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Changing needs in lighting design:


From lux levels to systems thinking


Thomas Schielke
Solar Decathlon Europe - 25.6.2022
Changing needs in lighting design: From lux levels to systems thinking
It’s of
fi
cial, light is not just for vision


Kevin Houser, 2021
Solar Decathlon is a sustainability
stage for next generation buildings


Washington, D.C., 2002
Space


Task Level Avg.


Original category
Ambient Level Avg


Added category
Living 30fc / 323lx 5fc / 54lx
Of
fi
ce 50fc / 538lx 5fc / 54lx
Kitchen 30fc / 323lx 10fc / 108lx
Bedroom 15fc / 161lx 5fc / 54lx
Bathroom 30fc / 323lx 10fc / 108lx
The
fi
rst competition started with
an initiative to think beyond tasks
and added a second category for
ambience.


Washington, D.C., 2002
E = Good lighting?


Illuminance
Macula
Lens
Rods
Cones
ipRGCs
iPRGC discovery questioned
the traditional way of lighting
design only for vision


Image: Wikimedia
E x EML = Good lighting?


Illuminance x Melanopic lux
Time pattern


Light level


Light spectrum


Spatial pattern
Input Output
Education: learning


Work: productivity


Travel: less jet lag


Health: quality of life


The race has started to
fi
nd the
right lighting formula to increase
performance
HUMAN


CENTRIC


LIGHTING
Health-washing products with this
term was a narrow-minded
misinterpretation of a holistic
lighting design approach
Reading small text and typewriting required
adequate illuminance for visual acuity.


Avonbank, Bristol, 1971
E = Good of
fi
ce lighting?


Illuminance


Of
fi
ces with large drawing boards and detailed
information required brightness and uniformity to
handle pen and safe erasing with a razor blade


Ercole Marelli, 1963


Image. Paolo Monti, Wikipedia
E x U = Good of
fi
ce lighting?


Illuminance x Uniformity


Of
fi
ces with glossy computer monitors required a
technology to reduce high luminance.


Computer Centre, Bremen, 1994. Image. ERCO
E x U x UGR = Good of
fi
ce lighting?


Illuminance x Uniformity x Visual comfort
Today we have matte luminous displays which we
can zoom into and easily correct errors with a
mouse click. Yet, our spaces are mainly still set out
according to old requirements.


Image. Mugenup, Wikipedia
E x U x UGR = Good of
fi
ce lighting?


Illuminance x Uniformity x Visual comfort
20.000lx


15.000


10.000


5.000


0
4:00 8:00 12:00 16:00 20:00
Outdoor:
Daylight


Indoor: Recommended illumination by
standards and wide practice


Clear sky


spring
Overcast sky


winter
Interior lighting 500lx
4:00 8:00 12:00 16:00 20:00
20.000lx


15.000


10.000


5.000


0
Standard lighting lacks the dynamics of daylight
in brightness, colour, diffuse and direct light


Right
fi
gure based on Knoop et al., 2020
Bright and cool light for the day


Corn Harvest in Provence


Vincent van Gogh, 1888
Dimmed and warm light for the evening


Astronomer by Candlelight


Gerard Dou, late 1650s
In the past, people had a natural day-night rhythm.
Bringing daylight effects 1:1 to contemporary of
fi
ce life
would require much more than excessive energy.
Green illumination for Eiffel Tower celebrates


Paris Agreement’s Entry into Force


Image: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat / Wikipedia
„Systems thinking is concerned with expanding our
awareness to see the relationships between parts and
wholes rather than looking at just discrete, isolated parts.“


Megan Seibert
The view from space tells us where
we waste energy


NASA Earth Observatory


Image by Robert Simmon
Dark Sky Reserves offer an escape from light pollution


Rhön, Germany


Photo: Florian Trykowski. Image © Rhön GmbH
First subterranean urban
farm with renewable energy
bringing production closer
to consumers.


London


Image: Zero Carbon Farms
Glowing greenhouses:


LED lit agriculture attempts to feed
more people with less land.


The Netherlands


Image: Tom Hegen
‘A torture experiment’:
plan for almost
windowless student
megadorm raises alarm


The Guardian, 2021


Nightmare of the
windowless dorm room


The New Yorker, 2021


Daylight protest: Glowing
screens simulate sunlight
for the world’s densest
dorm.


