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CHAPTER 19
FINANCIAL REPORTING
BY: MART NIKKI LOU M. MANTILLA
Sec. 1. Scope. This Chapter prescribes the
manner in which the general purpose financial
statements (GPFS) should be prepared and
presented to ensure comparability both with the
entity’s financial statements of previous periods
and with the financial statements of other entities.
It presents the:
a. overall considerations for the preparation and presentation of financial
statements;
b. guidance for their structure;
c. minimum requirements for the content of financial statements prepared
under the accrual basis of accounting as required by the PPSAS; and
d. other guidelines and requirements in the preparation of financial
statements.
Provisions of PPSAS 1-Presentation of financial statements and the applicable PAG
shall be applied in the presentation and preparation of GPFS.
The application for the following PPSAS topics shall be discussed:
a. Presentation of Financial Statements;
b. Statement of Cash Flows;
c. Events after the Reporting Date;
d. Related Party Disclosures;
e. Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors; and
f. Accounting Process
Sec. 3. Purpose of Financial Statements
a. Financial statements are a structured representation of the financial position and
financial performance of an entity.
The objectives of general purpose financial statements are to provide
information about the financial position, financial performance, and cash flows of
an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making and evaluating decisions
about the allocation of resources. Specifically, the objectives of general purpose
financial reporting in the public sector should be to provide information useful for
decision making, and to demonstrate the accountability of the entity for the
resources entrusted to it, by:
1.providing information about the sources, allocation, and uses of financial
resources;
2. providing information about how the entity financed its activities and met
its cash requirements;
3.providing information that is useful in evaluating the entity’s ability to
finance its activities and to meet its liabilities and commitments;
4.providing information about the financial condition of the entity and
changes in it;
5.providing aggregate information useful in evaluating the entity’s
performance in terms of service costs, efficiency and accomplishments;
b. purpose financial statements can also have a predictive or prospective role,
providing information useful in predicting the level of resources required for
continued operations, the resources that may be generated by continued
operations, and the associated risks and uncertainties. Financial reporting may
also provide users with information:
1.indicating whether resources were obtained and used in accordance with
the legally adopted budget; and
2.indicating whether resources were obtained and used in accordance with
legal and contractual requirements, including financial limits established by
appropriate legislative authorities. (Par. 15-16 PPSAS 1)
c. Financial statements provide information about an entity’s:
1.Assets;
2.Liabilities;
3.Net assets/equity;
4.Revenue;
5.Expenses;
6. Other changes in net assets/equity;
7.Cash flows; and
8.Comparison of budget and actual amounts. (Par. 17, PPSAS 1)
Sec. 4. Responsibility for Financial Statements. The
responsibility for the fair presentation and reliability of
financial statements rests with the management of the
reporting entity, particularly the head of finance/accounting
office and the head of entity or his authorized representative.
The Statement of Management Responsibility for Financial
Statements (Annex G) shall serve as the covering letter in
transmitting the entity financial statements to the COA, and
other regulatory agencies and other entities. It shows the
entity’s responsibility for the preparation and presentation of
the financial statements.
Sec. 5. Components of Financial Statements. A complete set of financial statements (condensed and
by fund cluster) to be submitted by an entity shall include the following:
a. Statement of Financial Position (SFP) (Annex A);
b. Statement of Financial Performance (SFPer) (Annex B);
c. Statement of Changes in Net Assets/Equity (SCNA/E) (Annex C);
d. Statement of Cash Flows (SCF) (Annex D);
e. Statement of Comparison of Budget and Actual Amount (SCBAA) (Annex E); and
f.Notes (Annex F), comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes. (Par.
21, PPSAS 1)
For the purpose of preparing the Annual Financial Report, all national government agencies shall
submit to the Government Accountancy Sector, COA detailed financial statements and trial balances by
fund cluster.
Sec. 6. Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Reporting. An entity
shall present information including accounting policies in a manner that
meets the following qualitative characteristics enumerated in PPSAS 1:
a. Understandability – information is understandable when users might
reasonably be expected to comprehend its meaning. For this purpose,
users are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of the entity’s activities
and the environment in which it operates, and to be willing to study the
information. Information about complex matters should not be excluded
from the financial statements merely on the grounds that it may be too
difficult for certain users to understand.
b. Relevance – information is relevant to users if it can be used to assist in evaluating past,
present or future events or in confirming, or correcting, past evaluations. In order to be
relevant, information must also be timely.
c. Materiality – the relevance of information is affected by its nature and materiality. Information
is material if its omission or misstatement could influence the decisions of users or assessments
made on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the nature or size of the
item or error, judged in the particular circumstances of its omission or misstatement.
d. Timeliness – the usefulness of financial statements is impaired if they are not made
available to users within a reasonable period after the reporting date. Ongoing factors such as
the complexity of an entity’s operations are not sufficient reason for failing to report on a
timely basis. More specific deadlines are dealt with by legislation and regulations in many
jurisdictions.
