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Job Description
Prepared By:
Dr. P. William
Dean, Research and Development
Sanjivani Group of Institutes, MH, India
Learning Objectives
 Explain the role of job design and the organization
 Describe the major approaches to job design and
outline the main advantages and disadvantages of
each approach
 Understand and be able to implement alternative
work schedules
Job Design
&
The Organization
What is Job Design?
“Job design refers to how
organizations define and structure
jobs”
Basic Assumption
 The way that jobs are organized have a direct affect on
how motivated or de-motivated employees will be
Job - Person Fit
Increased Performance
Maximise Internal Resources
Greater Job Satisfaction
Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover
Advantages to the Organization
Job-Person Fit
 Employees are allocated job activities based on
individual competencies and realistic job
requirements
Increased Performance
 Performance increases as employees and jobs are
match to maximize the resources of the organization
Maximize Internal Resources
 Internal resources are allocated in the most efficient
and effective manner to generate the maximum return
for capital investment for the organization
Greater Job Satisfaction
 Employees accept and are fully aware how their job
contributes to the overall objectives of organization
 Work becomes more meaningful and as a result
motivating in terms of intrinsically rewarding
 Employees are less likely to be absent due to stress or
strain related symptoms
 Turnover is reduced as employees are allocated to
jobs that best suit their skills and competencies
Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover
Major Approaches
to
Job Design
Approaches to Job Design
Job Characteristics Theory
Job Enrichment
Job Enlargement
Scientific Management
1900’s
1940’s
1970’s
Completeness
Autonomy
Variety
(Source Adapted from Wall, 1982)
Key Principles of Job Design Approaches
Variety
 Tasks or Skills
Autonomy
 Ability to choose work methods and sometimes goals
Completeness
 The employee can isolate an identifiable end result which the
job produces
Key Principles of Job Design Approaches
Scientific Management
 Associated with the pioneering work of Fredrick
Taylor
 Emphasizes the productivity of the individual worker
 The search for the most appropriate and standardized
method of performing a task
Key Features
 Introduction of standardized procedures including
task completion times
 Introduction of financial incentives to motivate staff
 Ensure full control of employees by supervisors and
managers
Key Features
 Scientific or systematic compilation of information
regarding the work tasks to be performed
 Removal of employees’ discretion or control over their
own activities
 Task simplification where appropriate
Job Simplification
Mechanical Pacing
 Automated assembly lines to monitor and effectively deliver
products
Part Product Concentration
 Product broken down into parts and line staff allocated to
produce only parts of the overall product
Repetitive Work Processes
 Replication of tasks by employees
Job Simplification
Limited Social Interaction
 Employees are not encouraged to interact
Low Skill Requirements
 Minimal training required as a result of the decomposition of
the task into constituent parts and divided amongst staff
Pre-set Tools & Techniques
 Precise allocation of tools and techniques to the
accomplishment of the task
 Highlighted the need for concentration on employee
performance and production
 Introduction of standardized procedures
 Job Specialization and Mass Production
Scientific Management - Advantages
 Dehumanization of the workplace environment
 Potential for the negative exploitation of employees
 Morale and performance can decrease over time
Scientific Management - Disadvantages
Job Enlargement
 Inclusion of additional tasks to an employees job
activity
 Additional tasks similar to that already performed by
the employee
 Also referred to as Horizontal Job Loading
 Remove Controls while Retaining Accountability
 Increase Individual’s Accountability for their own work
 Provide employees with a complete unit of work (division,
area, task)
 Provide additional authority to an employee in his or her work
- greater worker freedom
Hertzberg’s Principles of Job Enrichment
 Provide the worker, rather than through the
supervisor, progress reports
 Develop experts by assigning specific tasks to
individuals
 Introduce new and more difficult tasks not previously
handled to ‘raise the bar’ on performance
Hertzberg’s Principles of Job Enrichment
 Inclusion of additional tasks and variety to an
employees job activity
 Provision of more challenging and responsible work
tasks
 Additional decision-making authority
Example - Vertical Job Loading
 Like Vertical Loading with the exception that
additional tasks and variety are allocated to the groups
job activities rather than the individual employee
 Self Regulating Teams that require minimum
supervision
Example - Autonomous Work Groups
Job Characteristics Theory
Core Job
Characteristics
Critical
Psychological
States
Organizational
Outcomes
Produce Deliver
(Source Adapted from Hackman & Oldman, 1980)
Job Characteristics Theory
Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
Autonomy
Feedback
Experienced
Meaningfulness
of the Work
Experienced
Responsibility for
the Work Outcomes
Knowledge of
Results of Work
Activities
