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Developing skills for Amazon Echo
Mainz, 26.01.2017
Moritz Kammerer
About the author
2
● 2016 Supervised bachelor thesis about NUIs
● 2016 Developed customer project with Amazon Echo
● GitHub: @phxql / Twitter: @phxql
● Blog: https://www.mkammerer.de/blog
● Sourcecode: https://github.com/qaware/iot-hessen-amazon-echo
What is a Amazon Echo?
3
● Digital assistent from Amazon
● Provides an audio interface
● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkOCeAtKHIc
What’s the cool thing?
4
● Alexa has built-in features: weather, facts, news, music, …
● And it is also extensible via so called skills
● In this talk: We develop a skill for warehouse management
Demo
5
● Utterances:
○ “Wie viele Schrauben haben wir noch?”
○ “Bestelle mir neue Schrauben”
○ “In welchem Regal befinden sich die Schrauben?”
How does that work?
6
● Register the skill in the Amazon Skill Store
● Develop an application with a HTTP interface
● Enable the skill on your Echo
Okay, but how does that really work?
7
Echo
Amazon Cloud Your service
Natural Language
HTTPS / JSON
Develop a skill, step by step. Step 1.
8
● Create a new skill: Amazon Developer Console / Alexa / Alexa Skill Kit [7]
Skill types
9
● SmartHome Skill API: Switch on/off lamps, control heating
● Flash Briefing Skill API: News as audio or text feed
● Custom Interaction Model: Define own utterances, most flexible
○ That’s what we will use
Develop a skill, step by step. Step 2.
10
What are intents?
11
● “an intent represents an action that fulfills a user’s spoken request”
● Intent schema is a JSON formatted list of intents
{
"intent": "QueryInventory",
"slots": [
{
"name": "ware",
"type": "LIST_OF_WARES"
}
]
}
Slots (parameter) of the intent
Slot type
Intents of our skill
12
● QueryInventory (ware): Determine how many of a ware is in the warehouse
● OrderWare (ware): Orders a new ware
● LocateWare (ware): Find a ware in the warehouse
● Quit (): Aborts the conversation
Intent slot types
13
Attention: Alexa tries to match the spoken word to this list, but other values can still be sent to the skill!
Hint: There are predefined slots, e.g. for dates, durations, time, etc.: [1]
Utterances - Combine intents with audio commands
14
Intent name
Command from the user
Slot name
Hint: Best practices and a handbook for the utterances design: [2], [3]
Skill configuration
15
HTTPS endpoint
of our skill
You can also use AWS Lambda for your service
OAuth2 link to an
non-Amazon account
SSL configuration
16
Skill configured, time for some code!
17
● We create a Spring Boot application for our service
● Open Spring Initializr [6], dependencies: only web
● Add the Alexa Skills Kit for Java [4] to the Maven POM:
<dependency>
<groupId>com.amazon.alexa</groupId>
<artifactId>alexa-skills-kit</artifactId>
<version>1.2</version>
</dependency>
Implement the Speechlet
18
com.amazon.speech.speechlet.SpeechletV2
● void onSessionStarted(...)
○ Gets called when a session is started
● SpeechletResponse onLaunch(...)
○ Gets called when the user starts a conversation
● SpeechletResponse onIntent(...)
○ Gets called when the user invokes an intent
● void onSessionEnded(...)
○ Gets called when the session is ended
Our speechlet implementation
19
● onSessionStarted: not needed
● onLaunch:
○ When called, user wants a conversation. Set a session flag:
requestEnvelope.getSession().setAttribute("conversation", "true");
○ When not called, user wants a one-shot intent
● onSessionEnded: not needed
The skill logic resides in onIntent
20
● onIntent: read the intent name and handle the intent
Intent intent = requestEnvelope.getRequest().getIntent();
switch (intent.getName()) {
case "QueryInventory":
return handleQueryInventory(requestEnvelope);
…
}
QueryInventory intent handling
21
● Read slot “ware”:
Slot wareSlot = intent.getSlot("ware");
String ware = wareSlot == null ? null : wareSlot.getValue();
QueryInventory intent handling
22
● If ware is missing from the intent (ware == null), tell the user.
● If in conversation mode, let the user retry:
○ return SpeechletResponse.newAskResponse(new PlainTextOutputSpeech("Ich
habe die Ware nicht verstanden. Was möchten Sie tun?"),
new Reprompt(...));
● If not in conversation mode (one-shot intent)
○ return SpeechletResponse.newTellResponse(new PlainTextOutputSpeech("Ich
habe die Ware nicht verstanden."));
SSML [5] is also supported
If the user doesn’t answer the quesion, this
text is spoken.
