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Noli Me
Tangere?
“do not touch me”
Or
“Touch Me Not”
www.mycutegraphics.com
“…The book contains things of which
no one among ourselves has spoken
up to the present; they are so delicate
that they cannot be touched by
anybody… I have endeavored to
answer the calumnies which for
centuries had been heaped on us and
our country: I have described the social
condition, life, our beliefs, our hopes,
our desires, our grievances, our
griefs… The facts I narrate are all true
and they actually happened; I can
prove them.”
--- Jose Rzal
Bgfons.com
Gloomy winter months in Berlin
 Famished
 Sick
 Despondent
Despite of all the struggles through
his writing, still, wrote on, and on,
until the early hours of dawn.
At long last, he finished the novel on
February 21, 1887.
It was the
, his first novel.www.pinterest.com www.pinterest.com
… portrays the
brutalities of
American slave-
owners and the
pathetic conditions of
the unfortunate
Negro, slaves;
inspires Dr. Rizal to
prepare a novel on
the Philippines.
The idea of Writing a Novel on
Philippines
January 2, 1884. In a reunion of
Filipinos in the house of the Paternos
in Madrid, Rizal proposed the writing
of a novel about the Philippines by a
group of Filipinos.
His proposal was unanimously
approved by those present, among
whom were the Paternos (Pedro,
Maximino, and Antonio), Graciano
Lopez Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre,
Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorete, and
The idea of Writing a Novel on
Philippines
Unfortunately, Rizal’s project did not
materialize.
Compatriots who were expected to
collaborate on the novel did not write
anything.
The novel was designed to cover all phases
of Philippine life. However, almost everybody
wanted to write on women.
Rizal was disgusted at such flippancy. He
was more disgusted to see that his
companions, instead of working seriously on
the novel, wasted their time gambling or
flirting with Spanish girls.
The idea of Writing a Novel on
Philippines
oEnd of 1884. Rizal began writing
the novel in Madrid and finished
about one-half of it.
oWent to Paris in 1885. Completed
his studies in the Universidad
Central de Madrid, He continued
writing the novel, finishing one-half
of the second half.
oIn Germany. He wrote the last
fourth of the novel.
The Writing of the “Noli”
Dark days of December 1886
His spirit was at its lowest ebb, he almost
threw the manuscript into the fire for he saw
no hope of having it published for he was
utterly penniless.
He wrote to his friend, Fernando Canon;
Bgfons.com
The Writing of the “Noli”
Mid-December
Dr. Maximo Viola
Friend of Rizal
His message revived the author’s
hope—Rizal
A scion of a rich family of San
Miguel, Bulacan.
The man who saved the “Noli”.
Came to Berlin and invite Rizal to
join him on a tour at Europe.
When he learned of Rizal’s
predicament, he kindly agreed to
postpone the tour and instead,
advanced some money so that the
novel could be printed.
I’m going to
visit Berlin !

www.pinterest.com
The man who saved the
“Noli”
1887. first edition of the Noli was
printed in Berlin—300 pesos
(advanced by Viola) for 2,000 copies.
In token of his appreciation and
gratitude, Rizal gave to Viola the
galley proofs of the Noli carefully
rolled around the pen that he has
used in writing the novel and the first
copy to come off the press with a
dedicatory autograph as follows:
The Man Who Saved the
“Noli”
Senyorjoserizal.blogspot.com
MARCH 29, 1887. A significant date. The
date when the Noli Me Tangere came off
the press.
A new classic was thus born in Philippine
literature, a book which caused a great
stir in its times and which still a stirring
book at the present time.
The Man Who Saved the
“Noli”
“To my dear Friend,
Maximo Viola, the first to read
and appreciate my work—Jose
Rizal, March 29, 1887, Berlin.”Bgfons.com
Noli Me Tangere is a Latin phrase which
means “Touch Me Not.”
It is not originally conceived by Rizal, for
he admitted taking it from the Bible.
Rizal, writing to Felix R. Hidalgo in
French in March, 1887, said:
The Title of the Novel
Bgfons.com
in citing the biblical source, Rizal made a
mistake. It should be Gospel of St. John
(Chapter 20, Verses 13 to 17). According
to St. John, on the First Easter Sunday,
St. Mary Magdalene visited the Holy
Sepulchre, and to her Our Lord Jesus,
just arisen from the dead, said:
“Touch ne not; I am not yet ascended to my
Father, but go to my brethren, and say
unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and
your Father; and to my God and your
God.”
The Title of the Novel
Rizal dedicated the Noli Me Tangere to the
Philippines—“To My Country.”
The Author’s Dedication
Bgfons.com
The Author’s Dedication
Bgfons.com
LOULOUDREAMING.COM
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Noli Me Tangere contains 63 chapters and
an epilogue.
It begins with a reception given by Capitan
Tiago (Santiago de los Santos) at his house in
Calle Anloague (now Juan Luna Street) on the
last day of October.
Reception or dinner was given in honor of
Crisostomo Ibarra, a young and rich Filipino
who had just returned after seven years of
study in Europe.
Ibarra was the only son of Don Rafael
Ibarra, friend of Capitan Tiago, and a fiancé of
beautiful Maria Clara, supposed daughter of
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Among the guests during the
reception were Padre Damaso, a
Franciscan friar who had been parish
priest of San Diego (Calamba), Ibarra’s
native town for 20 years; Padre
Sibyla, a young Dominican parish
priest of Binondo; Señor Guevarra, an
elderly and kind lieutenant of the
Guardia Civil. Don Tiburcio de
Espadaña, a bogus Spanish
Physician, lame, and henpecked
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Ibarra, upon his arrival, produced a
favorable impression among the guests,
except Padre Damaso, who was rude to
him.