High
Intrinsic
Motivation
High
Job
Satisfaction
High
Work
Effectiveness
Core Job Characteristics Critical Psychological States Outcomes
(Source Adapted from Hackman & Oldman, 1980)
Core Job Characteristics
Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
Autonomy
Employee Feedback
Skill Variety
 The extent to which the job requires a range of
skills
Task Identity
 The extent to which the jobs enables an
employee to complete a whole piece of work
versus a part of it
Task Significance
 The extent to which the job has a resultant
impact on the lives or activities of other
individuals either inside or outside the
organization
Autonomy
 The extent to which the job permits the job
holder to exercise choice and discretion in their
work activity
Employee Feedback
 The extent to which the job itself can provide
feedback to the employee to how they are performing
 Feedback from other sources (e g , supervisors,
colleagues) will not replace this core job
characteristic
Critical Psychological States
Experienced Meaningfulness
of the Work
Experienced Responsibility for
the Work Outcomes
Knowledge of Results of
Work Activities
Critical Psychological States
Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work
 Employees perceive the work that they perform as being
meaningful and worthwhile
Experienced Responsibility for the Work Outcomes
 Personal accountability and responsibility from the
employee for the results of their work effort
Critical Psychological States
Knowledge of Results of Work Activity
 Employees understand how effectively they perform their
job and how this contributes to the overall performance of
the organization
Alternative
Work Schedules
Alternative Work Schedules
Compressed Working Week
Job Sharing
Flexible Working Hours
Telecommuting
Career Breaks
Compressed Working Week
 Employees work a full working week in less
days than the traditional five days
 Increased Operational Hours for the organization
 Greater Scheduling Flexibility
 Cross Training Benefits
 Variety
 Experience
 Succession Planning
Compressed Working Week –
Advantages
 May cause increased fatigue due to longer
hours over shorter time frame
Compressed Working Week -
Disadvantages
Job-Sharing
 Two or more part-time employees share one
job full-time
Job Sharing - Advantages
 Facilitates employees who for personal reasons
may wish to work only part-time
 Demonstrates that the organization recognizes
and respects work-life balance issues
Job Sharing - Disadvantages
 Part-time arrangements may not guarantee continued
performance
 Administratively difficult to arrange times that match
all employees involved
 May cause the perception that these positions will be
made redundant in the future
Flexible Working Hours
 Employees are given more control over the hours that they work each
day
 Core Time
 All employees must be working
 Flexible Time
 Employees can choose whether they work during this time so
long as their total working time matches that contracted with the
organization
Flexible
Time
Flexible
Time
Core Time
8:00 9:30 4:30 6:00
Flexible Working Hours - Example
 Greater flexibility
 Increased Variety
 More employee ownership for scheduling work tasks
Flexible Working Hours –
Advantages
 Employees not always present and available
 Can be open to abuse if not properly managed
Flexible Working Hours -
Disadvantages
Telecommuting
 A work arrangement in which employees spend
part of their time working off-site including a
home arrangement
Telecommuting - Advantages
 Increased Productivity
 Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover
 Reduced Stress
 Reduced Costs to the Employee
 ‘Out-of-Sight’ - ‘Out-of-Mind’
 Employee may feel isolated from the organization and
their work-group
 Initial set-up costs
Telecommuting - Disadvantages
Career Breaks
 Employees take a break from a job for a specific time
frame
 Employment at the same level or grade is guaranteed
on their return
Career Breaks - Advantages
 Retention of skilled employees who may just need to
take a short break for personal reasons
 Reduced stress and absenteeism levels
 Reduced recruitment and selection costs for replacing
employees who would have left the organization
without the scheme
 Communication channels need to be formalized
during the career break to ensure that the employee is
kept informed or any organizational changes
 High training may be required to ensure that the
employee can still perform the job following a long
break
Career Breaks - Disadvantages
Key Steps
 Develop a pilot program to test the introduction of the
program
 Determine for how long the pilot will be in operation
 Set clear criteria on how the success of the programme will
be measured
 Should the arrangement be considered a success, determine
whether it will be continued in the same way or to what
modifications will be required
Summary
 Job design refers to how organizations define and structure jobs
 Each of the major approaches to job design offer a mixture of
advantages and disadvantages
 Scientific Management
 Job Enlargement
 Job Enrichment
 Job Characteristics Theory
Summary
 In recent years a number of alternative work schedules have
been implemented across organizations
 Compressed Working Week
 Job Sharing
 Flexible Working Hours
 Telecommuting
 Career Breaks

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Describing major approaches to job design

  • 1. Job Description Prepared By: Dr. P. William Dean, Research and Development Sanjivani Group of Institutes, MH, India