QueryInventory intent handling
23
● Now find the ware amount:
int amount = warehouseService.getAmount(ware.get());
● And create a response to the user:
return SpeechletResponse.newTellResponse(new PlainTextOutputSpeech(
String.format("Es sind noch %d %s im Lager.", amount, ware)
));
One-shot flow
24
Conversation flow
25
Wire the speechlet into Spring Boot
26
@Bean
public ServletRegistrationBean alexaServlet(WarehouseSpeechlet speechlet) {
SpeechletServlet speechServlet = new SpeechletServlet();
speechServlet.setSpeechlet(speechlet);
ServletRegistrationBean servlet = new ServletRegistrationBean(speechServlet, "/alexa");
servlet.setName("alexa");
return servlet;
}
Speechlet will answer on /alexa
Set speechlet properties
27
// Disable signature checks for development
System.setProperty(Sdk.DISABLE_REQUEST_SIGNATURE_CHECK_SYSTEM_PROPERTY, "true");
// Allow all application ids for development
System.setProperty(Sdk.SUPPORTED_APPLICATION_IDS_SYSTEM_PROPERTY, "");
// Disable timestamp verification for development
System.setProperty(Sdk.TIMESTAMP_TOLERANCE_SYSTEM_PROPERTY, "");
For production you’ll find this ID in the “Skill Information” section
Skill implemented, how to test it?
28
This request gets
sent to the skill
service
Enter text here
Hint: Copy the JSON and POST it with your preferred tool (curl, Postman, etc.) to /alexa
And now with voice...
29
● Amazon forces you to use SSL
● So... configure Spring Boot to use SSL
○ Create a new keystore
○ Create a new keypair, the CN must be set to your servers DNS name
○ Enable SSL in Spring Boot:
server.port: 443
server.ssl.key-store: classpath:keystore.jks
server.ssl.key-store-password: ""
server.ssl.key-store-type: jks
server.ssl.key-alias: ec2-35-157-19-115.eu-central-1.compute.amazonaws.com
And now with voice...
30
● Export the SSL certificate as X.509 (starts with -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----)
● Paste the X.509 certificate in the skill configuration under “SSL Certificate”
● Build the Spring boot application
● Upload the application to a publicly accessible server (e.g. EC2)
● Start the application
● Add your Alexa to the account which created the skill
● Enable the skill in the Alexa App
● Now you can invoke the skill
What I wish I knew
31
● TLS: Must be port 443, the CN in the certificate must match the DNS
● Slot types are not enums, but only recommendations for the speech recognition
● Slots can be null! (e.g. “Bestelle mir neue “)
● The user id is changing when the user removes and re-adds the skill
● Alexa Skill Kit for Java: Exclude log4j and slf4j-log4j12
● When testing the skill, use the Alexa Mobile App: The cards contain useful debug information
● Implement local and test with voice: Use SSH remote port forwarding:
ssh -R 443:localhost:8443 root@server
What have we learned?
32
● Develop an interaction model:
○ Intents, slots and slot types
○ Utterances
● To use the Alexa Skills Kit and implement the SpeechletV2 interface
○ When onSessionStarted(), onLaunch(), onIntent() and onSessionEnded() are called
○ What the difference between newAskResponse() and newTellResponse() is
● How to beat TLS
Conclusion
33
● Pro:
○ Echo can be extended with custom skills
○ Skills are very flexible
○ The Alexa Skills Kit abstracts all the request and response handling
○ Amazon handles the speech-to-text and text-to-speech
● Contra:
○ No semantic analysis, just matching the utterances exactly
○ Have to invoke the skill by saying, “Alexa, tell [skill] …”
○ TLS is very annoying (and badly documented) when developing a skill
34
https://github.com/qaware/iot-hessen-amazon-echo
Source Code:
References
35
● [1] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/built-in-intent-ref/slot-type-reference
● [2] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/alexa-skills-kit-voice-design-best-practices
● [3] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/alexa-skills-kit-voice-design-handbook
● [4] https://github.com/amzn/alexa-skills-kit-java
● [5] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/speech-synthesis-markup-language-ssml-reference
● [6] http://start.spring.io/
● [7] https://developer.amazon.com/edw/home.html#/skills/list
Appendix
36
Timings
37

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Developing Skills for Amazon Echo

  • 1. Developing skills for Amazon Echo Mainz, 26.01.2017 Moritz Kammerer
  • 2. About the author 2 ● 2016 Supervised bachelor thesis about NUIs ● 2016 Developed customer project with Amazon Echo ● GitHub: @phxql / Twitter: @phxql ● Blog: https://www.mkammerer.de/blog ● Sourcecode: https://github.com/qaware/iot-hessen-amazon-echo
  • 3. What is a Amazon Echo? 3 ● Digital assistent from Amazon ● Provides an audio interface ● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkOCeAtKHIc
  • 4. What’s the cool thing? 4 ● Alexa has built-in features: weather, facts, news, music, … ● And it is also extensible via so called skills ● In this talk: We develop a skill for warehouse management
  • 5. Demo 5 ● Utterances: ○ “Wie viele Schrauben haben wir noch?” ○ “Bestelle mir neue Schrauben” ○ “In welchem Regal befinden sich die Schrauben?”