In accordance with a German custom,
he introduced himself to the ladies.
During the dinner the conversation
centered on Ibarra’s studies and travels
abroad. Padre Damaso was in bad mood
because he got a bony neck and hard
wing of the chicken tinola. He tried to
discredit Ibarra’s remarks.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
After dinner, Ibarra left Capitan Tiago’s
house to return to his hotel.
On the way, the kind Lieutenant Guevarra
told him the sad story of his father’s death in
San Diego. Don Rafael, his father, was rich
and brave man. He defended a helpless boy
from the brutality of an illiterate Spanish tax
collector, pushing the latter and accidentally
killing him. He was thrown in prison, where
he died unhappily. He was buried in
consecrated ground but his enemies,
accusing him of being a heretic, had his
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
On hearing his father’s sad story, Ibarra
thanked the kind Spanish lieutenant and
vowed to find out the truth about his
father’s death.
The following morning, he visited Maria
Clara, his childhood sweetheart. Maria
Clara teasingly said that he had forgotten
her because the girls in Germany were
beautiful. Ibarra replied that he had never
forgotten her.
After the romantic reunion with Maria
Clara, Ibarra went to San Diego to visit his
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
… It was All Saints Day.
At the cemetery, the grave-digger told
Ibarra that the corpse of Don Rafael
was removed by order of the parish
priest to be buried in the Chinese
cemetery; but the corpse was heavy
and it was a dark rainy night so that he
(the grave-digger) simply threw the
corpse into the lake.
Ibarra was angered by the grave-
digger’s story. He left the cemetery.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
On the way, he met Padre Salvi,
Franciscan parish priest of San Diego. In
a flash, Ibarra pounced on the priest,
demanding redress for desecrating his
father’s mortal remains. Padre Salvi told
him that he had nothing to do with it, for
he was not the parish priest at the time of
Don Rafael’s death. It was Padre
Damaso, his predecessor, who was
responsible for it.
Convinced of Padre Salvi’s innocence,
Ibarra went away.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
In his town, Ibarra met several
interesting people, such as the wise old
man Tasio the Sage, whose ideas were
too advanced for his times so that the
people, who could not understand him,
called him “Tasio the Lunatic;” the
progressive school teacher, who
complained to Ibarra that the children were
losing interest in their studies because of
the lack of a proper schoolhouse and the
discouraging attitude of the parish towards
the teaching of Spanish and the use of
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
… the spineless gobernadorcillo, who
catered to wishes of the Spanish parish
priest; Don Filipo Lino, the teniente mayor
and leader of the liberal faction in the
town; Don Melchor, the captain of the
cuadrilleros (town police) ; and the former
gobernadorcillos who were prominent
citizenz—Don Basilio and Don Valentin.
A most tragic story in the novel is the tale
of Sisa, who was formerly a rich girl but
became poor because she married a
gambler, and a wastrel at that.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
She became crazy because she lost her two
boys, Basilio and Crispin, the only joys of her
wretched life. These boys were sacristans
(sextons) in the church, working for a small
wage to support their poor mother.
Crispin, the younger of the two brothers, was
accused by the brutal sacristan mayor (chief
sexton) of stealing the money of the priest. He
was tortured in the convent and died.
Basilio, with his brother’s dying cries ringing
in his ears, escaped. When the two boys did
not return home, Sisa looked for them
everywhere and, in her great sorrow, she
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Capitan Tiago, Maria Clara, and Aunt Isabel
(Capitan Tiago’s cousin who took care of Maria
Clara, after her mother’s death) arrived in San
Diego. Ibarra and his friends gave a picnic in
the lake.
Among those present in this picnic, were
Maria Clara and her four girl friends—“the
merry Sinang, the grave Victoria, the beautiful
Iday, and the thoughtful Neneng”; Aunt Isabel,
chaperon of Maria Clara; Capitana Tika, mother
of Sinang; Andeng, foster-sister of Maria Clara;
Albino, the ex-theological student who was in
love with Sinang; and Ibarra and his friends.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
An incident of the picnic was the saving of
Elias’ life by Ibarra. Elias bravely grappled
with a crocodile which was caught in the fish
corral. But the crocodile struggled furiously
so that Elias could not subdue it. Ibarra
jumped into the water and killed the
crocodile, thereby saving Elias.
Another incident, which preceded the
above-mentioned near-tragic crocodile
incident, was the rendering of a beautiful
song by Maria Clara who had a sweet voice.
Upon the insistent requests of her friends,
she played the harp and sang:
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
THE SONG OF MARIA CLARA
“Sweet are the hours in one’s native
land,
Where all is dear the sunbeams bless;
Life-giving breezes sweep the strand,
And death is soften’d by love’s caress
“Warm kisses play on mother’s lips,
On her fond, tender breast awakening;
When round her neck the soft arm slips,
And bright eyes smile, all love partaking.
“Sweet is death for one’s native land,
Where all is dear the sunbeams bless;
Death is the breeze that sweeps the
www.rgbstock.com
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
After Maria Clara’s song and the crocodile
incident, they went ashore. They made merry
in the cool, wooded meadow. Padre Salvi,
Capitan Basilio (former gobernadorcillo and
Sinang’s father), the alferez (lieutenant of the
Guardia Civil), and the town officials were
present. The luncheon was served, and
everybody enjoyed eating.
The meal over, Ibarra and Capitan Basilio
played chess, while Maria Clara and her
friends played the “Wheel of Chance”, a game
based on a fortune-telling book. As the girls
were enjoying their fortune-telling game, Padre
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
… saying that it is a sin to play such game.
Shortly thereafter, a sergeant and four
soldiers of the Guardia Civil suddenly
arrived, looking for Elias, who was hunted
for
assaulting Padre Damaso and
throwing the alferez into a mudhole.