  • 2. Learning Objectives  Explain the role of job design and the organization  Describe the major approaches to job design and outline the main advantages and disadvantages of each approach  Understand and be able to implement alternative work schedules
  • 4. What is Job Design? “Job design refers to how organizations define and structure jobs”
  • 5. Basic Assumption  The way that jobs are organized have a direct affect on how motivated or de-motivated employees will be
  • 6. Job - Person Fit Increased Performance Maximise Internal Resources Greater Job Satisfaction Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover Advantages to the Organization
  • 7. Job-Person Fit  Employees are allocated job activities based on individual competencies and realistic job requirements
  • 8. Increased Performance  Performance increases as employees and jobs are match to maximize the resources of the organization
  • 9. Maximize Internal Resources  Internal resources are allocated in the most efficient and effective manner to generate the maximum return for capital investment for the organization
  • 10. Greater Job Satisfaction  Employees accept and are fully aware how their job contributes to the overall objectives of organization  Work becomes more meaningful and as a result motivating in terms of intrinsically rewarding
  • 11.  Employees are less likely to be absent due to stress or strain related symptoms  Turnover is reduced as employees are allocated to jobs that best suit their skills and competencies Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover
  • 13. Approaches to Job Design Job Characteristics Theory Job Enrichment Job Enlargement Scientific Management 1900’s 1940’s 1970’s
  • 14. Completeness Autonomy Variety (Source Adapted from Wall, 1982) Key Principles of Job Design Approaches
  • 15. Variety  Tasks or Skills Autonomy  Ability to choose work methods and sometimes goals Completeness  The employee can isolate an identifiable end result which the job produces Key Principles of Job Design Approaches
  • 16. Scientific Management  Associated with the pioneering work of Fredrick Taylor  Emphasizes the productivity of the individual worker  The search for the most appropriate and standardized method of performing a task
  • 17. Key Features  Introduction of standardized procedures including task completion times  Introduction of financial incentives to motivate staff  Ensure full control of employees by supervisors and managers
  • 18. Key Features  Scientific or systematic compilation of information regarding the work tasks to be performed  Removal of employees’ discretion or control over their own activities  Task simplification where appropriate
  • 19. Job Simplification Mechanical Pacing  Automated assembly lines to monitor and effectively deliver products Part Product Concentration  Product broken down into parts and line staff allocated to produce only parts of the overall product Repetitive Work Processes  Replication of tasks by employees
  • 20. Job Simplification Limited Social Interaction  Employees are not encouraged to interact Low Skill Requirements  Minimal training required as a result of the decomposition of the task into constituent parts and divided amongst staff Pre-set Tools & Techniques  Precise allocation of tools and techniques to the accomplishment of the task
  • 21.  Highlighted the need for concentration on employee performance and production  Introduction of standardized procedures  Job Specialization and Mass Production Scientific Management - Advantages
  • 22.  Dehumanization of the workplace environment  Potential for the negative exploitation of employees  Morale and performance can decrease over time Scientific Management - Disadvantages
  • 23. Job Enlargement  Inclusion of additional tasks to an employees job activity  Additional tasks similar to that already performed by the employee  Also referred to as Horizontal Job Loading
  • 24.  Remove Controls while Retaining Accountability  Increase Individual’s Accountability for their own work  Provide employees with a complete unit of work (division, area, task)  Provide additional authority to an employee in his or her work - greater worker freedom Hertzberg’s Principles of Job Enrichment
  • 25.  Provide the worker, rather than through the supervisor, progress reports  Develop experts by assigning specific tasks to individuals  Introduce new and more difficult tasks not previously handled to ‘raise the bar’ on performance Hertzberg’s Principles of Job Enrichment
  • 26.  Inclusion of additional tasks and variety to an employees job activity  Provision of more challenging and responsible work tasks  Additional decision-making authority Example - Vertical Job Loading
  • 27.  Like Vertical Loading with the exception that additional tasks and variety are allocated to the groups job activities rather than the individual employee  Self Regulating Teams that require minimum supervision Example - Autonomous Work Groups
  • 28. Job Characteristics Theory Core Job Characteristics Critical Psychological States Organizational Outcomes Produce Deliver (Source Adapted from Hackman & Oldman, 1980)
  • 29. Job Characteristics Theory Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work Experienced Responsibility for the Work Outcomes Knowledge of Results of Work Activities High Intrinsic Motivation High Job Satisfaction High Work Effectiveness Core Job Characteristics Critical Psychological States Outcomes (Source Adapted from Hackman & Oldman, 1980)