  • 6. How does that work? 6 ● Register the skill in the Amazon Skill Store ● Develop an application with a HTTP interface ● Enable the skill on your Echo
  • 7. Okay, but how does that really work? 7 Echo Amazon Cloud Your service Natural Language HTTPS / JSON
  • 8. Develop a skill, step by step. Step 1. 8 ● Create a new skill: Amazon Developer Console / Alexa / Alexa Skill Kit [7]
  • 9. Skill types 9 ● SmartHome Skill API: Switch on/off lamps, control heating ● Flash Briefing Skill API: News as audio or text feed ● Custom Interaction Model: Define own utterances, most flexible ○ That’s what we will use
  • 10. Develop a skill, step by step. Step 2. 10
  • 11. What are intents? 11 ● “an intent represents an action that fulfills a user’s spoken request” ● Intent schema is a JSON formatted list of intents { "intent": "QueryInventory", "slots": [ { "name": "ware", "type": "LIST_OF_WARES" } ] } Slots (parameter) of the intent Slot type
  • 12. Intents of our skill 12 ● QueryInventory (ware): Determine how many of a ware is in the warehouse ● OrderWare (ware): Orders a new ware ● LocateWare (ware): Find a ware in the warehouse ● Quit (): Aborts the conversation
  • 13. Intent slot types 13 Attention: Alexa tries to match the spoken word to this list, but other values can still be sent to the skill! Hint: There are predefined slots, e.g. for dates, durations, time, etc.: [1]
  • 14. Utterances - Combine intents with audio commands 14 Intent name Command from the user Slot name Hint: Best practices and a handbook for the utterances design: [2], [3]
  • 15. Skill configuration 15 HTTPS endpoint of our skill You can also use AWS Lambda for your service OAuth2 link to an non-Amazon account
  • 17. Skill configured, time for some code! 17 ● We create a Spring Boot application for our service ● Open Spring Initializr [6], dependencies: only web ● Add the Alexa Skills Kit for Java [4] to the Maven POM: <dependency> <groupId>com.amazon.alexa</groupId> <artifactId>alexa-skills-kit</artifactId> <version>1.2</version> </dependency>
  • 18. Implement the Speechlet 18 com.amazon.speech.speechlet.SpeechletV2 ● void onSessionStarted(...) ○ Gets called when a session is started ● SpeechletResponse onLaunch(...) ○ Gets called when the user starts a conversation ● SpeechletResponse onIntent(...) ○ Gets called when the user invokes an intent ● void onSessionEnded(...) ○ Gets called when the session is ended
  • 19. Our speechlet implementation 19 ● onSessionStarted: not needed ● onLaunch: ○ When called, user wants a conversation. Set a session flag: requestEnvelope.getSession().setAttribute("conversation", "true"); ○ When not called, user wants a one-shot intent ● onSessionEnded: not needed
  • 20. The skill logic resides in onIntent 20 ● onIntent: read the intent name and handle the intent Intent intent = requestEnvelope.getRequest().getIntent(); switch (intent.getName()) { case "QueryInventory": return handleQueryInventory(requestEnvelope); … }
  • 21. QueryInventory intent handling 21 ● Read slot “ware”: Slot wareSlot = intent.getSlot("ware"); String ware = wareSlot == null ? null : wareSlot.getValue();
  • 22. QueryInventory intent handling 22 ● If ware is missing from the intent (ware == null), tell the user. ● If in conversation mode, let the user retry: ○ return SpeechletResponse.newAskResponse(new PlainTextOutputSpeech("Ich habe die Ware nicht verstanden. Was möchten Sie tun?"), new Reprompt(...)); ● If not in conversation mode (one-shot intent) ○ return SpeechletResponse.newTellResponse(new PlainTextOutputSpeech("Ich habe die Ware nicht verstanden.")); SSML [5] is also supported If the user doesn’t answer the quesion, this text is spoken.