Fortunately, Elias had disappeared, and
the Guardia Civil went away empty-handed.
During the picnic also, Ibarra received a
telegram from Spanish authorities notifying
him of the approval of his donation of a
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
The next day, Ibarra visited old Tasio to
consult him on his pet project about the
schoolhouse. He saw the old man’s writings
were written in hieroglyphics. Tasio explained
to him that he wrote in hieroglyphics because
he was writing for the future generations who
would understand them and say, “Not all were
asleep in the night of our ancestors!”
Tasio was pessimistic about the project of
Ibarra to build a schoolhouse at his own
expense. However, the construction of the
schoolhouse continued under the supervision
of the architect called Ñor Juan.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Meanwhile, San Diego was merrily
preparing for its annual fiesta, in honor of its
patron saint San Diego de Alcala, whose
feast day is the 11th of November.
On the eve of the fiesta, hundreds of
visitors arrived from nearby towns, and
there were laughter, music, exploding
bombs, feasting, and moro-moro. The music
was furnished by five brass bands (including
the famous Pagsanjan Band owned by the
escribano Miguel Guevara) and three
orchestras.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
In the morning of the fiesta there was a
high Mass in the church, officiated by Padre
Salvi. Padre Damaso gave the long sermon,
which he expatiated on the evils of the times
that were caused by certain men who,
having tested some education, spread
pernicious ideas among the people.
After Padre Damaso’s sermon, the mass
was continued by Padre Salvi. Elias quietly
moved to Ibarra, who was kneeling and
praying by Maria Clara’s side, …
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”… and warned him to be careful during the
ceremony of the laying of the cornerstone of
the schoolhouse because there is a plot to kill
him.
Elias suspected that the yellowish man,
who built the derrick, was a paid stooge of
Ibarra’s enemies.
True to his suspicion, later that day, when
Ibarra, in the presence of a big crowd, went
down into the trench to cement the
cornerstone, the derrick collapsed.
Elias quick as a flash pushed him aside,
thereby saving his life. The yellowish man
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”At the sumptuous dinner that night under a
decorated kiosk, a sad incident occurred.
The arrogant Padre Damaso, speaking in the
presence of many guests, insulted the memory
of Ibarra’s father.
Ibarra jumped from his seat, knocked down the
fat friar with his fist, and then seized a sharp
knife. He would have killed the friar, if it were not
for the timely intervention of Maria Clara.
Ibarra’s attack on Padre Damaso produced two
results:
o his engagement to Maria Clara was broken
and
o he was excommunicated.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”Fortunately, the liberal-minded governor-
general visited the town and befriended
Ibarra.
He told the young man not to worry. He
persuaded Capitan Tiago to accept Ibarra
as son-in-law and promised to see the
Archbishop of Manila to lift off the ban of
excommunication. ***
The fiesta over, Maria Clara became ill.
She was treated by the quack Spanish
physician, Tiburcio de Espadaña, whose
wife, a vain, frustrated native woman, was
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
… This woman had hallucinations of being a
superior Castilian, and although a native
herself, she looked down on her own
people as inferior beings. She added
another “de” to her husband’s surname in
order to be more Spanish. Thus, she
wanted to be called “Doctora Doña Victorina
de los Reyes de De Espadaña.”
She introduced to Capitan Tiago a young
Spaniard, Don Alfonso Linares de
Espadaña, cousin of Don Tiburcio de
Espadaña and godson of Padre Damaso’s
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”… came to the Philippines in search of a Filipino
heiress and fortune. Both Doña Victorina and
Padre Damaso sponsored his wooing of Maria
Clara, but the latter did not respond because she
loved Ibarra. ***
A touch of comedy in the novel was the fight
between two ludicrous señoras—Doña
Consolacion, the vulgar mistress of the Spanish
alferez, and Doña Victorina, the flamboyantly
dressed wife of a henpecked Spanish quack
doctor.
Both insulted each other in gutter language, and,
not satisfied with their verbal warfare, they
squared off to come to blows.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”The story of Elias, like that of Sisa, was a tale of
pathos and tragedy. He related it to Ibarra.
Some 60 years ago, his grandfather, who was
then a young bookkeeper in a Spanish
commercial firm in Manila, was wrongly accused
of burning the firm's warehouse.
He was flogged in public and was left in the
street, crippled and almost dead.
His wife, who was pregnant, begged for alms
and became a prostitute in order to support her
sick husband and their son.
After giving birth to her second, and death of her
husband, she fled, with her two sons, to the
mountains.
***
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”Years later, the first boy became a dreaded
tulisan named Balat. He terrorized the provinces.
One day, he was caught by the authorities. His
head was cut off and was hung from a tree branch
in the forest. On seeing this gory object, the poor
mother (Elias' grandmother) died.
Balat's younger brother, who was by nature kind-
hearted, fled and became a trusted laborer in the
house of a rich man in Tayabas. He fell in love
with the master's daughter. The girl's father,
enraged by the romance, investigated his past
and found out the truth. The unfortunate lover
(Elias' father) was sent to jail, while the girl gave
birth to twins, a boy (Elias) and a girl.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Their rich grandfather (father of their mother)
took care of them, keeping secret their
scandalous origin, and reared them as rich
children. Elias was educated in the Jesuit
College in Manila, while his sister studied in La
Concordia College. They lived happily until one
day, owing to certain dispute over money
matters; distant relative exposed their
shameful birth. They were disgraced. An old
male servant, whom they used to abuse, was
forced to testify in court and the truth came out
that he was their real father.
