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Engineering natural lighting experiences


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by Emile Aarts

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Engineering natural lighting experiences

  1. 1. Engineering Natural Lighting Experiences Emile Aarts Engineering Natural Lighting Experiences Emile Aarts
  2. 2. 2 Earth from outer space is beautiful Andre Kuipers during his ISS Expedition 31/32, 2011-2012
  3. 3. 3 Earth from outer space is beautiful Earth in a sun eclipse
  4. 4. 4 Natural light is awesome Northern hemisphere region
  5. 5. 5 ADDITIONAL THEME:Polar light is a miracle Natural polar light phenomenon
  6. 6. 6 At closer range artificial light is taking over Europe at night
  7. 7. 7 Artificial light is unnatural New York at night
  8. 8. City lighting can be overwhelming 8 Shanghai at night
  9. 9. Street lighting is sometimes poor 9 Peshawar at night
  10. 10. Outdoor lighting can be depressive 10 Courtesy: Google Image
  11. 11. Indoor lighting can be tiring and sick-making 11 Courtesy: Google Image
  12. 12. Natural light regulates our rhythms 12 Courtesy: Google Image
  13. 13. Natural light can be direction setting 13 Courtesy: Google Image
  14. 14. 14 Disruptions in lighting
  15. 15. The invention of the lamp captured electronic light •Swan in 1878 and Edison in 1879 created relatively durable electric filament lamps by means of vacuum in glass bulb •Edison also introduced a system for electricity distribution in New York Thomas Edison in his laboratory (1882) 15
  16. 16. The proliferation of electric light was slow It took more than twenty years to realize a million access points Electric light replaced gas light only as late as 1913 16
  17. 17. Lighting hasn’t changed much over hundred years Early advertisement poster for Philips Incandescent lamps are being phased out 17
  18. 18. LEDs as a disruptive technology 18
  19. 19. Source: OMS 2012 Solid State is the new lighting technology 19
  20. 20. Source: Scientific American, January 2012 The new LED technology is a breakthrough 20
  21. 21. LED technology changes the world lamps market Source: Navigant Research, 201321
  22. 22. Source: McKinsey IMS Research, 2012 Lamps General illumination The world market in general lighting changes to solutions Totalturnover(B€) 22
  23. 23. The first stage is retrofit Retro-fit LED lamps... ...are like horseless carriages. 23
  24. 24. The next stage is Retro-fit LED lamps... ...are like horseless carriages. “The Liberation of Light” 24
  25. 25. SSL introduces unprecedented opportunities New features • Low power • Long lifetime • High color flexibility • Low temperature • Miniaturization • Embedding • Advanced control 25
  26. 26. • Distributed Systems Control • Media Processing • End-User Programming • Computational Intelligence • Interaction Design • Experience Prototyping • Human Factors The Lighting Business will copy the Media Business in less than 10 years New Lighting Competences 26
  27. 27. 27 A new Computing Paradigm
  28. 28. Ambient Intelligence proliferates innovation 28 E.Aarts, R.Harwig, M.Schuurmans, 2001
  29. 29. 2001: “Europe will spend 3.7 billion Euro on ambient intelligence research in 2003-2006” IST Advisory Group “A European strategy towards an Ambient Intelligent environments” IST Advisory Group “Ambient Intelligence From vision to reality” IST Advisory Group On Experience and Application Research “Involving Users in the Design of Ambient Intelligence” The EU provides support 29
  30. 30. Ambient Assisted Living is the flagship project 31
  31. 31. Control Roadmap for the Home 32
  32. 32. Sustainability Roadmap For the Home 33
  33. 33. 34 Experience@Context Experience@Lab Experience@Field • Trend studies • Insight generation • Insight evaluation • Concept definition • Experience prototyping • User centered design and engineering • Field tests • Longitudinal studies • Market introduction Society Laboratory Real-Life Experience Research is a new design approach 34
  34. 34. Insight Gamers want to experience the ultimate sensation during their play. Solution HTML based markup language that controls physical properties of accessories during gaming including lamps, fans, and rambler giving rise to various physical effect. Benefit • Additional object control • Immersive gaming experience AmBX provides an Ambient Experience for gamers 35
  35. 35. 36 iCat assists living Community site: Insight Emotions can play an essential role in feedback systems used for behavioral change and coaching. Solution Programmable open user interface robot that expresses emotions. Benefit Programmable conversational interface that support users in routinely tasks.
