agency ...
2. Vulnerability assessment (risk or
hazard analysis)
• the probability of death;
• the probability of injury
(mental and ...
3. Emergency prevention and mitigation
• Prevent populations from habiting disaster-prone areas
• Cautionary messages moun...
3. Emergency prevention and mitigation cont’d
• Improved infrastructure (roads)
• Aviation safety (airports’ runways & tel...
4. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Emergency preparedness is a programme of long term
development activities whose goals are to st...
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CONT’D
Emergency plans:
(i) to prevent or reduce mass casualty among the population
at risk;
(ii) f...
i. Preventing or reducing mass casualty
• Training and education of the public:
(i) Community awareness of the hazards
(ii...
ii. Organisation of initial health services (pre-hospital emergency care)
• Search and rescue
• First aid, triage and fiel...
Emergency Plans Cont’d
iii. Recovery and disposal of dead bodies
• Collaboration between public & private morgues
• Identi...
• Entails taking measures that ensure the
organized mobilization of personnel, funds,
equipment and supplies with a safe e...
• Plans for these programmes are drawn up, usually
during the non/inter-disaster period.
• A large component of the plans ...
Focus for Disaster Preparedness
1. Manpower resources:
• community education and training
• enhanced with drills or ‘trial...
3. Mobilization of funds
4. Management of the environment:
• Policy guidelines and administrative procedures
Focus for Dis...
Framework For Disaster Preparedness Programmes
1. Planning
2. Hazard and vulnerability assessment
3. Information system
4....
PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS
• Public health interventions and specific disease control
measures are a priority for reducin...
Issues Limiting Prompt response to
Disasters
• Poor telecommunications, poor or surveillance – dallying
in reporting
• poo...
AGENCIES INVOLVED IN DISASTER MGT.
• National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) has the primary
responsibility of coordin...
International Organizations
International Organizations:
IDDR
In December, 1989, the UN General Assembly designated the second
Wednesday of October as the International Day for Na...
CONCLUSION
A disaster is any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption,
loss of human life or deterioration of ...
Conclusion (Cont’d)
• Preparedness programs are put in place to enhance a prompt and
effective reaction in the event of an...
You don’t learn to swim in
the storm.
Preparedness is key.
KATTEY K.A (MPH, MBBS)
BIBIOGRAPHY
• International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies,
Geneva
• World Health Organization. Commun...
Bibliography (Cont’d)
• Park, K. (2007). Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine.
Jabalpur: Bhanot
• Hogan, E., & Burst...
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Public Health Preparedness for Disaster Management

A PowerPoint presentation focusing on preparedness for disaster management. Definitions of terms and the disaster management cycle is discussed.

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Public Health Preparedness for Disaster Management

  1. 1. PUBLIC HEALTH PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT KATTEY KATTEY A. (mbbs, mph)
  2. 2. OUTLINE •Introduction •Definition of terms •Classification and Impact of disasters •Disaster Management •Public Health Preparedness •Agencies Involved In Disaster Management •Conclusion KATTEY K.A (MPH, MBBS)
  3. 3. Introduction • Disasters are of global interest because they cause a lot of suffering and damage to human populations and the environment. • The 21st century has witnessed several disasters, which have killed and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. • About 1.2 million people were killed by disasters between 2000-2012; estimated damage worth 1.7 trillion USD.
  4. 4. Introduction •The impact of disasters on public health is tremendous. •Since disasters cannot be avoided or easily reduced, the best approach is to prepare adequately for them. •The aim of preparedness programmes is mainly to minimize the adverse effects of a hazard.
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF TERMS • “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either natural or manmade that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance”. BY - American Red Cross (ARC) • A disaster can be defined as : “Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area”. BY - World Health Organisation (WHO)
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF TERMS • HAZARD- A natural or man-made event that threatens to adversely affect human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster. • Practically speaking, disasters can be regarded as the effect of the interaction between a hazard and vulnerability.