Elias and his sister left Tayabas to hide their
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”One day the sister disappeared. Elias roamed
from place to place looking for her. He heard later
that a girl answering to his sister's description was
found dead on the beach of San Diego. Since
then, Elias lived a vagabond life, wandering from
province to province—until he met Ibarra. ***
Ibarra's enemies left no stone unturned to bring
about his ruin. They engineered an attack on the
barracks of the Guardia Civil, at the same time
warning the alferez to alert his men that night.
They deceived the attackers by telling them that
the mastermind was Ibarra. So that when the
attack failed and the surviving attackers were
caught, Ibarra was blamed for the catastrophe.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”Elias, learning of Ibarra's arrest, burned all the
papers that might incriminate his friend and set
Ibarra's house on fire. Then he went to prison and
helped Ibarra escape. He and Ibarra jumped into a
banca loaded with zacate (grass).
Ibarra stopped at the house of Capitan Tiago to
say goodbye to Maria Clara. In the tearful last
scene between the two lovers, Ibarra forgave
Maria Clara for giving up his letters to her which
the Spanish authorities utilized as evidence
against him. On her part, Maria Clara revealed
that those letters were exchanged with a letter
from her late mother, Pia Alba, which Padre Salvi
gave her. From this letter, she learned that her
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”After bidding Maria Clara farewell, Ibarra
returned to the banca. He and Elias paddled up
the Pasig River toward Laguna de Bay. A police
boat, with the Guardia Civil on board, pursued
them as their banca reached the lake. Elias told
Ibarra to hide under the zacate. As the police boat
was overtaking the banca, Elias jumped into the
water and swam swiftly toward the shore. In this
way, he diverted the attention of the soldiers on
his person, thereby giving Ibarra a chance to
Escape.
The soldier fired at the swimming Elias, who
was hit and sank. The water turned red because
of his blood. The soldiers, thinking that they had
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
Elias, seriously wounded, reached the
shore and went into the forest. He met a
boy, Basilio, weeping over his mother's
body. He told Basilio to make a pyre on
which their bodies (his and Sisa's) were to
be burned to ashes. It was Christmas Eve,
and the moon gleamed softly in the sky.
Basilio prepared the funeral pyre. As life's
breath slowly left his body, Elias looked
toward the east and murmured: "I die
without seeing the dawn brighten over my
native land! You, who have it to see,
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”
EPILOGUE
Maria Clara, out of her loyalty to the
memory of Ibarra, the man she truly loved,
entered the Santa Clara nunnery.
Padre Salvi left the parish of San Diego
and became a chaplain of the nunnery.
Padre Damaso was transferred to a
remote province, but the next morning he
was found dead in his bedroom.
Capitan Tiago, the former genial host and
generous patron of the church became an
opium addict and a human wreck.
Synopsis of the
“Noli.”Doña Victorina, still henpecking poor Don
Tiburcio, had taken to wearing eye-glasses
because of weakening eye-sight.
Linares, who failed to win Maria Clara's
affection, died of dysentery and was buried in
Paco cemetery.
The alferez, who successfully repulsed the
abortive attack on the barracks, was promoted
major. He returned to Spain, leaving behind his
shabby mistress, Doña Consolacion.
The novel ends with Maria Clara, an unhappy
nun in Santa Clara nunnery—forever lost to the
LOULOUDREAMING.COM
The "Noli" Based on Truth
Noli Me Tangere, unlike many works of
fictional literature, is a true story of
Philippine conditions during the last
decades of Spanish rule.
The places, the characters, and the
situations really existed. "The facts I narrate
there", said Rizal, "are all true and have
happened; I can prove them."
The characters—Ibarra, Maria Clara,
Elias, Tasio, Capitan Tiago, Padre Damaso,
Padre Salvi, etc.—were drawn by Rizal from
persons who actually existed during his
The "Noli" Based on Truth
… Maria Clara was Leonor Rivera, although in
real life she became unfaithful, unlike the
heroine of the novel, and married an
Englishman. Ibarra and Elias represented Rizal
himself. Tasio the Sage was his elder brother,
Paciano. Padre Salvi was identified by Rizalists
as Padre Antonio Piernaveja, the hated
Augustinian friar in Cavite who was killed by our
patiots during the Revolution. Capitan Tiago was
Capitan Hilario Sunico of San Nicolas. Doña
Victorina was Doña Agustina Medel. The two
brothers Basilio and Crispin were the
Crisostomo brothers of Hagony. Padre Damaso
was typical of a domineering friar during the
LOULOUDREAMING.COM
Rizal's Friends Praise the
"Noli"
The friends of Rizal hailed the novel,
praising it in glowing colors. As to be
expected, Rizal's enemies condemned it.
Rizal anticipated the vitriolic attacks of his
enemies, who were sore to be told the truth
of their evil ways. In Rizal's own words:
Bgfons.com
Rizal's Friends Praise the
"Noli"
Copies of the Noli were sent by Rizal to
Blumentritt, Regidor, Hidalgo, Mariano Ponce,
Graciano Lopez Jaena, Aguirre, and other
friends. More copies were crated and sent to
Barcelona, Madrid, and Hongkong to be
smuggled into the Philippines
Of the numerous congratulatory letters
received by Rizal from his friends about the Noli,
that from Blumentritt was significant. "First of all",
wrote Blumentritt, accept my cordial
congratulations for your beautiful novel about
customs which interests me extraordinarily. Your
work, as we Germans say, has been written with
the blood of the heart, and so the heart also
Rizal's Friends Praise the
"Noli"
… I continue reading it with much interest, and I
shall beg to ask you now to me; for instance, the
word filibustero must have certain meaning in
the Philippines that I do not find in the Spanish
of the Peninsulars nor in that of the Spanish
peoples of America.
