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C H O O S I N G E L E C T R I C
AV E N U E
U N L O C K I N G S AV I N G S , E M I S S I O N S R E D U C T I O N S , A N D
C O M M U N I T Y B E N E F I T S O F E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S
John Farrell
Director of Energy DemocracyJune 21, 2017
“That was like a roller coaster”
6 R E A S O N S W E N E E D T O
A C T N O W
1S U R G I N G S A L E S
QuarterlyEVSales(thousands)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Each quarter in 2016 has
seen higher EV sales
than the same quarter in
any prior year
Source: Inside EVs / UCS
1EVSales(millions)
0
5
10
15
20
2010 2020 2030 2040
Bloomberg Electric Vehicle Initiative (target)
EIA Navigant
2016 actual
U . S . E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S A L E S F O R E C A S T S
Annual sales, plug-in hybrid and all-electric
E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E O W N E R S H I P
1 0 - Y E A R S AV I N G S
$0
$3,000
$6,000
$9,000
$12,000
$15,000
2017 Nissan Leaf v. Nissan Versa
10-year sched. maintenance savings
10-year fuel cost savings (est.)
Battery replacement cost (est.)
Does not include typical repairs
unique to gasoline cars, including
timing belts, water pumps, etc.
2
W H AT C A R H A S
T H E H I G H E S T
C U S T O M E R
S AT I S FA C T I O N ?
P O L L T I M E !
Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
A. Porsche Carrera
B. Tesla Model S
C. BMW 328i
D. Volkswagen Beetle
E. Ford Focus
3H I G H C U S T O M E R S AT I S FA C T I O N F O R
E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S
Source: Inside EVs, from Consumer Reports: http://bit.ly/2n7zENP
Tesla Model S
Chevrolet Volt
Honda Accord Hybrid
Ford Fusion Energi
Toyota Prius
Nissan Leaf
0 25 50 75 100
77
82
84
85
85
98
Percentage of owners who would definitely purchase the same vehicle again
Tesla Model S
Audi A8
Lexus LS
Mercedes-Benz S-Class
Hyundai Equus
Porsche Panamera
0 25 50 75 100
80
80
81
81
84
98
Hybrids / Electric Vehicles
Large Luxury Cars
Percentofdailytravelthisdistance
0%
10%
20%
30%
< 1 mile 1-5 miles 6-15 miles 16-30 miles 31-45 miles 46-60 miles 61-120 miles 121+ miles
S U F F I C I E N T R A N G E N O W
The Nissan
Leaf’s 107-mile
range is enough
for 83% of daily
automobile use
Source: 2009 FHWA NHTS
Daily vehicle miles traveled
4
B E T T E R R A N G E C O M I N G 5
6U . S . E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S A L E S F O R E C A S T S
EVBatteryCapacity(megawatts)
0
30,000
60,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
2010 2020 2030 2040
Bloomberg Electric Vehicle Initiative (target)
EIA Navigant
Plug-in hybrid and all-electric
Batteries of new EVs equal
30,000 MW of capacity (on
a Level 2 charger)
Typical utility 15-year
resource plan
C O S T O F I N A C T I O N ?
Photo credit: John Biehler via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOo0Ja
N E T B E N E F I T S O F N O T H I N G
Source: California Transportation
Electrification Assessment
(October 2014)
Percentincreaseinpeakenergydemand
0
3
6
9
12
Minnesota California Texas New York Hawaii
9%
3.4%
4.9%
11.1%
3%
P R E S S U R E O N P E A K
Unmanaged Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts Peak Demand
Source: Rocky Mountain Institute
EVs
23%
Percent of Vehicle Fleet
2 E A S Y WAY S T O A C T
W H I C H D E V I C E
C A N D O T H E M O S T
T O I N C R E A S E G R I D
B E N E F I T S O F E V S ?
P O L L T I M E !
Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
A
B
C
I N C E N T I V I Z E B E N E F I C I A L C H A R G I N G
T I M E S
1
E V C H A R G I N G R AT E S
X C E L E N E R G Y
0¢
10¢
20¢
30¢
40¢
50¢
Hour of the day
Regular rate
Summer surcharge
D A K O TA
E L E C T R I C
( B A S I C )
Hour of the day
cents per kilowatt-hour cents per kilowatt-hour
charging
not available
D A K O TA
E L E C T R I C
( T O U )
Hour of the day
cents per kilowatt-hour
*Off-peak rates also apply to weekends and holidays
1 6 12 6 12 1 6 12 6 12 1 6 12 6 12
E V C H A R G I N G R AT E S
*Off-peak rates also apply to weekends and holidays
S A C R A M E N T O M U N I C I PA L
E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E C H A R G I N G TA R I F F S
Source: Northeast Group, ILSR
Adopted June 2015 or earlier
Under consideration
Level 2
Charging
DC Quick
Charging
Level 1
Charging
Source: fleetcarma
120-volt
~ 1.3 kilowatts
240-volt
~ 3.3 - 6.6 kilowatts
440-volt
~ 50 kilowatts
2D E P L O Y I N F R A S T R U C T U R E
L E V E L 2 V E R S U S L E V E L 1
Nissan Leaf 30 kWh
Tesla Model S 60 kWh
Tesla Model S 100 kWh
0 20 40 60 80
15 hours
9 hours
4.5 hours
Level 2 charging time (6.6 kW)
Additional time to charge at Level 1 (1.3 kW)
23 hours
46 hours
77 hours
U T I L I T Y F I N A N C E D ?
For every 15 new customers, the utility would recoup
about $24,000 in new revenue over the first ten years of
vehicle ownership, enough to pay for 15 home Level 2
chargers and 1 public charger.+ 10 years
$24,000
=
15 EV home chargers
1 public charger
Revenue from electricity sales to
15 electric vehicles over 10 years
6 B I G B E N E F I T S O F
A C T I O N
Photo credit: Grant Tarrant via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOiFBM
0
3
6
9
12
Minnesota California Texas New York Hawaii
1.3%
0.6%0.9%
1.3%
0.5%
9%
3.4%
4.9%
11.1%
3%
Uncontrolled Controlled
T H E T I M E I S R I G H T
Managed Electric Vehicle Charging Lowers Peak Demand Impact Several States
Source: Rocky Mountain Institute
1
W H AT A R E T H E
AV E R A G E A N N U A L
S AV I N G S O F
C H A R G I N G O F F -
P E A K ?
P O L L T I M E !
Compared to average fuel economy gasoline car;
off-peak assumed to be 3¢ per kilowatt-hour
Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
W H AT A R E T H E
AV E R A G E A N N U A L
S AV I N G S O F
C H A R G I N G O F F -
P E A K ?
P O L L T I M E !
A. $100
B. $500
C. $1,000
D. $5,000
E. $1 million
Compared to average fuel economy gasoline car;
off-peak assumed to be 3¢ per kilowatt-hour
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
$980
$1,470
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
Standard electricity rates Off-peak electricity rates
15,000 miles 10,000 miles 15,000 miles 10,000 miles
$680
$1,000
O F F - P E A K C H A R G I N G I N C R E A S E S
S AV I N G S O F D R I V I N G E L E C T R I C
Annual average savings compared to driving on gasoline, U.S. states
2
P R O J E C T E D A N N U A L F U E L S AV I N G S
E L E C T R I C V. G A S C A R S
Driving 15,000 miles per year, charging on off-peak rates
$1,200 to $1,400
$1,400 to $1,600
$1,600 to $1,920
2
E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S C A N
P R O V I D E G R I D S E R V I C E S
-7 kW
-5 kW
-3 kW
-1 kW
1 kW
3 kW
5 kW
7 kW
0 kW
Charging
Discharging
kilowatts
6.6 kW ancillary
services bid
13.2 kW
ancillary
services bid
Car with charge-only
capability
Car with vehicle-to-grid
capability
3
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Percent at home
Percent at work
R E A D Y T O C H A R G E
EV location source: http://bit.ly/2hlRn3u
Most electric vehicles are idle when
the grid needs them
Hour of the day
41%
31%
3
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Percent at home
Percent at work
Electricity demand w/o EVs
Electricity demand w EVs
R E A D Y T O C H A R G E
Hourly load (ScottMadden): http://bit.ly/2hm527XEV location source: http://bit.ly/2hlRn3u
Charging EVs could solve “ramping”
issues by absorbing daytime solar
energy production
Hour of the day
3
1.5 million cars
H O W M A N Y E V S
C A N C H A R G E W I T H
O V E R N I G H T
C A PA C I T Y I N T H E
M I D W E S T G R I D
R E G I O N ?
P O L L T I M E !
Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
A. 50,000
B. 150,000
C. 1.5 million
D. 7.5 million
E. 22.5 million
P O L L T I M E !
H O W M A N Y E V S
C A N C H A R G E W I T H
O V E R N I G H T
C A PA C I T Y I N T H E
M I D W E S T G R I D
R E G I O N ?