If there is an undue delay in the reporting of information, it
may lose its relevance. To provide information on a timely
basis, it may often be necessary to report before all aspects
of a transaction are known, thus impairing reliability.
Conversely, if reporting is delayed until all aspects are known,
the information may be highly reliable but of little use to
users who have had to make decisions in the interim. In
achieving a balance between relevance and reliability, the
overriding consideration is how best to satisfy the decision-
making needs of users.
e. Reliability – reliable information is free from material error and bias, and can be
depended on by users to represent faithfully that which it purports to represent or
could reasonably be expected to represent.
f. Faithful representation – information to represent faithfully transactions and other
events, it should be presented in accordance with the substance of the transactions and
other events, and not merely their legal form.
g. Substance over form – if information is to represent faithfully the transactions and
other events that it purports to represent, it is necessary that they be accounted for and
presented in accordance with their substance and economic reality, and not merely their
legal form. The substance of transactions or other events is not always consistent with
their legal form.
h. Neutrality – information is neutral if it is free from bias. Financial statements are not neutral
if the information they contain has been selected or presented in a manner designed to
influence the making of a decision or judgment in order to achieve a predetermined result or
outcome.
i. Prudence – is the inclusion of a degree of caution in the exercise of the judgments needed in
making the estimates required under conditions of uncertainty, such that assets or revenue are not
overstated and liabilities or expenses are not understated. However, the exercise of prudence does
not allow, for example, the creation of hidden reserves or excessive provisions, the deliberate
understatement of assets or revenue, or the deliberate overstatement of liabilities or expenses,
because the financial statements would not be neutral and, therefore, not have the quality of
reliability.
j .Completeness – the information in financial statements should be complete within the
bounds of materiality and cost.
k. Comparability – information in financial statements is comparable
when users are able to identify similarities and differences between that
information and information in other reports. Comparability applies to the
comparison of financial statements of different entities and comparison of
the financial statements of the same entity over periods of time. An
important implication of the characteristic of comparability is that users
need to be informed of the policies employed in the preparation of
financial statements, changes to those policies, and the effects of those
changes. Because users wish to compare the performance of an entity
over time, it is important that financial statements show corresponding
information for preceding periods.
THANK YOU!

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CHAPTER 19- Sections 1,3,45&6.pptx

  • 1. CHAPTER 19 FINANCIAL REPORTING BY: MART NIKKI LOU M. MANTILLA
  • 2. Sec. 1. Scope. This Chapter prescribes the manner in which the general purpose financial statements (GPFS) should be prepared and presented to ensure comparability both with the entity’s financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities.
  • 3. It presents the: a. overall considerations for the preparation and presentation of financial statements; b. guidance for their structure; c. minimum requirements for the content of financial statements prepared under the accrual basis of accounting as required by the PPSAS; and d. other guidelines and requirements in the preparation of financial statements.
  • 4. Provisions of PPSAS 1-Presentation of financial statements and the applicable PAG shall be applied in the presentation and preparation of GPFS. The application for the following PPSAS topics shall be discussed: a. Presentation of Financial Statements; b. Statement of Cash Flows; c. Events after the Reporting Date; d. Related Party Disclosures; e. Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors; and f. Accounting Process
  • 5. Sec. 3. Purpose of Financial Statements a. Financial statements are a structured representation of the financial position and financial performance of an entity. The objectives of general purpose financial statements are to provide information about the financial position, financial performance, and cash flows of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making and evaluating decisions about the allocation of resources. Specifically, the objectives of general purpose financial reporting in the public sector should be to provide information useful for decision making, and to demonstrate the accountability of the entity for the resources entrusted to it, by:
  • 6. 1.providing information about the sources, allocation, and uses of financial resources; 2. providing information about how the entity financed its activities and met its cash requirements; 3.providing information that is useful in evaluating the entity’s ability to finance its activities and to meet its liabilities and commitments; 4.providing information about the financial condition of the entity and changes in it; 5.providing aggregate information useful in evaluating the entity’s performance in terms of service costs, efficiency and accomplishments;
  • 7. b. purpose financial statements can also have a predictive or prospective role, providing information useful in predicting the level of resources required for continued operations, the resources that may be generated by continued operations, and the associated risks and uncertainties. Financial reporting may also provide users with information: 1.indicating whether resources were obtained and used in accordance with the legally adopted budget; and 2.indicating whether resources were obtained and used in accordance with legal and contractual requirements, including financial limits established by appropriate legislative authorities. (Par. 15-16 PPSAS 1)
  • 8. c. Financial statements provide information about an entity’s: 1.Assets; 2.Liabilities; 3.Net assets/equity; 4.Revenue; 5.Expenses; 6. Other changes in net assets/equity; 7.Cash flows; and 8.Comparison of budget and actual amounts. (Par. 17, PPSAS 1)
  • 9. Sec. 4. Responsibility for Financial Statements. The responsibility for the fair presentation and reliability of financial statements rests with the management of the reporting entity, particularly the head of finance/accounting office and the head of entity or his authorized representative. The Statement of Management Responsibility for Financial Statements (Annex G) shall serve as the covering letter in transmitting the entity financial statements to the COA, and other regulatory agencies and other entities. It shows the entity’s responsibility for the preparation and presentation of the financial statements.
