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H O W C O M M U N I T I E S C A N TA K E
O W N E R S H I P O F R E N E WA B L E P O W E R
B E Y O N D S H A R I N G
John Farrell
May 11, 2016
A Q U E S T I O N
1%
What portion of U.S. renewable
energy is community-based?
???
3%
20%
40%
?
5%
< 3%
P E R C E N T C O M M U N I T Y- B A S E D W I N D
A N D S O L A R I N T H E U . S .
1.1%
COMMUNITY
-OWNED
SHARED
RENEWABLES
GROUP
PURCHASING
C O L L E C T I V E
O W N E R S H I P
N O
O W N E R S H I P
O V E R L A P P I N G D E F I N I T I O N S O F
C O M M U N I T Y R E N E WA B L E
E N E R G Y
I N D I V I D U A L
O W N E R S H I P
COMMUNITY
-OWNED
SHARED
RENEWABLES
GROUP
PURCHASING
C O L L E C T I V E
O W N E R S H I P
N O
O W N E R S H I P
I N D I V I D U A L
O W N E R S H I P
COMMUNITY
-OWNED
SHARED
RENEWABLES
GROUP
PURCHASING
C O L L E C T I V E
O W N E R S H I P
N O
O W N E R S H I P
I N D I V I D U A L
O W N E R S H I P
COMMUNITY
-OWNED
SHARED
RENEWABLES
GROUP
PURCHASING
C O L L E C T I V E
O W N E R S H I P
N O
O W N E R S H I P
I N D I V I D U A L
O W N E R S H I P
How University Park busted the barriers:
Formed a small LLC of
related members, no
outside advertising,
project cost under $1
million
State regulation Pass-through to individuals
LLC passed tax credits on
to individuals, many of
whom had enough tax
liability to use it against
passive income.
Sold to third party
Electricity was sold via a
power purchase
agreement to the host
church, with revenue
shared among the LLC
members.
How Clean Energy Collective busted the barriers:
Participants in Clean
Energy Collective
projects collect only
credits on their bill for
their share of solar
production.
Bill credits only For-profit company
As a private, for-profit
company, Clean Energy
Collective can capture the
federal tax credits on
behalf of participants.
Sold to the utility
Electricity was sold via a
power purchase
agreement to the utility,
with bill credits passed
on to subscribers.
W H Y C O M M U N I T Y ?
30%
23%
47%
34%
40%
32%
50%
31%
25%
35%
57%
26%
32%
39%
47%
35%
23%
74%
40%
34%
31%
27%
34%
26%
28%
14%
34%
44%
34%
44%
24%
39%
34%
42%
39%
36%
40%
33%
30%
37%
46%
30% 35%
37%
60%
53%
60%
All buildings
Source: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65298.pdf
R O O F T O P S O L A R P O T E N T I A L 2 0 1 6
43%
43%
POTENTIAL PERCENT OF
POWER FROM LOCAL
ROOFTOP SOLAR
Over 50%
40 to 50%
25 to 40%
11 to 25%
49%
2008 data
23%
A Q U E S T I O N
50%
What portion of U.S. households
can’t host solar?
???
5%
20%
40%
75%
?
P E R C E N T O F U . S . H O U S E H O L D S T H AT
C A N H O S T S O L A R
100% 63%
35%
2%
51%
All
households
Renters
Owners in bldg.
> 4 stories
12%
Insufficient
space
…with
roof
access
…and
space for
solar
Source: http://1.usa.gov/1QPn1NF
B I G B E N E F I T S
R E N E WA B L E
B E N E F I T S
0
3
6
9
12
15
Jan-2002 Jan-2004 Jan-2006 Jan-2008 Jan-2010 Jan-2012 Jan-2014
Natural Gas Price
Wind and Sun Price
D I S T R I B U T E D
B E N E F I T S
Solar on Littlestown Hospital
D I S P E R S I N G 1 - M W S O L A R P L A N T S
R E D U C E S I N T E G R AT I O N C O S T S
0
1
2
3
4
1 solar project 5 solar projects 25 solar projects
0.3¢
1.1¢
3.9¢
cents per kilowatt-hour
Credit: USDA
C O M M U N I T Y- B A S E D
Shade tree
49%
S O L A R C O S T FA L L S
A S S I Z E G R O W S
InstalledCost
$2.00
$2.60
$3.20
$3.80
$4.40
Residential 10-20 50-100 250-500 5 MW
A Q U E S T I O N
2 times
How many times more jobs are
created by locally owned projects
than non-locally owned ones?