Hour of the day (CDT)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Wind output Chosen day Year before
Low overnight demand
July 31, 2016
A M P L E O V E R N I G H T P O W E R S U P P LY
0
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration
50,000
megawatt-hours
100,000
150,000
Midwest Region daily demand curve
4
Hour of the day (CDT)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Wind output Chosen day Year before
Low overnight demand
July 31, 2016
A M P L E O V E R N I G H T P O W E R S U P P LY
0
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration
50,000
megawatt-hours
100,000
150,000
Midwest Region daily demand curve
Extra wind power at night
4
Hour of the day (CDT)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Wind output Chosen day Year before
Low overnight demand
July 31, 2016
A M P L E O V E R N I G H T P O W E R S U P P LY
0
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration
50,000
megawatt-hours
100,000
150,000
Midwest Region daily demand curve
Plenty of available capacity
Extra wind power at night
50,000 MWh = enough to charge 7.5 million cars
4
5
E L E C T R I C B U S H E A LT H B E N E F I T S
97% reduction in particulates
140 tons less of CO2 per year
$150,000 annual savings
Credit: Proterra
A marriage of sexy electrics: Over 1 in
10 EV owners also has rooftop solar
https://ilsr.org/report-electric-vehicles/
6
As solar grows, it reduces demand for
grid power (2).
1 2
6
As solar grows, it reduces demand for grid power (2). If it grows
further, solar can power the entire local grid and “backfeed” to
the larger grid (3).
1 2 3
As solar grows, it reduces demand for grid power (2). If it grows further, solar can power the
entire local grid and “backfeed” to the larger grid (3). Adding electric vehicles (4) can
absorb this excess local production.
1 2 3 4
S U M M A RY: A C T N O W
6 Reasons to act
6 Benefits of action
Easy ways to act2
10k 98 83% 2018 30 GW
7.5m
Electric car adoption will
happen faster than we expect
T H A N K Y O U !
@johnffarrell
www.ilsr.org
C H A N G I N G
T H E R U L E S
P R O V I D I N G
T O O L S
1 0 0 % R E N E WA B L E
L O C A L E C O N O M Y
H U M A N
S C A L E
L O C A L
O W N E R S H I P
D E M O C R AT I C
A U T H O R I T Y
I L L U S T R AT I N G
T H E V I S I O N

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Choosing the Electric Avenue - Webinar Presentation

  • 1. C H O O S I N G E L E C T R I C AV E N U E U N L O C K I N G S AV I N G S , E M I S S I O N S R E D U C T I O N S , A N D C O M M U N I T Y B E N E F I T S O F E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S John Farrell Director of Energy DemocracyJune 21, 2017
  • 2. “That was like a roller coaster”
  • 3. 6 R E A S O N S W E N E E D T O A C T N O W
  • 4. 1S U R G I N G S A L E S QuarterlyEVSales(thousands) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Each quarter in 2016 has seen higher EV sales than the same quarter in any prior year Source: Inside EVs / UCS
  • 5. 1EVSales(millions) 0 5 10 15 20 2010 2020 2030 2040 Bloomberg Electric Vehicle Initiative (target) EIA Navigant 2016 actual U . S . E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S A L E S F O R E C A S T S Annual sales, plug-in hybrid and all-electric
  • 6. E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E O W N E R S H I P 1 0 - Y E A R S AV I N G S $0 $3,000 $6,000 $9,000 $12,000 $15,000 2017 Nissan Leaf v. Nissan Versa 10-year sched. maintenance savings 10-year fuel cost savings (est.) Battery replacement cost (est.) Does not include typical repairs unique to gasoline cars, including timing belts, water pumps, etc. 2
  • 7. W H AT C A R H A S T H E H I G H E S T C U S T O M E R S AT I S FA C T I O N ? P O L L T I M E ! Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
  • 8. A. Porsche Carrera B. Tesla Model S C. BMW 328i D. Volkswagen Beetle E. Ford Focus
  • 9. 3H I G H C U S T O M E R S AT I S FA C T I O N F O R E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S Source: Inside EVs, from Consumer Reports: http://bit.ly/2n7zENP Tesla Model S Chevrolet Volt Honda Accord Hybrid Ford Fusion Energi Toyota Prius Nissan Leaf 0 25 50 75 100 77 82 84 85 85 98 Percentage of owners who would definitely purchase the same vehicle again Tesla Model S Audi A8 Lexus LS Mercedes-Benz S-Class Hyundai Equus Porsche Panamera 0 25 50 75 100 80 80 81 81 84 98 Hybrids / Electric Vehicles Large Luxury Cars