  7. 7. DEFINITION OF TERMS • VULNERABILITY - The predisposition to suffer damage due to external factors e.g. rapid population growth, urban squatters, precarious food security, environmental degradation, refugees , displaced persons and personal exposure. • It is the propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard
  8. 8. DEFINITION OF TERMS • RISK is the probability that a person will experience an event in a specified period of time. • It is the product of hazard and vulnerability. Risk = hazard x vulnerability.
  9. 9. DISASTER RISK REDUCTION The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid or to limit the adverse impacts of hazards. DEFINITION OF TERMS
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS These can be done based on: Speed of onset (sudden or slow onset) Origin/Cause (natural or man-made) Scope (minor, major, catastrophic)
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SPEED OF ONSET • SUDDEN ONSET • Natural (earthquakes, volcanic eruption, hurricane, typhoon, tsunamis, tropical storms, land slides, bushfire) • Natural & man-made (e.g. fire, landslide) • Man-made (toxic waste, wars, oil spillage, transport accidents, technological and industrial accidents) • SLOW ONSET • Natural (drought, desertification, famine and flood) • Man-made (war, civil strife, environmental pollution and economic crisis)
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION based on the cause 1. NATURAL DISASTERS occur as the result of action of the natural forces and tend to be accepted as unfortunate, but inevitable. • They result from forces of climate and geology. • Examples – hurricanes, typhoons, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, land slides, mud slides, famine, drought, pests, floods, tsunamis, tropical storms, tornadoes
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION based on the cause 2. MAN-MADE (or technological) disasters are the threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a human-made system from some human activities.  Examples include explosions, fires, the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials, bridge or building collapse, crashes, dam or levee failure, nuclear reactor accidents, breaks in water, gas, deforestation, war etc.  Also includes disease epidemics, CBRN disasters and aviation disasters.
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION based on the scope 1. Minor Disaster: Any disaster that is within the response capabilities of the Local Government and results in only minimal need for State and Federal assistance. 2. Major Disaster: Any disaster that will likely exceed local capabilities and require a broad range of State and Federal assistance. 3. Catastrophic Disaster: disaster that will require massive State and Federal assistance, including immediate military involvement.
  15. 15. Recent disasters in Nigeria • Oil spillage (Niger Delta) • Aviation disasters • Inter-community conflicts (border disputes, ?political, ?religious) • Floods (Lagos, Rivers, Bayelsa etc) • Bomb explosions (Boko Haram) • Building collapse • Immigration employment exercise stampede
  16. 16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD Credit: University of Minnesota Center for Public Health Preparedness FACTORS AFFECTING DISASTER
  17. 17. FACTORS AFFECTING DISASTER • Age • Immunization status • Degree of mobility • Emotional stability Host factors • Physical Factors • Chemical Factors • Biological Factors • Social Factors • Psychological Factors Environmental factors
  18. 18. Agent factors HAZARD • Predictability • Speed of onset • Length of forewarning • Scope and Intensity of impact • Duration of impact • Time of occurrence
  19. 19. Disaster = Hazard + Vulnerability
  20. 20. Relationship of vulnerability, hazard and disaster Source: WHO/EHA, 2002
  21. 21. Credit: United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction
  22. 22. Effects of Disasters Disasters result in losses or deprivation of: • Life • Health (temporary or permanent) • Social welfare services • Environmental integrity • Socioeconomic or developmental advances • Dislocation & displacement • Injuries e.g. burns, fractures
  23. 23. Effects of Disasters • Risk of communicable diseases • Mental Health effects - Post disaster syndrome -Anxiety, depression, hysteria, neurosis etc. • Lack of shelter resulting in exposure to heat & cold • Poverty • Social frustration
  24. 24. DISASTER MANAGEMENT • Disaster management is the body of policies, administrative decisions and operational activities which pertain to various stages of a disaster. • It is essentially an inter-sectoral activity and the contribution of all sectors are crucial for its total success.