???
10 times
1.5 times
1.2 times
5 times
?
C O M M U N I T Y-
O W N E D
How Green Energy Farmers busted the barriers:
Formed several,
unrelated LLCs with
only Iowa owners.
State regulation Pass-through to individuals
For a limited time, the
Production Tax Credit was
available as a cash grant,
more easily used by
ordinary investors.
Sold to the utility
Electricity was sold via a
power purchase
agreement to the utility.
B I G B A R R I E R S
0¢
5¢
10¢
15¢
20¢
Lease A Lease B PPA*
0¢
5¢
10¢
15¢
20¢
SOLAR COSTS MORE FOR NON-TAXABLE
ORGANIZATIONS
Incentives
do not apply
to tax-
exempt
entities
Depreciation
only
Tax credit only
Tax credit
and
depreciation
Transaction
costs
Tax credit
and
depreciation
Transaction
costs
Transaction
costs
15.5¢
14.1¢ 13.7¢
12.3¢
11.2¢
Federal tax credit = 30% off
Depreciation = ~24% off
*PPA not legal in 25 states
Solar cost per kilowatt-hour
Purchase via third partySelf-ownership Private sector
E S T I M AT E D F E D E R A L S E C U R I T I E S
C O M P L I A N C E C O S T S
Annual Compliance
9%
Upfront Compliance
3%
Annual Compliance
59%
Upfront Compliance
19%
1,000 kW solar 25 kW solar
S H A R I N G O U T P U T
Prohibited in 34 states
B A R R I E R B U S T I N G : TA X
I N C E N T I V E S
A D O P T E D D E C . 2 0 1 5
F E D E R A L R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y TA X C R E D I T
P H A S E O U T
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Wind tax credit (per kilowatt-hour)
Solar tax credit (% of installed cost)
10%
22%
26%
30%30%30%30%
0.0¢
0.9¢
1.4¢
1.8¢
2.3¢
I N C L U D E S
G E O T H E R M A L
A N D B I O M A S S
F O R 2 0 1 6
How South Dakota Wind Partners busted the barriers:
Investment available
only to South Dakota
residents.
State regulation Pass-through to individuals
For a limited time, the
Production Tax Credit was
available as a cash grant,
more easily used by
ordinary investors.
Sold to the utility
Electricity was sold via a
power purchase
agreement to a utility
subsidiary.
• Over 600 owners
• Used expired cash grant
What if these went away?
S P E N D Y TA X E Q U I T Y F I N A N C I N G …
0¢
2¢
4¢
6¢
8¢
10¢
12¢
14¢
16¢
12.1¢11.8¢
• NO tax credit
• 5% cost of capital/
debt
• 20 year debt
LOSS OF 30% TAX
CREDIT ONLY RAISES
COST BY 2.5%
Cost of solar electricity in Tucson
(cents per kilowatt-hour)
• 30% tax credit
• 10% cost of capital/debt for
tax equity partner
• 10 year debt
… R E P L A C E D B Y L O W C O S T L O A N S
0¢
2¢
4¢
6¢
8¢
10¢
12¢
14¢
16¢
12.1¢11.8¢
Cost of solar electricity in Tucson
(cents per kilowatt-hour)
• 30% tax credit
• 10% cost of capital/debt for
tax equity partner
• 10 year debt
• NO tax credit
• 5% cost of capital/debt
• 20 year debt
LOSS OF 30% TAX
CREDIT ONLY RAISES
COST OF SOLAR BY 2.5%
B A R R I E R B U S T I N G :
S E C U R I T I E S
S TAT E S W I T H C R O W D F U N D I N G L A W S
2014
2015
2015
2015
2011
2012
2015*
*awaiting governor’s signature
2011
2014
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2013
2014
2015
2015
2015
2015
2014
2014
2015
2014
2014
DC2014
Source: North American Securities Administrators Association
July 17, 2015
S TAT E C R O W D F U N D I N G L A W S
$1 million
ordinary investors
online
reduced compliance
in-state only
only 95 successful offers
NY Times, June 2015Credit: Flickr user barnyz
B A R R I E R B U S T I N G :
E L E C T R I C I T Y S H A R I N G
C O M M U N I T Y S O L A R P R O J E C T S A I D E D
B Y V I R T U A L N E T M E T E R I N G
Utility Type
- Cooperative
- Investor-Owned Utility
- Public Power
Available
Limited by tech or customer type
Utility option to offer
Virtual Net Metering Policy
How “shared solar” busted the barriers:
Participants in shared
solar projects collect
only credits on their bill
for their share of solar
production.