  • 10. Percentofdailytravelthisdistance 0% 10% 20% 30% < 1 mile 1-5 miles 6-15 miles 16-30 miles 31-45 miles 46-60 miles 61-120 miles 121+ miles S U F F I C I E N T R A N G E N O W The Nissan Leaf’s 107-mile range is enough for 83% of daily automobile use Source: 2009 FHWA NHTS Daily vehicle miles traveled 4
  • 11. B E T T E R R A N G E C O M I N G 5
  • 12. 6U . S . E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S A L E S F O R E C A S T S EVBatteryCapacity(megawatts) 0 30,000 60,000 90,000 120,000 150,000 2010 2020 2030 2040 Bloomberg Electric Vehicle Initiative (target) EIA Navigant Plug-in hybrid and all-electric Batteries of new EVs equal 30,000 MW of capacity (on a Level 2 charger) Typical utility 15-year resource plan
  • 13. C O S T O F I N A C T I O N ? Photo credit: John Biehler via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOo0Ja
  • 14. N E T B E N E F I T S O F N O T H I N G Source: California Transportation Electrification Assessment (October 2014)
  • 15. Percentincreaseinpeakenergydemand 0 3 6 9 12 Minnesota California Texas New York Hawaii 9% 3.4% 4.9% 11.1% 3% P R E S S U R E O N P E A K Unmanaged Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts Peak Demand Source: Rocky Mountain Institute EVs 23% Percent of Vehicle Fleet
  • 16. 2 E A S Y WAY S T O A C T
  • 17. W H I C H D E V I C E C A N D O T H E M O S T T O I N C R E A S E G R I D B E N E F I T S O F E V S ? P O L L T I M E ! Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
  • 18. A B C
  • 19. I N C E N T I V I Z E B E N E F I C I A L C H A R G I N G T I M E S 1
  • 20. E V C H A R G I N G R AT E S X C E L E N E R G Y 0¢ 10¢ 20¢ 30¢ 40¢ 50¢ Hour of the day Regular rate Summer surcharge D A K O TA E L E C T R I C ( B A S I C ) Hour of the day cents per kilowatt-hour cents per kilowatt-hour charging not available D A K O TA E L E C T R I C ( T O U ) Hour of the day cents per kilowatt-hour *Off-peak rates also apply to weekends and holidays 1 6 12 6 12 1 6 12 6 12 1 6 12 6 12
  • 21. E V C H A R G I N G R AT E S *Off-peak rates also apply to weekends and holidays S A C R A M E N T O M U N I C I PA L
  • 22. E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E C H A R G I N G TA R I F F S Source: Northeast Group, ILSR Adopted June 2015 or earlier Under consideration
  • 23. Level 2 Charging DC Quick Charging Level 1 Charging Source: fleetcarma 120-volt ~ 1.3 kilowatts 240-volt ~ 3.3 - 6.6 kilowatts 440-volt ~ 50 kilowatts 2D E P L O Y I N F R A S T R U C T U R E
  • 24. L E V E L 2 V E R S U S L E V E L 1 Nissan Leaf 30 kWh Tesla Model S 60 kWh Tesla Model S 100 kWh 0 20 40 60 80 15 hours 9 hours 4.5 hours Level 2 charging time (6.6 kW) Additional time to charge at Level 1 (1.3 kW) 23 hours 46 hours 77 hours
  • 25. U T I L I T Y F I N A N C E D ? For every 15 new customers, the utility would recoup about $24,000 in new revenue over the first ten years of vehicle ownership, enough to pay for 15 home Level 2 chargers and 1 public charger.+ 10 years $24,000 = 15 EV home chargers 1 public charger Revenue from electricity sales to 15 electric vehicles over 10 years
  • 26. 6 B I G B E N E F I T S O F A C T I O N Photo credit: Grant Tarrant via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOiFBM
  • 27. 0 3 6 9 12 Minnesota California Texas New York Hawaii 1.3% 0.6%0.9% 1.3% 0.5% 9% 3.4% 4.9% 11.1% 3% Uncontrolled Controlled T H E T I M E I S R I G H T Managed Electric Vehicle Charging Lowers Peak Demand Impact Several States Source: Rocky Mountain Institute 1
  • 28. W H AT A R E T H E AV E R A G E A N N U A L S AV I N G S O F C H A R G I N G O F F - P E A K ? P O L L T I M E ! Compared to average fuel economy gasoline car; off-peak assumed to be 3¢ per kilowatt-hour Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
  • 29. W H AT A R E T H E AV E R A G E A N N U A L S AV I N G S O F C H A R G I N G O F F - P E A K ? P O L L T I M E ! A. $100 B. $500 C. $1,000 D. $5,000 E. $1 million Compared to average fuel economy gasoline car; off-peak assumed to be 3¢ per kilowatt-hour