  25. 25. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES • Reduced (or total avoidance of, if possible) potential losses from hazards • Assurance of prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary • Achievement of a rapid and durable recovery.
  26. 26. PHASES OF DISASTER Pre-impact phase Impact phase Post-impact phase
  27. 27. Phases of Management : • Disaster Response • Disaster Rehabilitation • Disaster Reconstruction • Disaster Mitigation • Disaster Preparedness Recovery phase after disaster Risk reduction phase before a disaster
  28. 28. DISASTER- MANAGEMENT CYCLE Emergency (Alertness + Defense) Response/ Relief Preparedness Mitigation/ Rehabilitation Prevention Reconstruction Disaster
  29. 29. Fundamental Aspects of Disaster Mgt. Mitigation relates to those activities directed at eliminating or reducing the degree of long-term risk to human life and property from hazards Preparedness refers to activities undertaken in advance of an emergency or disaster to develop operational and logistic capabilities and to facilitate an effective response should an emergency management event occur. Response refers what the government and other organizations do immediately before, during, and after a disaster or terror event occurs.
  30. 30. Policy formulation (government commitment) Vulnerability assessment (risk or hazard analysis) Emergency prevention and mitigation Emergency preparedness COMPONENTS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  31. 31. 1. Policy formulation • Existence of a Policy document (with constitutional backing) • Existence of an Enforcement agency e.g. NEMA • Availability of favourable conditions to operate e.g. defined organizational structure, adequate funds, appropriate equipment, etc.
  32. 32. 2. Vulnerability assessment (risk or hazard analysis) • the probability of death; • the probability of injury (mental and physical); • the probability of disease (mental and physical); • the probability of secondary hazards (fire, disease etc.) • the probability of displacement; • the probability of loss of property; • the probability of loss of income; • the probability of breakdown in security; • the probability of damage to infrastructure; • the probability of breakdown in essential services.
  33. 33. 3. Emergency prevention and mitigation • Prevent populations from habiting disaster-prone areas • Cautionary messages mounted in disaster-prone areas • Construction of structures to withstand disaster • Evacuation of populations e.g. for disasters with known periodicity • Improved intelligence & security
  34. 34. 3. Emergency prevention and mitigation cont’d • Improved infrastructure (roads) • Aviation safety (airports’ runways & telecommunication) • Promote peaceful co-existence • Political stability • Address marginalization • Energy provision • Poverty alleviation
  35. 35. 4. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Emergency preparedness is a programme of long term development activities whose goals are to strengthen the overall capacity and capability of a country to manage efficiently all types of emergency. The objective is to ensure that appropriate systems, procedure and resources are in place to provide prompt effective assistance to disaster victims, thus facilitating relief measures and rehabilitation of services.
  36. 36. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CONT’D Emergency plans: (i) to prevent or reduce mass casualty among the population at risk; (ii) for initial health services (i.e. pre-hospital emergency care) for rescued victims; and (iii) for disposal of dead bodies (iv) deal with post-emergency problem
  37. 37. i. Preventing or reducing mass casualty • Training and education of the public: (i) Community awareness of the hazards (ii) Community awareness of appropriate actions for different types of emergencies; and (iii)the community is empowered to participate in developing emergency management strategies.
  38. 38. ii. Organisation of initial health services (pre-hospital emergency care) • Search and rescue • First aid, triage and field care. • Tagging
  39. 39. Emergency Plans Cont’d iii. Recovery and disposal of dead bodies • Collaboration between public & private morgues • Identify and tag corpses • Issue death certificate • Mass burial for unclaimed corpses iv. Dealing with post-emergency problems
  40. 40. • Entails taking measures that ensure the organized mobilization of personnel, funds, equipment and supplies with a safe environment for an effective relief. • These measures are policy, administrative decisions, and operational activities which pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
  41. 41. • Plans for these programmes are drawn up, usually during the non/inter-disaster period. • A large component of the plans are also implemented during the non- disaster phase either as precautionary activities or in anticipation of a disaster. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
  42. 42. Focus for Disaster Preparedness 1. Manpower resources: • community education and training • enhanced with drills or ‘trial runs’ of activities 2. Material resources: • Mobilization of needed supplies • identification of sources of certain supplies for use during the emergency phase.