Bill credits only Developer captures tax credit
The project developer
(often a utility) can capture
the tax credit and pass on
the savings.
Sharing required
Participants receive their
financial reward in the
form of a electricity bill
credit, proportionate to
their subscription size.
S TAT E S A L L O W I N G C O M M U N I T Y C H O I C E
A G G R E G AT I O N
3
650
39
Number of participating municipalities
2250
37
250
2
April 2016
How Community Power Network busted the barriers:
Participants were buying
solar for their own
property, not investing
in projects elsewhere.
Not a security Individual tax credits
Participants were
responsible for filing for a
personal tax credit, which
applies to ordinary earned
income.
Net metering
Participants reduced
their energy bills on a
per-kilowatt-hour basis,
with no electricity
sharing required.
A G O L D S TA N D A R D ?
4 P R I N C I P L E S F O R
C O M M U N I T Y
R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y
1. Tangible benefits
2. Flexible in forms of ownership
3. Increase Renewables
4. Access to all
Q U E S T I O N : W H I C H PAY S
B E T T E R ?
?
or
COMPARING COMMUNITY SOLAR VALUE
Colorado
Minnesota
Arizona
Wisconsin
Kentucky
Florida
$0 $2,500 $5,000 $7,500 $10,000
$1,100
-$1,350
$380
$5,400
$2,200
$4,700
Community solar subscription
Individual ownership
*zero upfront cost
$270*
$34,900
$600
$22,900
$14,700
$230
$40,000$20,000
20-year net present value
Clean Energy Collective
NRG Home Solar
Tucson Electric Power
River Falls
Berea
Orlando
Owner Investor Member Subscriber Donor Resident
S E C U R I T I E S
L AW
C H A L L E N G E S
MinWind
C O M M U N I T Y
S H A R E D
S O L A R
THE COMMUNITY RENEWABLE ENERGY SPECTRUM
State
Region
City
Neighbor
-hood
Home/
business
AREAOFCOMMUNITY
L E V E L O F I N V O LV E M E N T
Clean
Energy
Collective
John Q.
Solar
University
Park Solar,
LLC
Mosaic
SD Wind
Partners Green
Energy
Farmers
Shiloh
Temple
RE-VOLV
Solarize/
DCSUN
Municipal
utilities, e.g.
Georgetown,
TX
Greater economic benefit
Greaterpoliticalcapital
Local choice
aggregation
aka CCA
Consumer
Producer
O N - B I L L R E PAY M E N T
The utility adds a monthly
assessment to the customer’s bill to
pay for energy savings
improvements, with the savings
greater than the monthly cost.
A utility customer signs up for better
insulation, a rooftop solar array, or a
share of solar on a nearby building.
Net savings
e.g. $10/mo.
1
2
3
M O R E T H A N S O L A R
COMMUNITY
-OWNED
SHARED
RENEWABLES
GROUP
PURCHASING
C O L L E C T I V E
O W N E R S H I P
N O
O W N E R S H I P
O V E R L A P P I N G D E F I N I T I O N S O F
C O M M U N I T Y R E N E WA B L E
E N E R G Y
I N D I V I D U A L
O W N E R S H I P
Georgetown,
TX
Farmer’s Electric
Co-op
Sunshare
Clean Energy
Collective
DC SUN
Solarize
University Park
Solar
Green Energy
Farmers
Cooperative
Energy Futures
Forecast
Existing
I N C R E D I B L E G R O W T H
0
2,500
5,000
7,500
10,000
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
megawatts
Growth forecast for community renewable energy
anticipates sharp growth in shared solar
www.ilsr.org
C H A N G I N G
T H E R U L E S
P R O V I D I N G
T O O L S
1 0 0 % R E N E WA B L E
L O C A L E C O N O M Y
H U M A N
S C A L E
L O C A L
O W N E R S H I P
D E M O C R AT I C
A U T H O R I T Y
I L L U S T R AT I N G
T H E V I S I O N
Beyond	Sharing:	How	Communities	
Can	Take	Ownership	of	Renewable	
Power	
The electric utility monopoly is breaking up, but will new companies
make renewable energy become another form of wealth extraction or
can community renewable energy enable communities to capture their
renewable power?