  36. 36. 37 Insight I am afraid to be left alone after a fall accident (senior). I would feel more secure if someone would look after my parents (children). Solution • Auto-alert system that responds to emergency situations • Intelligent alarm system that responds only after fall and inactivity • Reliable fall detection service Benefit • Positive response to over 30,000 calls daily, with more than 720,000 subscribers using the Lifeline service in North America. Lifeline’s AutoAlert helps senior citizens
  37. 37. Insight Playful interaction can stimulate and enhance learning . Solution Interactive wall that supports multi-user serious gaming applications through light effects and cognitive feedback. Benefit Faster learning in a collaborative and social setting. NYOYN provides playfull interaction 38
  38. 38. Interactive screens enjance the shopping experience Insight I love to shop and value any positive experience that comes with it (customer) I would like that redecoration of my shop would be more easy (retailer). Solution • Presence aware shopping environment • Gesture control and eye-tracking • Multi-touch interaction • End-user programming interface Benefit • Improved customer experience • Faster redecoration times • More tailored solutions 39
  39. 39. Insights in Light 40
  40. 40. ADDITIONAL THEMECircadian rhythms control our life cycles 24 hours sun cycle at the North Pole during summer time41
  41. 41. • Cones for day and color vision • Rods for night vision • Third class of photoreceptors: • Melanopsin-containing ganglion cells send signals to the biological clock • Light can stimulated nerve activity to affect sleep, concentration, emotion, etc. 42 Light effects the brain beyond vision cortisol melatonin alertness R.Foster, I.Provencio, D.Hudson, S.Fiske, W..d.Grip, M.Menaker, J. Comp. Physiol, 1991
  42. 42. Gergen, Gergen & Barton, Physiology Today, 1973 People behave different in the dark 44
  43. 43. 1. In the dark people behave different than they would in the light: They tend to deviate from the public norm. Darkness has been shown to increase stealing, lying, and acting more aggressively, but has also led to more intimacy and hugging perfect strangers. Gergen, K. J, Gergen, M. M., & Barton, W. (1973). Deviance in the dark. Psychology Today, 7, 129- 130. Zhong, C.-B., Bohns, V. K., & Gino, F. (2010). Good lamps are the best police: Darkness increases dishonesty and self-interested behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 311-314. Page, R. A., & Moss, M. K. (1976). Environmental influences on aggression: The effects of darkness and proximity of victim. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 126-133. Werth, L., Steidle, A., & Hanke, E. (2012) Getting Close in the Dark: Darkness Increases Cooperation. Proceedings of EXPERIENCING LIGHT 2012: International Conference on the Effects of Light on Wellbeing. Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands . 2. Social behavior can be positively effected by light; under the right lighting conditions persons are willing to donate more money to charity funds. Unpublished manuscript, van 't Sant & Lakens, Eindhoven: TU/e Insights on light and behavior 45
  44. 44. 3. People recover faster in sunny rooms; light may even save lives under critical conditions. Beauchemin K.M. & Hays P. (1996) Sunny hospital rooms expedite recovery from severe and refractory depressions. Journal of Affective Disorders 40, 49–51. Beauchemin K.M. & Hays P. (1998) Dying in the dark: sunshine, gender and outcomes in myocardial infarction. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 91, 352–354. 4. Bright daylight exposure during day-time and avoidance of light at night • reduces stress • seems to lower the need for pain medication • improves sleep at night • helps to feel more energized during the day J.M.Walch et al. (2005), The effect of sunlight on postoperative analgesic medication usage A review of the literature on evidence-based healthcare design, Psychosomatic Medicine 67, 156–163. 5. For several patient categories, patients staying at the sunny side of the hospital had significantly shorter length of stay (and even lower mortality) than those staying at the dim side R.S.Ulrich, et al., (2008), A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design, White Paper Series 5. Insights on light and healing 46
  45. 45. 6. Light activates the brain even during day time, exposure to only half an hour of bright white light makes us feel more alert and vital and improves performance on cognitive tasks. Smolders, K.C.H.J., de Kort, Y.A.W., & Cluitmans, P. (2012). A higher illuminance induces alertness even during office hours: findings on subjective measures, task performance and heart rate measures. Physiology & Behavior, 107, 7-16, Smolders, K.C.H.J., de Kort, Y.A.W. & van den Berg, S.M. (2012), Diurnal light exposure and feelings of vitality: Results of a field study during regular weekdays. Manuscript under review. 7. Exposure to bright white light revitalizes after exhaustion of a person’s self-control Esch, M., van, de Kort, Y.A.W., & Smolders (2012). Blue Energy: Investigating the replenishing effect of Blue Spectrum Light on the amount of energy available for the Self. Eindhoven: TU/e MSc thesis. Insights on light and performance 47
  46. 46. Solutions 48