"I know already," continued blumentritt, "that
you were a man of extraordinary talent (I had
said it to Pardo de Tavera, and this could also be
seen from the marvelous short time in which you
have acquired my difficult and rough mother
tongue); but in spite of this, your work has
exceeded my hopes and I consider myself
happy to have been with your friendship"
o
f

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Chapter 8-FIN-02-24-16

  • 1.
  • 2. Noli Me Tangere? “do not touch me” Or “Touch Me Not” www.mycutegraphics.com
  • 3. “…The book contains things of which no one among ourselves has spoken up to the present; they are so delicate that they cannot be touched by anybody… I have endeavored to answer the calumnies which for centuries had been heaped on us and our country: I have described the social condition, life, our beliefs, our hopes, our desires, our grievances, our griefs… The facts I narrate are all true and they actually happened; I can prove them.” --- Jose Rzal Bgfons.com
  • 4. Gloomy winter months in Berlin  Famished  Sick  Despondent Despite of all the struggles through his writing, still, wrote on, and on, until the early hours of dawn. At long last, he finished the novel on February 21, 1887. It was the , his first novel.www.pinterest.com www.pinterest.com
  • 5.
  • 6. … portrays the brutalities of American slave- owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro, slaves; inspires Dr. Rizal to prepare a novel on the Philippines. The idea of Writing a Novel on Philippines
  • 7. January 2, 1884. In a reunion of Filipinos in the house of the Paternos in Madrid, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines by a group of Filipinos. His proposal was unanimously approved by those present, among whom were the Paternos (Pedro, Maximino, and Antonio), Graciano Lopez Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorete, and The idea of Writing a Novel on Philippines
  • 8. Unfortunately, Rizal’s project did not materialize. Compatriots who were expected to collaborate on the novel did not write anything. The novel was designed to cover all phases of Philippine life. However, almost everybody wanted to write on women. Rizal was disgusted at such flippancy. He was more disgusted to see that his companions, instead of working seriously on the novel, wasted their time gambling or flirting with Spanish girls. The idea of Writing a Novel on Philippines
  • 9.
  • 10. oEnd of 1884. Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished about one-half of it. oWent to Paris in 1885. Completed his studies in the Universidad Central de Madrid, He continued writing the novel, finishing one-half of the second half. oIn Germany. He wrote the last fourth of the novel. The Writing of the “Noli”
  • 11. Dark days of December 1886 His spirit was at its lowest ebb, he almost threw the manuscript into the fire for he saw no hope of having it published for he was utterly penniless. He wrote to his friend, Fernando Canon; Bgfons.com The Writing of the “Noli”
  • 12.
  • 13. Mid-December Dr. Maximo Viola Friend of Rizal His message revived the author’s hope—Rizal A scion of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan. The man who saved the “Noli”. Came to Berlin and invite Rizal to join him on a tour at Europe. When he learned of Rizal’s predicament, he kindly agreed to postpone the tour and instead, advanced some money so that the novel could be printed. I’m going to visit Berlin !  www.pinterest.com The man who saved the “Noli”
  • 14. 1887. first edition of the Noli was printed in Berlin—300 pesos (advanced by Viola) for 2,000 copies. In token of his appreciation and gratitude, Rizal gave to Viola the galley proofs of the Noli carefully rolled around the pen that he has used in writing the novel and the first copy to come off the press with a dedicatory autograph as follows: The Man Who Saved the “Noli” Senyorjoserizal.blogspot.com
  • 15. MARCH 29, 1887. A significant date. The date when the Noli Me Tangere came off the press. A new classic was thus born in Philippine literature, a book which caused a great stir in its times and which still a stirring book at the present time. The Man Who Saved the “Noli” “To my dear Friend, Maximo Viola, the first to read and appreciate my work—Jose Rizal, March 29, 1887, Berlin.”Bgfons.com
  • 16.
  • 17. Noli Me Tangere is a Latin phrase which means “Touch Me Not.” It is not originally conceived by Rizal, for he admitted taking it from the Bible. Rizal, writing to Felix R. Hidalgo in French in March, 1887, said: The Title of the Novel Bgfons.com
  • 18. in citing the biblical source, Rizal made a mistake. It should be Gospel of St. John (Chapter 20, Verses 13 to 17). According to St. John, on the First Easter Sunday, St. Mary Magdalene visited the Holy Sepulchre, and to her Our Lord Jesus, just arisen from the dead, said: “Touch ne not; I am not yet ascended to my Father, but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God and your God.” The Title of the Novel
  • 19.
  • 20. Rizal dedicated the Noli Me Tangere to the Philippines—“To My Country.” The Author’s Dedication Bgfons.com
  • 23. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Noli Me Tangere contains 63 chapters and an epilogue. It begins with a reception given by Capitan Tiago (Santiago de los Santos) at his house in Calle Anloague (now Juan Luna Street) on the last day of October. Reception or dinner was given in honor of Crisostomo Ibarra, a young and rich Filipino who had just returned after seven years of study in Europe. Ibarra was the only son of Don Rafael Ibarra, friend of Capitan Tiago, and a fiancé of beautiful Maria Clara, supposed daughter of
  • 24. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Among the guests during the reception were Padre Damaso, a Franciscan friar who had been parish priest of San Diego (Calamba), Ibarra’s native town for 20 years; Padre Sibyla, a young Dominican parish priest of Binondo; Señor Guevarra, an elderly and kind lieutenant of the Guardia Civil. Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, a bogus Spanish Physician, lame, and henpecked
  • 25. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Ibarra, upon his arrival, produced a favorable impression among the guests, except Padre Damaso, who was rude to him. In accordance with a German custom, he introduced himself to the ladies. During the dinner the conversation centered on Ibarra’s studies and travels abroad. Padre Damaso was in bad mood because he got a bony neck and hard wing of the chicken tinola. He tried to discredit Ibarra’s remarks.