Munger Hall. Image: Van
Tilburg, Banvard &
Soderbergh/UC Santa
Barbara
Dear UC Santa Barbara:
Don’t let a petulant
billionaire build a prison
dorm on your campus


The Los Angeles Times,


2021
Dynamic integrated lighting with daylight


Apple Store, New York, 2019. Design:


Foster+Partners. Image: Apple
Schema based on Jennifer
Veitch, 1998: Lighting
Individual


well-being


- visibility


- activity


- social & communication


- mood, comfort


- health & safety


- aesthetic judgement
Lighting


quality
Economics


- installation


- maintenance


- operation


- energy


- environment
Architecture


- form


- composition


- style


- codes & standards
Individual


well-being


- visibility


- activity


- social & communication


- mood, comfort


- health & safety


- aesthetic judgement
Economics


- installation


- maintenance


- operation


- energy


- environment
Architecture


- form


- composition


- style


- codes & standards
Lighting


quality
Ecology


well-being


- society


- animals


- plants
Schema adapted from Jennifer


Veitch, 1998: Lighting quality
model
From bottled liquids to
enlightenment for millions: easy
innovative approach to providing
income opportunities.


Image: Liter of light
Natural materials for luminaries like
fl
ax-based printed circuit board


Bamboo pendant. Design: Brad Koerner
E x LCA = Good lighting?


Illuminance x Life Cycle Assessment
Lighting control change
Lighting distribution


change
Track
Adaptive luminaire design


with update service enables long
durability


Control gear update
Light source update
www.arclighting.de
1974


CRI


Colour


rendering
2000
1980
1960
1940
1920
1900
Lighting
Ecology
1917


E: 40-80lx
requirements


for of
fi
ces, USA
1930


E: 150lx
1947


E: 250lx
1960


E: 1000lx
Academia
1977


Dark Sky


International
Association
1998


Phase-out + Ecodesign


incandescent light bulbs


EU directive
2017


EML


WELL Standard:
Melanopic lux
2018


Fridays for Future
2002


Oil crisis
2007


Earth Hour


Lights turned off
2020
1908


DF


Daylight Factor
1989


DA


Daylight Autonomy
2005


UDI + DGP


Useful Daylight Illuminance


Daylight Glare Probability


2012


SDA + ASE


Spatial Daylight Autonomy


Annual Sunlight Exposure


Daylight
1982


E: 500lx
1995


UGR


Visual comfort
2013


Biologically


effective illumination -
Design guidelines
1974


EU resolution


Energy saving +
product impact
1939


U


Uniformity
lx x U x UGR x t x EML x W x I x LCA x M


illuminance x uniformity x visual comfort x time x energy x individuality x life cycle assessment x message


= Good lighting?


x User behavior x Daylight x Design x X m
lx x U x UGR x t x EML x W x I x LCA x M


illuminance x uniformity x visual comfort x time x energy x individuality x life cycle assessment x message


= Good lighting?


x user behavior x daylight x design x X m
#1


Accept that there is no quick


copy and paste option
#2


Prepare to understand new points of view
#3


Build in
fl
exibility
Architecture


- Vertical light for wide space


- Integration of luminaires in space
Activity


- Visual comfort through glare-control


- Adjust light for circadian rhythm
Atmosphere


- Focal points for visual attraction


- Changing lighting scenes for


individual mood
Systems thinking achieves


multiple bene
fi
ts


Images: Axel Groß, ERCO
Solar power


Daylight


Luminaires


Software
Input
Architecture


Activity


Atmosphere


Energy-Plus Building


Social message
Output
Systems thinking enables


high lighting quality solutions


and energy surplus


Images: Team MIMO


Architecture Activity Atmosphere
Systems thinking
Simulated sunrise versus real daylight boost


Luminaire: Mandalaki Studio.


Sensor: Geneva School of Art and Design. EPFL, 2019
Changing needs in lighting design:


From lux levels to systems thinking


Thomas Schielke
www.arclighting.de
Thank you


for	your	support:


Axel	Groß


Brad	Koerner


Dan	Weissman	


Heiko	Becker


Henk	Kosche


Isil	Kalpkirmaz	Rizaoglu


Jennifer	Veitch


Karsten	Voss


Kevin	Houser


Mar
ti
ne	Knoop	and	Team


Megan	Seibert


MIMO


Tom	Hegen


Werner	Osterhaus


William	Lam
Changing needs in lighting design:


From lux levels to systems thinking


Thomas Schielke
www.arclighting.de
References


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