John Farrell
April 2016
www.ilsr.org
D O W N L O A D
O U R F U L L
R E P O R T
R E A D M O R E
@johnffarrell

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Beyond Sharing: Communities Taking Ownership of Renewable Power

  • 1. H O W C O M M U N I T I E S C A N TA K E O W N E R S H I P O F R E N E WA B L E P O W E R B E Y O N D S H A R I N G John Farrell May 11, 2016
  • 2. A Q U E S T I O N 1% What portion of U.S. renewable energy is community-based? ??? 3% 20% 40% ? 5%
  • 3. < 3% P E R C E N T C O M M U N I T Y- B A S E D W I N D A N D S O L A R I N T H E U . S . 1.1%
  • 4. COMMUNITY -OWNED SHARED RENEWABLES GROUP PURCHASING C O L L E C T I V E O W N E R S H I P N O O W N E R S H I P O V E R L A P P I N G D E F I N I T I O N S O F C O M M U N I T Y R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y I N D I V I D U A L O W N E R S H I P
  • 5. COMMUNITY -OWNED SHARED RENEWABLES GROUP PURCHASING C O L L E C T I V E O W N E R S H I P N O O W N E R S H I P I N D I V I D U A L O W N E R S H I P
  • 6. COMMUNITY -OWNED SHARED RENEWABLES GROUP PURCHASING C O L L E C T I V E O W N E R S H I P N O O W N E R S H I P I N D I V I D U A L O W N E R S H I P
  • 7. COMMUNITY -OWNED SHARED RENEWABLES GROUP PURCHASING C O L L E C T I V E O W N E R S H I P N O O W N E R S H I P I N D I V I D U A L O W N E R S H I P
  • 8. How University Park busted the barriers: Formed a small LLC of related members, no outside advertising, project cost under $1 million State regulation Pass-through to individuals LLC passed tax credits on to individuals, many of whom had enough tax liability to use it against passive income. Sold to third party Electricity was sold via a power purchase agreement to the host church, with revenue shared among the LLC members.
  • 9. How Clean Energy Collective busted the barriers: Participants in Clean Energy Collective projects collect only credits on their bill for their share of solar production. Bill credits only For-profit company As a private, for-profit company, Clean Energy Collective can capture the federal tax credits on behalf of participants. Sold to the utility Electricity was sold via a power purchase agreement to the utility, with bill credits passed on to subscribers.
  • 10. W H Y C O M M U N I T Y ?
  • 11. 30% 23% 47% 34% 40% 32% 50% 31% 25% 35% 57% 26% 32% 39% 47% 35% 23% 74% 40% 34% 31% 27% 34% 26% 28% 14% 34% 44% 34% 44% 24% 39% 34% 42% 39% 36% 40% 33% 30% 37% 46% 30% 35% 37% 60% 53% 60% All buildings Source: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65298.pdf R O O F T O P S O L A R P O T E N T I A L 2 0 1 6 43% 43% POTENTIAL PERCENT OF POWER FROM LOCAL ROOFTOP SOLAR Over 50% 40 to 50% 25 to 40% 11 to 25% 49% 2008 data 23%
  • 12. A Q U E S T I O N 50% What portion of U.S. households can’t host solar? ??? 5% 20% 40% 75% ?
  • 13. P E R C E N T O F U . S . H O U S E H O L D S T H AT C A N H O S T S O L A R 100% 63% 35% 2% 51% All households Renters Owners in bldg. > 4 stories 12% Insufficient space …with roof access …and space for solar Source: http://1.usa.gov/1QPn1NF
  • 14. B I G B E N E F I T S
  • 15. R E N E WA B L E B E N E F I T S 0 3 6 9 12 15 Jan-2002 Jan-2004 Jan-2006 Jan-2008 Jan-2010 Jan-2012 Jan-2014 Natural Gas Price Wind and Sun Price
  • 16. D I S T R I B U T E D B E N E F I T S Solar on Littlestown Hospital D I S P E R S I N G 1 - M W S O L A R P L A N T S R E D U C E S I N T E G R AT I O N C O S T S 0 1 2 3 4 1 solar project 5 solar projects 25 solar projects 0.3¢ 1.1¢ 3.9¢ cents per kilowatt-hour Credit: USDA
  • 17. C O M M U N I T Y- B A S E D Shade tree 49% S O L A R C O S T FA L L S A S S I Z E G R O W S InstalledCost $2.00 $2.60 $3.20 $3.80 $4.40 Residential 10-20 50-100 250-500 5 MW
  • 18. A Q U E S T I O N 2 times How many times more jobs are created by locally owned projects than non-locally owned ones? ??? 10 times 1.5 times 1.2 times 5 times ?