  • 30. Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Employee Feedback
  • 31. Skill Variety  The extent to which the job requires a range of skills
  • 32. Task Identity  The extent to which the jobs enables an employee to complete a whole piece of work versus a part of it
  • 33. Task Significance  The extent to which the job has a resultant impact on the lives or activities of other individuals either inside or outside the organization
  • 34. Autonomy  The extent to which the job permits the job holder to exercise choice and discretion in their work activity
  • 35. Employee Feedback  The extent to which the job itself can provide feedback to the employee to how they are performing  Feedback from other sources (e g , supervisors, colleagues) will not replace this core job characteristic
  • 36. Critical Psychological States Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work Experienced Responsibility for the Work Outcomes Knowledge of Results of Work Activities
  • 37. Critical Psychological States Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work  Employees perceive the work that they perform as being meaningful and worthwhile Experienced Responsibility for the Work Outcomes  Personal accountability and responsibility from the employee for the results of their work effort
  • 38. Critical Psychological States Knowledge of Results of Work Activity  Employees understand how effectively they perform their job and how this contributes to the overall performance of the organization
  • 40. Alternative Work Schedules Compressed Working Week Job Sharing Flexible Working Hours Telecommuting Career Breaks
  • 41. Compressed Working Week  Employees work a full working week in less days than the traditional five days
  • 42.  Increased Operational Hours for the organization  Greater Scheduling Flexibility  Cross Training Benefits  Variety  Experience  Succession Planning Compressed Working Week – Advantages
  • 43.  May cause increased fatigue due to longer hours over shorter time frame Compressed Working Week - Disadvantages
  • 44. Job-Sharing  Two or more part-time employees share one job full-time
  • 45. Job Sharing - Advantages  Facilitates employees who for personal reasons may wish to work only part-time  Demonstrates that the organization recognizes and respects work-life balance issues
  • 46. Job Sharing - Disadvantages  Part-time arrangements may not guarantee continued performance  Administratively difficult to arrange times that match all employees involved  May cause the perception that these positions will be made redundant in the future
  • 47. Flexible Working Hours  Employees are given more control over the hours that they work each day  Core Time  All employees must be working  Flexible Time  Employees can choose whether they work during this time so long as their total working time matches that contracted with the organization
  • 48. Flexible Time Flexible Time Core Time 8:00 9:30 4:30 6:00 Flexible Working Hours - Example
  • 49.  Greater flexibility  Increased Variety  More employee ownership for scheduling work tasks Flexible Working Hours – Advantages
  • 50.  Employees not always present and available  Can be open to abuse if not properly managed Flexible Working Hours - Disadvantages
  • 51. Telecommuting  A work arrangement in which employees spend part of their time working off-site including a home arrangement
  • 52. Telecommuting - Advantages  Increased Productivity  Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover  Reduced Stress  Reduced Costs to the Employee
  • 53.  ‘Out-of-Sight’ - ‘Out-of-Mind’  Employee may feel isolated from the organization and their work-group  Initial set-up costs Telecommuting - Disadvantages
  • 54. Career Breaks  Employees take a break from a job for a specific time frame  Employment at the same level or grade is guaranteed on their return
  • 55. Career Breaks - Advantages  Retention of skilled employees who may just need to take a short break for personal reasons  Reduced stress and absenteeism levels  Reduced recruitment and selection costs for replacing employees who would have left the organization without the scheme
  • 56.  Communication channels need to be formalized during the career break to ensure that the employee is kept informed or any organizational changes  High training may be required to ensure that the employee can still perform the job following a long break Career Breaks - Disadvantages
  • 57. Key Steps  Develop a pilot program to test the introduction of the program  Determine for how long the pilot will be in operation  Set clear criteria on how the success of the programme will be measured  Should the arrangement be considered a success, determine whether it will be continued in the same way or to what modifications will be required
  • 58. Summary  Job design refers to how organizations define and structure jobs  Each of the major approaches to job design offer a mixture of advantages and disadvantages  Scientific Management  Job Enlargement  Job Enrichment  Job Characteristics Theory
  • 59. Summary  In recent years a number of alternative work schedules have been implemented across organizations  Compressed Working Week  Job Sharing  Flexible Working Hours  Telecommuting  Career Breaks