  • 26. Synopsis of the “Noli.” After dinner, Ibarra left Capitan Tiago’s house to return to his hotel. On the way, the kind Lieutenant Guevarra told him the sad story of his father’s death in San Diego. Don Rafael, his father, was rich and brave man. He defended a helpless boy from the brutality of an illiterate Spanish tax collector, pushing the latter and accidentally killing him. He was thrown in prison, where he died unhappily. He was buried in consecrated ground but his enemies, accusing him of being a heretic, had his
  • 27. Synopsis of the “Noli.” On hearing his father’s sad story, Ibarra thanked the kind Spanish lieutenant and vowed to find out the truth about his father’s death. The following morning, he visited Maria Clara, his childhood sweetheart. Maria Clara teasingly said that he had forgotten her because the girls in Germany were beautiful. Ibarra replied that he had never forgotten her. After the romantic reunion with Maria Clara, Ibarra went to San Diego to visit his
  • 28. Synopsis of the “Noli.” … It was All Saints Day. At the cemetery, the grave-digger told Ibarra that the corpse of Don Rafael was removed by order of the parish priest to be buried in the Chinese cemetery; but the corpse was heavy and it was a dark rainy night so that he (the grave-digger) simply threw the corpse into the lake. Ibarra was angered by the grave- digger’s story. He left the cemetery.
  • 29. Synopsis of the “Noli.” On the way, he met Padre Salvi, Franciscan parish priest of San Diego. In a flash, Ibarra pounced on the priest, demanding redress for desecrating his father’s mortal remains. Padre Salvi told him that he had nothing to do with it, for he was not the parish priest at the time of Don Rafael’s death. It was Padre Damaso, his predecessor, who was responsible for it. Convinced of Padre Salvi’s innocence, Ibarra went away.
  • 30. Synopsis of the “Noli.” In his town, Ibarra met several interesting people, such as the wise old man Tasio the Sage, whose ideas were too advanced for his times so that the people, who could not understand him, called him “Tasio the Lunatic;” the progressive school teacher, who complained to Ibarra that the children were losing interest in their studies because of the lack of a proper schoolhouse and the discouraging attitude of the parish towards the teaching of Spanish and the use of
  • 31. Synopsis of the “Noli.” … the spineless gobernadorcillo, who catered to wishes of the Spanish parish priest; Don Filipo Lino, the teniente mayor and leader of the liberal faction in the town; Don Melchor, the captain of the cuadrilleros (town police) ; and the former gobernadorcillos who were prominent citizenz—Don Basilio and Don Valentin. A most tragic story in the novel is the tale of Sisa, who was formerly a rich girl but became poor because she married a gambler, and a wastrel at that.
  • 32. Synopsis of the “Noli.” She became crazy because she lost her two boys, Basilio and Crispin, the only joys of her wretched life. These boys were sacristans (sextons) in the church, working for a small wage to support their poor mother. Crispin, the younger of the two brothers, was accused by the brutal sacristan mayor (chief sexton) of stealing the money of the priest. He was tortured in the convent and died. Basilio, with his brother’s dying cries ringing in his ears, escaped. When the two boys did not return home, Sisa looked for them everywhere and, in her great sorrow, she
  • 33. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Capitan Tiago, Maria Clara, and Aunt Isabel (Capitan Tiago’s cousin who took care of Maria Clara, after her mother’s death) arrived in San Diego. Ibarra and his friends gave a picnic in the lake. Among those present in this picnic, were Maria Clara and her four girl friends—“the merry Sinang, the grave Victoria, the beautiful Iday, and the thoughtful Neneng”; Aunt Isabel, chaperon of Maria Clara; Capitana Tika, mother of Sinang; Andeng, foster-sister of Maria Clara; Albino, the ex-theological student who was in love with Sinang; and Ibarra and his friends.
  • 34. Synopsis of the “Noli.” An incident of the picnic was the saving of Elias’ life by Ibarra. Elias bravely grappled with a crocodile which was caught in the fish corral. But the crocodile struggled furiously so that Elias could not subdue it. Ibarra jumped into the water and killed the crocodile, thereby saving Elias. Another incident, which preceded the above-mentioned near-tragic crocodile incident, was the rendering of a beautiful song by Maria Clara who had a sweet voice. Upon the insistent requests of her friends, she played the harp and sang:
  • 35. Synopsis of the “Noli.” THE SONG OF MARIA CLARA “Sweet are the hours in one’s native land, Where all is dear the sunbeams bless; Life-giving breezes sweep the strand, And death is soften’d by love’s caress “Warm kisses play on mother’s lips, On her fond, tender breast awakening; When round her neck the soft arm slips, And bright eyes smile, all love partaking. “Sweet is death for one’s native land, Where all is dear the sunbeams bless; Death is the breeze that sweeps the www.rgbstock.com
  • 36. Synopsis of the “Noli.” After Maria Clara’s song and the crocodile incident, they went ashore. They made merry in the cool, wooded meadow. Padre Salvi, Capitan Basilio (former gobernadorcillo and Sinang’s father), the alferez (lieutenant of the Guardia Civil), and the town officials were present. The luncheon was served, and everybody enjoyed eating. The meal over, Ibarra and Capitan Basilio played chess, while Maria Clara and her friends played the “Wheel of Chance”, a game based on a fortune-telling book. As the girls were enjoying their fortune-telling game, Padre
  • 37. Synopsis of the “Noli.” … saying that it is a sin to play such game. Shortly thereafter, a sergeant and four soldiers of the Guardia Civil suddenly arrived, looking for Elias, who was hunted for assaulting Padre Damaso and throwing the alferez into a mudhole. Fortunately, Elias had disappeared, and the Guardia Civil went away empty-handed. During the picnic also, Ibarra received a telegram from Spanish authorities notifying him of the approval of his donation of a
  • 38. Synopsis of the “Noli.” The next day, Ibarra visited old Tasio to consult him on his pet project about the schoolhouse. He saw the old man’s writings were written in hieroglyphics. Tasio explained to him that he wrote in hieroglyphics because he was writing for the future generations who would understand them and say, “Not all were asleep in the night of our ancestors!” Tasio was pessimistic about the project of Ibarra to build a schoolhouse at his own expense. However, the construction of the schoolhouse continued under the supervision of the architect called Ñor Juan.