  • 10. Sec. 5. Components of Financial Statements. A complete set of financial statements (condensed and by fund cluster) to be submitted by an entity shall include the following: a. Statement of Financial Position (SFP) (Annex A); b. Statement of Financial Performance (SFPer) (Annex B); c. Statement of Changes in Net Assets/Equity (SCNA/E) (Annex C); d. Statement of Cash Flows (SCF) (Annex D); e. Statement of Comparison of Budget and Actual Amount (SCBAA) (Annex E); and f.Notes (Annex F), comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes. (Par. 21, PPSAS 1) For the purpose of preparing the Annual Financial Report, all national government agencies shall submit to the Government Accountancy Sector, COA detailed financial statements and trial balances by fund cluster.
  • 11. Sec. 6. Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Reporting. An entity shall present information including accounting policies in a manner that meets the following qualitative characteristics enumerated in PPSAS 1: a. Understandability – information is understandable when users might reasonably be expected to comprehend its meaning. For this purpose, users are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of the entity’s activities and the environment in which it operates, and to be willing to study the information. Information about complex matters should not be excluded from the financial statements merely on the grounds that it may be too difficult for certain users to understand.
  • 12. b. Relevance – information is relevant to users if it can be used to assist in evaluating past, present or future events or in confirming, or correcting, past evaluations. In order to be relevant, information must also be timely. c. Materiality – the relevance of information is affected by its nature and materiality. Information is material if its omission or misstatement could influence the decisions of users or assessments made on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the nature or size of the item or error, judged in the particular circumstances of its omission or misstatement. d. Timeliness – the usefulness of financial statements is impaired if they are not made available to users within a reasonable period after the reporting date. Ongoing factors such as the complexity of an entity’s operations are not sufficient reason for failing to report on a timely basis. More specific deadlines are dealt with by legislation and regulations in many jurisdictions.
  • 13. If there is an undue delay in the reporting of information, it may lose its relevance. To provide information on a timely basis, it may often be necessary to report before all aspects of a transaction are known, thus impairing reliability. Conversely, if reporting is delayed until all aspects are known, the information may be highly reliable but of little use to users who have had to make decisions in the interim. In achieving a balance between relevance and reliability, the overriding consideration is how best to satisfy the decision- making needs of users.
  • 14. e. Reliability – reliable information is free from material error and bias, and can be depended on by users to represent faithfully that which it purports to represent or could reasonably be expected to represent. f. Faithful representation – information to represent faithfully transactions and other events, it should be presented in accordance with the substance of the transactions and other events, and not merely their legal form. g. Substance over form – if information is to represent faithfully the transactions and other events that it purports to represent, it is necessary that they be accounted for and presented in accordance with their substance and economic reality, and not merely their legal form. The substance of transactions or other events is not always consistent with their legal form.
  • 15. h. Neutrality – information is neutral if it is free from bias. Financial statements are not neutral if the information they contain has been selected or presented in a manner designed to influence the making of a decision or judgment in order to achieve a predetermined result or outcome. i. Prudence – is the inclusion of a degree of caution in the exercise of the judgments needed in making the estimates required under conditions of uncertainty, such that assets or revenue are not overstated and liabilities or expenses are not understated. However, the exercise of prudence does not allow, for example, the creation of hidden reserves or excessive provisions, the deliberate understatement of assets or revenue, or the deliberate overstatement of liabilities or expenses, because the financial statements would not be neutral and, therefore, not have the quality of reliability. j .Completeness – the information in financial statements should be complete within the bounds of materiality and cost.
  • 16. k. Comparability – information in financial statements is comparable when users are able to identify similarities and differences between that information and information in other reports. Comparability applies to the comparison of financial statements of different entities and comparison of the financial statements of the same entity over periods of time. An important implication of the characteristic of comparability is that users need to be informed of the policies employed in the preparation of financial statements, changes to those policies, and the effects of those changes. Because users wish to compare the performance of an entity over time, it is important that financial statements show corresponding information for preceding periods.