  • 19. C O M M U N I T Y- O W N E D
  • 20. How Green Energy Farmers busted the barriers: Formed several, unrelated LLCs with only Iowa owners. State regulation Pass-through to individuals For a limited time, the Production Tax Credit was available as a cash grant, more easily used by ordinary investors. Sold to the utility Electricity was sold via a power purchase agreement to the utility.
  • 21. B I G B A R R I E R S
  • 22. 0¢ 5¢ 10¢ 15¢ 20¢ Lease A Lease B PPA* 0¢ 5¢ 10¢ 15¢ 20¢ SOLAR COSTS MORE FOR NON-TAXABLE ORGANIZATIONS Incentives do not apply to tax- exempt entities Depreciation only Tax credit only Tax credit and depreciation Transaction costs Tax credit and depreciation Transaction costs Transaction costs 15.5¢ 14.1¢ 13.7¢ 12.3¢ 11.2¢ Federal tax credit = 30% off Depreciation = ~24% off *PPA not legal in 25 states Solar cost per kilowatt-hour Purchase via third partySelf-ownership Private sector
  • 23. E S T I M AT E D F E D E R A L S E C U R I T I E S C O M P L I A N C E C O S T S Annual Compliance 9% Upfront Compliance 3% Annual Compliance 59% Upfront Compliance 19% 1,000 kW solar 25 kW solar
  • 24. S H A R I N G O U T P U T Prohibited in 34 states
  • 25. B A R R I E R B U S T I N G : TA X I N C E N T I V E S
  • 26. A D O P T E D D E C . 2 0 1 5 F E D E R A L R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y TA X C R E D I T P H A S E O U T 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Wind tax credit (per kilowatt-hour) Solar tax credit (% of installed cost) 10% 22% 26% 30%30%30%30% 0.0¢ 0.9¢ 1.4¢ 1.8¢ 2.3¢ I N C L U D E S G E O T H E R M A L A N D B I O M A S S F O R 2 0 1 6
  • 27. How South Dakota Wind Partners busted the barriers: Investment available only to South Dakota residents. State regulation Pass-through to individuals For a limited time, the Production Tax Credit was available as a cash grant, more easily used by ordinary investors. Sold to the utility Electricity was sold via a power purchase agreement to a utility subsidiary. • Over 600 owners • Used expired cash grant
  • 28. What if these went away?
  • 29. S P E N D Y TA X E Q U I T Y F I N A N C I N G … 0¢ 2¢ 4¢ 6¢ 8¢ 10¢ 12¢ 14¢ 16¢ 12.1¢11.8¢ • NO tax credit • 5% cost of capital/ debt • 20 year debt LOSS OF 30% TAX CREDIT ONLY RAISES COST BY 2.5% Cost of solar electricity in Tucson (cents per kilowatt-hour) • 30% tax credit • 10% cost of capital/debt for tax equity partner • 10 year debt
  • 30. … R E P L A C E D B Y L O W C O S T L O A N S 0¢ 2¢ 4¢ 6¢ 8¢ 10¢ 12¢ 14¢ 16¢ 12.1¢11.8¢ Cost of solar electricity in Tucson (cents per kilowatt-hour) • 30% tax credit • 10% cost of capital/debt for tax equity partner • 10 year debt • NO tax credit • 5% cost of capital/debt • 20 year debt LOSS OF 30% TAX CREDIT ONLY RAISES COST OF SOLAR BY 2.5%
  • 31. B A R R I E R B U S T I N G : S E C U R I T I E S
  • 32. S TAT E S W I T H C R O W D F U N D I N G L A W S 2014 2015 2015 2015 2011 2012 2015* *awaiting governor’s signature 2011 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2014 2015 2014 2014 DC2014 Source: North American Securities Administrators Association July 17, 2015
  • 33. S TAT E C R O W D F U N D I N G L A W S $1 million ordinary investors online reduced compliance in-state only
  • 34. only 95 successful offers NY Times, June 2015Credit: Flickr user barnyz
  • 35. B A R R I E R B U S T I N G : E L E C T R I C I T Y S H A R I N G
  • 36. C O M M U N I T Y S O L A R P R O J E C T S A I D E D B Y V I R T U A L N E T M E T E R I N G Utility Type - Cooperative - Investor-Owned Utility - Public Power Available Limited by tech or customer type Utility option to offer Virtual Net Metering Policy
  • 37. How “shared solar” busted the barriers: Participants in shared solar projects collect only credits on their bill for their share of solar production. Bill credits only Developer captures tax credit The project developer (often a utility) can capture the tax credit and pass on the savings. Sharing required Participants receive their financial reward in the form of a electricity bill credit, proportionate to their subscription size.