  • 39. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Meanwhile, San Diego was merrily preparing for its annual fiesta, in honor of its patron saint San Diego de Alcala, whose feast day is the 11th of November. On the eve of the fiesta, hundreds of visitors arrived from nearby towns, and there were laughter, music, exploding bombs, feasting, and moro-moro. The music was furnished by five brass bands (including the famous Pagsanjan Band owned by the escribano Miguel Guevara) and three orchestras.
  • 40. Synopsis of the “Noli.” In the morning of the fiesta there was a high Mass in the church, officiated by Padre Salvi. Padre Damaso gave the long sermon, which he expatiated on the evils of the times that were caused by certain men who, having tested some education, spread pernicious ideas among the people. After Padre Damaso’s sermon, the mass was continued by Padre Salvi. Elias quietly moved to Ibarra, who was kneeling and praying by Maria Clara’s side, …
  • 41. Synopsis of the “Noli.”… and warned him to be careful during the ceremony of the laying of the cornerstone of the schoolhouse because there is a plot to kill him. Elias suspected that the yellowish man, who built the derrick, was a paid stooge of Ibarra’s enemies. True to his suspicion, later that day, when Ibarra, in the presence of a big crowd, went down into the trench to cement the cornerstone, the derrick collapsed. Elias quick as a flash pushed him aside, thereby saving his life. The yellowish man
  • 42. Synopsis of the “Noli.”At the sumptuous dinner that night under a decorated kiosk, a sad incident occurred. The arrogant Padre Damaso, speaking in the presence of many guests, insulted the memory of Ibarra’s father. Ibarra jumped from his seat, knocked down the fat friar with his fist, and then seized a sharp knife. He would have killed the friar, if it were not for the timely intervention of Maria Clara. Ibarra’s attack on Padre Damaso produced two results: o his engagement to Maria Clara was broken and o he was excommunicated.
  • 43. Synopsis of the “Noli.”Fortunately, the liberal-minded governor- general visited the town and befriended Ibarra. He told the young man not to worry. He persuaded Capitan Tiago to accept Ibarra as son-in-law and promised to see the Archbishop of Manila to lift off the ban of excommunication. *** The fiesta over, Maria Clara became ill. She was treated by the quack Spanish physician, Tiburcio de Espadaña, whose wife, a vain, frustrated native woman, was
  • 44. Synopsis of the “Noli.” … This woman had hallucinations of being a superior Castilian, and although a native herself, she looked down on her own people as inferior beings. She added another “de” to her husband’s surname in order to be more Spanish. Thus, she wanted to be called “Doctora Doña Victorina de los Reyes de De Espadaña.” She introduced to Capitan Tiago a young Spaniard, Don Alfonso Linares de Espadaña, cousin of Don Tiburcio de Espadaña and godson of Padre Damaso’s
  • 45. Synopsis of the “Noli.”… came to the Philippines in search of a Filipino heiress and fortune. Both Doña Victorina and Padre Damaso sponsored his wooing of Maria Clara, but the latter did not respond because she loved Ibarra. *** A touch of comedy in the novel was the fight between two ludicrous señoras—Doña Consolacion, the vulgar mistress of the Spanish alferez, and Doña Victorina, the flamboyantly dressed wife of a henpecked Spanish quack doctor. Both insulted each other in gutter language, and, not satisfied with their verbal warfare, they squared off to come to blows.
  • 46. Synopsis of the “Noli.”The story of Elias, like that of Sisa, was a tale of pathos and tragedy. He related it to Ibarra. Some 60 years ago, his grandfather, who was then a young bookkeeper in a Spanish commercial firm in Manila, was wrongly accused of burning the firm's warehouse. He was flogged in public and was left in the street, crippled and almost dead. His wife, who was pregnant, begged for alms and became a prostitute in order to support her sick husband and their son. After giving birth to her second, and death of her husband, she fled, with her two sons, to the mountains. ***
  • 47. Synopsis of the “Noli.”Years later, the first boy became a dreaded tulisan named Balat. He terrorized the provinces. One day, he was caught by the authorities. His head was cut off and was hung from a tree branch in the forest. On seeing this gory object, the poor mother (Elias' grandmother) died. Balat's younger brother, who was by nature kind- hearted, fled and became a trusted laborer in the house of a rich man in Tayabas. He fell in love with the master's daughter. The girl's father, enraged by the romance, investigated his past and found out the truth. The unfortunate lover (Elias' father) was sent to jail, while the girl gave birth to twins, a boy (Elias) and a girl.
  • 48. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Their rich grandfather (father of their mother) took care of them, keeping secret their scandalous origin, and reared them as rich children. Elias was educated in the Jesuit College in Manila, while his sister studied in La Concordia College. They lived happily until one day, owing to certain dispute over money matters; distant relative exposed their shameful birth. They were disgraced. An old male servant, whom they used to abuse, was forced to testify in court and the truth came out that he was their real father. Elias and his sister left Tayabas to hide their
  • 49. Synopsis of the “Noli.”One day the sister disappeared. Elias roamed from place to place looking for her. He heard later that a girl answering to his sister's description was found dead on the beach of San Diego. Since then, Elias lived a vagabond life, wandering from province to province—until he met Ibarra. *** Ibarra's enemies left no stone unturned to bring about his ruin. They engineered an attack on the barracks of the Guardia Civil, at the same time warning the alferez to alert his men that night. They deceived the attackers by telling them that the mastermind was Ibarra. So that when the attack failed and the surviving attackers were caught, Ibarra was blamed for the catastrophe.