  43. 43. 3. Mobilization of funds 4. Management of the environment: • Policy guidelines and administrative procedures Focus for Disaster Preparedness
  44. 44. Framework For Disaster Preparedness Programmes 1. Planning 2. Hazard and vulnerability assessment 3. Information system 4. Resource base 5. Early warning system 6. Public information, education and training 7. Rehearsals and drills 8. Response mechanisms
  45. 45. PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS • Public health interventions and specific disease control measures are a priority for reducing morbidity and mortality in disaster affected communities. • These include provision of: • Water • Housing • Sanitation • Vector control • Vaccination • Treatment services
  46. 46. Issues Limiting Prompt response to Disasters • Poor telecommunications, poor or surveillance – dallying in reporting • poor electricity supply. • Limited capacity to detect problems early • Lack of training of health personnel on syndromic recognition of frequently occurring epidemics such as cholera and CSM. • Lack of adequate transportation • Denial (of dx outbreak/epidemic) b/c of stigmas • No skilled manpower • Lack of stationery
  47. 47. AGENCIES INVOLVED IN DISASTER MGT. • National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) has the primary responsibility of coordinating the National Disaster Response Framework in Nigeria. • NEMA established in March 1999 to manage disasters in Nigeria. • Prior to NEMA, National Emergency Relief Agency Committee (NERAC) was established in 1976.
  48. 48. International Organizations
  49. 49. International Organizations:
  50. 50. IDDR In December, 1989, the UN General Assembly designated the second Wednesday of October as the International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction. Now celebrated on 13th October annually since after 2009. Day’s name changed to IDDR.
  51. 51. CONCLUSION A disaster is any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area. They can be natural or man-made. The impact of disasters are tremendous ranging from destruction of lives and property and often leads to displacement of victims with its associated effects on public health and social life. KATTEY K.A (MPH, MBBS)
  52. 52. Conclusion (Cont’d) • Preparedness programs are put in place to enhance a prompt and effective reaction in the event of an emergency. • This helps in minimizing the effects of a disaster.
  53. 53. You don’t learn to swim in the storm. Preparedness is key. KATTEY K.A (MPH, MBBS)
  54. 54. BIBIOGRAPHY • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva • World Health Organization. Community Emergency Preparedness: a manual for managers and policy makers. WHO, 1999. • World Health Organization. "Coping with major emergencies." WHO strategies and approaches to humanitarian action, 1995. • http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/disaster-statistics (Retrieved April 21, 2015). • WHO. (2002). Environmental Health in emergencies and disasters: A practical guide • Ordinioha, B. 2006. Principles and Practice of Environmental Health in Nigeria. Port Harcourt. Health Forum. • http://www.umncphp.umn.edu/preparedness/site/lesson1/screen4.htm (Retrieved April 18, 2015) KATTEY K.A (MPH, MBBS)
  55. 55. Bibliography (Cont’d) • Park, K. (2007). Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. Jabalpur: Bhanot • Hogan, E., & Burstein, L. (2002). Disaster Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. • Schneid T, C. L. (2000). Disaster Management and Preparedness. CRC Press. • Kevin M, C. M. (2003). Emergency Relief Operations. USA: The Center for International Health and Cooperation. • Babatunde L. et al. (2013). The Role of Government and Professionals in Disaster Management in Nigeria. J. of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management, 147-155. • http://www.gdrc.org/uem/disasters/1-dm_cycle.html (Retrieved April 19, 2015 • http://www.nema.gov.ng/index.htm (Retrieved April 17, 2015) KATTEY K.A (MPH, MBBS)

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A PowerPoint presentation focusing on preparedness for disaster management. Definitions of terms and the disaster management cycle is discussed.

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