  • 38. S TAT E S A L L O W I N G C O M M U N I T Y C H O I C E A G G R E G AT I O N 3 650 39 Number of participating municipalities 2250 37 250 2 April 2016
  • 39. How Community Power Network busted the barriers: Participants were buying solar for their own property, not investing in projects elsewhere. Not a security Individual tax credits Participants were responsible for filing for a personal tax credit, which applies to ordinary earned income. Net metering Participants reduced their energy bills on a per-kilowatt-hour basis, with no electricity sharing required.
  • 40. A G O L D S TA N D A R D ?
  • 41. 4 P R I N C I P L E S F O R C O M M U N I T Y R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y 1. Tangible benefits 2. Flexible in forms of ownership 3. Increase Renewables 4. Access to all
  • 42. Q U E S T I O N : W H I C H PAY S B E T T E R ? ? or
  • 43. COMPARING COMMUNITY SOLAR VALUE Colorado Minnesota Arizona Wisconsin Kentucky Florida $0 $2,500 $5,000 $7,500 $10,000 $1,100 -$1,350 $380 $5,400 $2,200 $4,700 Community solar subscription Individual ownership *zero upfront cost $270* $34,900 $600 $22,900 $14,700 $230 $40,000$20,000 20-year net present value Clean Energy Collective NRG Home Solar Tucson Electric Power River Falls Berea Orlando
  • 44. Owner Investor Member Subscriber Donor Resident S E C U R I T I E S L AW C H A L L E N G E S MinWind C O M M U N I T Y S H A R E D S O L A R THE COMMUNITY RENEWABLE ENERGY SPECTRUM State Region City Neighbor -hood Home/ business AREAOFCOMMUNITY L E V E L O F I N V O LV E M E N T Clean Energy Collective John Q. Solar University Park Solar, LLC Mosaic SD Wind Partners Green Energy Farmers Shiloh Temple RE-VOLV Solarize/ DCSUN Municipal utilities, e.g. Georgetown, TX Greater economic benefit Greaterpoliticalcapital Local choice aggregation aka CCA Consumer Producer
  • 45. O N - B I L L R E PAY M E N T The utility adds a monthly assessment to the customer’s bill to pay for energy savings improvements, with the savings greater than the monthly cost. A utility customer signs up for better insulation, a rooftop solar array, or a share of solar on a nearby building. Net savings e.g. $10/mo. 1 2 3
  • 46. M O R E T H A N S O L A R
  • 47. COMMUNITY -OWNED SHARED RENEWABLES GROUP PURCHASING C O L L E C T I V E O W N E R S H I P N O O W N E R S H I P O V E R L A P P I N G D E F I N I T I O N S O F C O M M U N I T Y R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y I N D I V I D U A L O W N E R S H I P Georgetown, TX Farmer’s Electric Co-op Sunshare Clean Energy Collective DC SUN Solarize University Park Solar Green Energy Farmers Cooperative Energy Futures
  • 48. Forecast Existing I N C R E D I B L E G R O W T H 0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 megawatts Growth forecast for community renewable energy anticipates sharp growth in shared solar
  • 49. www.ilsr.org C H A N G I N G T H E R U L E S P R O V I D I N G T O O L S 1 0 0 % R E N E WA B L E L O C A L E C O N O M Y H U M A N S C A L E L O C A L O W N E R S H I P D E M O C R AT I C A U T H O R I T Y I L L U S T R AT I N G T H E V I S I O N
  • 50. Beyond Sharing: How Communities Can Take Ownership of Renewable Power The electric utility monopoly is breaking up, but will new companies make renewable energy become another form of wealth extraction or can community renewable energy enable communities to capture their renewable power? John Farrell April 2016 www.ilsr.org D O W N L O A D O U R F U L L R E P O R T R E A D M O R E @johnffarrell