  • 30. 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 $980 $1,470 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Standard electricity rates Off-peak electricity rates 15,000 miles 10,000 miles 15,000 miles 10,000 miles $680 $1,000 O F F - P E A K C H A R G I N G I N C R E A S E S S AV I N G S O F D R I V I N G E L E C T R I C Annual average savings compared to driving on gasoline, U.S. states 2
  • 31. P R O J E C T E D A N N U A L F U E L S AV I N G S E L E C T R I C V. G A S C A R S Driving 15,000 miles per year, charging on off-peak rates $1,200 to $1,400 $1,400 to $1,600 $1,600 to $1,920 2
  • 32. E L E C T R I C V E H I C L E S C A N P R O V I D E G R I D S E R V I C E S -7 kW -5 kW -3 kW -1 kW 1 kW 3 kW 5 kW 7 kW 0 kW Charging Discharging kilowatts 6.6 kW ancillary services bid 13.2 kW ancillary services bid Car with charge-only capability Car with vehicle-to-grid capability 3
  • 33. 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Percent at home Percent at work R E A D Y T O C H A R G E EV location source: http://bit.ly/2hlRn3u Most electric vehicles are idle when the grid needs them Hour of the day 41% 31% 3
  • 34. 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Percent at home Percent at work Electricity demand w/o EVs Electricity demand w EVs R E A D Y T O C H A R G E Hourly load (ScottMadden): http://bit.ly/2hm527XEV location source: http://bit.ly/2hlRn3u Charging EVs could solve “ramping” issues by absorbing daytime solar energy production Hour of the day 3 1.5 million cars
  • 35. H O W M A N Y E V S C A N C H A R G E W I T H O V E R N I G H T C A PA C I T Y I N T H E M I D W E S T G R I D R E G I O N ? P O L L T I M E ! Photo credit: Fred Seibert via Flickr, http://bit.ly/2rOnE5i
  • 36. A. 50,000 B. 150,000 C. 1.5 million D. 7.5 million E. 22.5 million P O L L T I M E ! H O W M A N Y E V S C A N C H A R G E W I T H O V E R N I G H T C A PA C I T Y I N T H E M I D W E S T G R I D R E G I O N ?
  • 37. Hour of the day (CDT) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Wind output Chosen day Year before Low overnight demand July 31, 2016 A M P L E O V E R N I G H T P O W E R S U P P LY 0 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration 50,000 megawatt-hours 100,000 150,000 Midwest Region daily demand curve 4
  • 38. Hour of the day (CDT) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Wind output Chosen day Year before Low overnight demand July 31, 2016 A M P L E O V E R N I G H T P O W E R S U P P LY 0 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration 50,000 megawatt-hours 100,000 150,000 Midwest Region daily demand curve Extra wind power at night 4
  • 39. Hour of the day (CDT) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Wind output Chosen day Year before Low overnight demand July 31, 2016 A M P L E O V E R N I G H T P O W E R S U P P LY 0 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration 50,000 megawatt-hours 100,000 150,000 Midwest Region daily demand curve Plenty of available capacity Extra wind power at night 50,000 MWh = enough to charge 7.5 million cars 4
  • 40. 5 E L E C T R I C B U S H E A LT H B E N E F I T S 97% reduction in particulates 140 tons less of CO2 per year $150,000 annual savings Credit: Proterra
  • 41. A marriage of sexy electrics: Over 1 in 10 EV owners also has rooftop solar https://ilsr.org/report-electric-vehicles/ 6
  • 42. As solar grows, it reduces demand for grid power (2). 1 2 6
  • 43. As solar grows, it reduces demand for grid power (2). If it grows further, solar can power the entire local grid and “backfeed” to the larger grid (3). 1 2 3
  • 44. As solar grows, it reduces demand for grid power (2). If it grows further, solar can power the entire local grid and “backfeed” to the larger grid (3). Adding electric vehicles (4) can absorb this excess local production. 1 2 3 4
  • 45. S U M M A RY: A C T N O W 6 Reasons to act 6 Benefits of action Easy ways to act2 10k 98 83% 2018 30 GW 7.5m
  • 46. Electric car adoption will happen faster than we expect
  • 47. T H A N K Y O U ! @johnffarrell www.ilsr.org C H A N G I N G T H E R U L E S P R O V I D I N G T O O L S 1 0 0 % R E N E WA B L E L O C A L E C O N O M Y H U M A N S C A L E L O C A L O W N E R S H I P D E M O C R AT I C A U T H O R I T Y I L L U S T R AT I N G T H E V I S I O N