  • 23. QueryInventory intent handling 23 ● Now find the ware amount: int amount = warehouseService.getAmount(ware.get()); ● And create a response to the user: return SpeechletResponse.newTellResponse(new PlainTextOutputSpeech( String.format("Es sind noch %d %s im Lager.", amount, ware) ));
  • 26. Wire the speechlet into Spring Boot 26 @Bean public ServletRegistrationBean alexaServlet(WarehouseSpeechlet speechlet) { SpeechletServlet speechServlet = new SpeechletServlet(); speechServlet.setSpeechlet(speechlet); ServletRegistrationBean servlet = new ServletRegistrationBean(speechServlet, "/alexa"); servlet.setName("alexa"); return servlet; } Speechlet will answer on /alexa
  • 27. Set speechlet properties 27 // Disable signature checks for development System.setProperty(Sdk.DISABLE_REQUEST_SIGNATURE_CHECK_SYSTEM_PROPERTY, "true"); // Allow all application ids for development System.setProperty(Sdk.SUPPORTED_APPLICATION_IDS_SYSTEM_PROPERTY, ""); // Disable timestamp verification for development System.setProperty(Sdk.TIMESTAMP_TOLERANCE_SYSTEM_PROPERTY, ""); For production you’ll find this ID in the “Skill Information” section
  • 28. Skill implemented, how to test it? 28 This request gets sent to the skill service Enter text here Hint: Copy the JSON and POST it with your preferred tool (curl, Postman, etc.) to /alexa
  • 29. And now with voice... 29 ● Amazon forces you to use SSL ● So... configure Spring Boot to use SSL ○ Create a new keystore ○ Create a new keypair, the CN must be set to your servers DNS name ○ Enable SSL in Spring Boot: server.port: 443 server.ssl.key-store: classpath:keystore.jks server.ssl.key-store-password: "" server.ssl.key-store-type: jks server.ssl.key-alias: ec2-35-157-19-115.eu-central-1.compute.amazonaws.com
  • 30. And now with voice... 30 ● Export the SSL certificate as X.509 (starts with -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----) ● Paste the X.509 certificate in the skill configuration under “SSL Certificate” ● Build the Spring boot application ● Upload the application to a publicly accessible server (e.g. EC2) ● Start the application ● Add your Alexa to the account which created the skill ● Enable the skill in the Alexa App ● Now you can invoke the skill
  • 31. What I wish I knew 31 ● TLS: Must be port 443, the CN in the certificate must match the DNS ● Slot types are not enums, but only recommendations for the speech recognition ● Slots can be null! (e.g. “Bestelle mir neue “) ● The user id is changing when the user removes and re-adds the skill ● Alexa Skill Kit for Java: Exclude log4j and slf4j-log4j12 ● When testing the skill, use the Alexa Mobile App: The cards contain useful debug information ● Implement local and test with voice: Use SSH remote port forwarding: ssh -R 443:localhost:8443 root@server
  • 32. What have we learned? 32 ● Develop an interaction model: ○ Intents, slots and slot types ○ Utterances ● To use the Alexa Skills Kit and implement the SpeechletV2 interface ○ When onSessionStarted(), onLaunch(), onIntent() and onSessionEnded() are called ○ What the difference between newAskResponse() and newTellResponse() is ● How to beat TLS
  • 33. Conclusion 33 ● Pro: ○ Echo can be extended with custom skills ○ Skills are very flexible ○ The Alexa Skills Kit abstracts all the request and response handling ○ Amazon handles the speech-to-text and text-to-speech ● Contra: ○ No semantic analysis, just matching the utterances exactly ○ Have to invoke the skill by saying, “Alexa, tell [skill] …” ○ TLS is very annoying (and badly documented) when developing a skill
  • 35. References 35 ● [1] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/built-in-intent-ref/slot-type-reference ● [2] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/alexa-skills-kit-voice-design-best-practices ● [3] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/alexa-skills-kit-voice-design-handbook ● [4] https://github.com/amzn/alexa-skills-kit-java ● [5] https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/docs/speech-synthesis-markup-language-ssml-reference ● [6] http://start.spring.io/ ● [7] https://developer.amazon.com/edw/home.html#/skills/list