  • 50. Synopsis of the “Noli.”Elias, learning of Ibarra's arrest, burned all the papers that might incriminate his friend and set Ibarra's house on fire. Then he went to prison and helped Ibarra escape. He and Ibarra jumped into a banca loaded with zacate (grass). Ibarra stopped at the house of Capitan Tiago to say goodbye to Maria Clara. In the tearful last scene between the two lovers, Ibarra forgave Maria Clara for giving up his letters to her which the Spanish authorities utilized as evidence against him. On her part, Maria Clara revealed that those letters were exchanged with a letter from her late mother, Pia Alba, which Padre Salvi gave her. From this letter, she learned that her
  • 51. Synopsis of the “Noli.”After bidding Maria Clara farewell, Ibarra returned to the banca. He and Elias paddled up the Pasig River toward Laguna de Bay. A police boat, with the Guardia Civil on board, pursued them as their banca reached the lake. Elias told Ibarra to hide under the zacate. As the police boat was overtaking the banca, Elias jumped into the water and swam swiftly toward the shore. In this way, he diverted the attention of the soldiers on his person, thereby giving Ibarra a chance to Escape. The soldier fired at the swimming Elias, who was hit and sank. The water turned red because of his blood. The soldiers, thinking that they had
  • 52. Synopsis of the “Noli.” Elias, seriously wounded, reached the shore and went into the forest. He met a boy, Basilio, weeping over his mother's body. He told Basilio to make a pyre on which their bodies (his and Sisa's) were to be burned to ashes. It was Christmas Eve, and the moon gleamed softly in the sky. Basilio prepared the funeral pyre. As life's breath slowly left his body, Elias looked toward the east and murmured: "I die without seeing the dawn brighten over my native land! You, who have it to see,
  • 53. Synopsis of the “Noli.” EPILOGUE Maria Clara, out of her loyalty to the memory of Ibarra, the man she truly loved, entered the Santa Clara nunnery. Padre Salvi left the parish of San Diego and became a chaplain of the nunnery. Padre Damaso was transferred to a remote province, but the next morning he was found dead in his bedroom. Capitan Tiago, the former genial host and generous patron of the church became an opium addict and a human wreck.
  • 54. Synopsis of the “Noli.”Doña Victorina, still henpecking poor Don Tiburcio, had taken to wearing eye-glasses because of weakening eye-sight. Linares, who failed to win Maria Clara's affection, died of dysentery and was buried in Paco cemetery. The alferez, who successfully repulsed the abortive attack on the barracks, was promoted major. He returned to Spain, leaving behind his shabby mistress, Doña Consolacion. The novel ends with Maria Clara, an unhappy nun in Santa Clara nunnery—forever lost to the
  • 56. The "Noli" Based on Truth Noli Me Tangere, unlike many works of fictional literature, is a true story of Philippine conditions during the last decades of Spanish rule. The places, the characters, and the situations really existed. "The facts I narrate there", said Rizal, "are all true and have happened; I can prove them." The characters—Ibarra, Maria Clara, Elias, Tasio, Capitan Tiago, Padre Damaso, Padre Salvi, etc.—were drawn by Rizal from persons who actually existed during his
  • 57. The "Noli" Based on Truth … Maria Clara was Leonor Rivera, although in real life she became unfaithful, unlike the heroine of the novel, and married an Englishman. Ibarra and Elias represented Rizal himself. Tasio the Sage was his elder brother, Paciano. Padre Salvi was identified by Rizalists as Padre Antonio Piernaveja, the hated Augustinian friar in Cavite who was killed by our patiots during the Revolution. Capitan Tiago was Capitan Hilario Sunico of San Nicolas. Doña Victorina was Doña Agustina Medel. The two brothers Basilio and Crispin were the Crisostomo brothers of Hagony. Padre Damaso was typical of a domineering friar during the
  • 59. Rizal's Friends Praise the "Noli" The friends of Rizal hailed the novel, praising it in glowing colors. As to be expected, Rizal's enemies condemned it. Rizal anticipated the vitriolic attacks of his enemies, who were sore to be told the truth of their evil ways. In Rizal's own words: Bgfons.com
  • 60. Rizal's Friends Praise the "Noli" Copies of the Noli were sent by Rizal to Blumentritt, Regidor, Hidalgo, Mariano Ponce, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Aguirre, and other friends. More copies were crated and sent to Barcelona, Madrid, and Hongkong to be smuggled into the Philippines Of the numerous congratulatory letters received by Rizal from his friends about the Noli, that from Blumentritt was significant. "First of all", wrote Blumentritt, accept my cordial congratulations for your beautiful novel about customs which interests me extraordinarily. Your work, as we Germans say, has been written with the blood of the heart, and so the heart also
  • 61. Rizal's Friends Praise the "Noli" … I continue reading it with much interest, and I shall beg to ask you now to me; for instance, the word filibustero must have certain meaning in the Philippines that I do not find in the Spanish of the Peninsulars nor in that of the Spanish peoples of America. "I know already," continued blumentritt, "that you were a man of extraordinary talent (I had said it to Pardo de Tavera, and this could also be seen from the marvelous short time in which you have acquired my difficult and rough mother tongue); but in spite of this, your work has exceeded my hopes and I consider myself happy to have been with your friendship"
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