  47. 47. The Intelligent Lighting Institute in one slide Programs • Light by Design Constructing effective light patterns and distributions • Brilliant Streets Intelligence-based ultra-high efficient road lighting • Sound Lighting Effects of (natural) lighting on health and well-being • No Switches Allowed New lighting interaction paradigms • Open Light Creative lighting solutions Stakeholders • Applied Physics • Built Environment • Electrical Engineering • Industrial Design • Industrial Engineering & Innovation Science • Mathematics & Computer Science Philips Research Philips Lighting Approach • Multidisciplinary and multifunctional • Exploring intelligent lighting solutions • Concept driven and evidence based • Human centric real-life test beds 49
  48. 48. ILI explores new venues Mission • Create a scientific community of practice dedicated to intelligent lighting solutions with a scientific and application-based approach • Establish partnerships with stakeholders in the public-private field • Apply a multidisciplinary and multifunctional approach, concept driven and evidence based • Realize human centric real-life test beds 50
  49. 49. Lighting distributions and patterns Context/insight The human eye can integrate spatio- temporal digital light distributions Achievements Non-imaging optics design that generates uniformly distributed beam patterns that closely resemble that natural spot lights Digital control algorithms that render smooth spatio-temporal light patterns through color changes among discrete levels Partners Philips 51 Courtesy: Corien Prins, Dragan Sekulovski, 2013
  50. 50. Colorizer Colorize Spring Apply Apps control lighting 52 Courtesy: Dragan Sekulovski, 2013
  51. 51. 0.95 0.05 0.92 0.85 0.99 0.93 0.070.06 0.02 0.12 0.01 0.03 Digital control of spatio-temporal transitions 53 Courtesy: Dragan Sekulovski, 2013
  52. 52. Distributed control of in-door settings 54 Courtesy: ILI Lightlab, 2013
  53. 53. Context/insight Peoples’ perception and acceptance of light change over day Achievement Design and validation of 4-phase lighting scenario for bicycle paths and corresponding stakeholder acceptance testing Partners LuxLab, Philips, Municipality Eindhoven Determining optimal out-door lighting conditions 55 Courtesy: Ellen de Vries, Elke den Ouden, 2012
  54. 54. ‘Moonlight-like’ lighting increases perception of comfort and safety in rural urban areas 56 Courtesy: Ellen de Vries, Elke den Ouden, 2012
  55. 55. Illumination of a bicycle path in an ecological zone A stakeholder approach in a Living Lab setting Zilverackers Commuters, e.g. schoolchildren 5 lux Similar to regular bicycle path lighting Animals & plants, and e.g. athletes 3,5 lux Dimmed at colour that is less disturbing for animals and still highly visibility for humans Wildlife, and occasional cyclists 0,5 lux ‘Moonlight-like’ light Commuters, e.g. schoolchildren 7 lux Extra bright to increase alertness of cyclists 57 Courtesy: Ellen de Vries, Elke den Ouden, 2012
  56. 56. Bright amberBright white Dimmed whiteDimmed amber Evaluating lighting conditions under different settings 58 Courtesy: Ellen de Vries, Elke den Ouden, 2012
  57. 57. Test results – Feeling of safety and comfort tests Can you indicate how you feel at this moment: Comfortable Uncomfortable✗ 100 0 wide view Safe Unsafe✗ 100 0 associated with unpleasant areas High scores for ‘Moonlight-like’ setting Evidence based testing yields significant differences 59 Courtesy: Ellen de Vries, Elke den Ouden, 2012
  58. 58. Light festivals are an intriguing playground Context/insight Major interactive indoor and outdoor light design installation featuring and exposing new lighting concepts to a broader audience Achievement Interactive festival installations Partners Municipalities of Amsterdam, Ankara, Beijing, Eindhoven, Gent, and Pisa 60 Courtesy: Rombout Frieling, 2013
  59. 59. “Flumens” commemorates Dutch sailing history 61 Courtesy: Rombout Frieling, 2013
  60. 60. Distributed self-powering LEDS form a sail 62 Courtesy: Rombout Frieling, 2013
  61. 61. Rural Spark brings light to India Context/insight 400 million people have no access to electricity and have a need to educate themselves. Achievement Deployment of solar-powered lamps in communities in the rural parts of India through the development of micro- economic business models for self- support Partners Indian Development Board, Cofely, 63 Courtesy: Marcel van Heist, 2013
  62. 62. Villages develop a light community 64 Courtesy: Marcel van Heist, 2013
  63. 63. Locals build their own LED lamps 65 Courtesy: Marcel van Heist, 2013
  64. 64. Power is a new trading asset 66 Courtesy: Marcel van Heist, 2013
  65. 65. Adaptive healing rooms improve patient recovery Context/insight Lighting conditions can improve recovery of patients in hospitals Achievement An ambient intelligent patient room that supports the patient and family, staff and specialists in their individual roles to monitor, treat and recover from stroke with the purpose • To improve clinical outcomes for the patient • To support the clinical staff in managing stroke care Partners Philips 67 Courtesy: Elke Daemen, Evert van Loenen, 2012
  66. 66. Ambient intelligent rooms adapt to the recovery process 68 Courtesy: Elke Daemen, Evert van Loenen, 2012
  67. 67. Context research reveals multi-stakeholder issues Contextual inquiry studies • Visits to two hospitals for 5 days, 24/7 • Shadowing patients, family and staff • Observation and interviewing E. Daemen, R. Cuppen, I. Flinsenberg, E. van Loenen, and R. Rajae- Joordens, Contextual research for healing patient rooms design: patient experience flow studies in neurology departments, Proc. Design4Health 2011, Sheffield Hallam University, 95-109 (2011) Disorientation • Disorientation due to insufficient or unrecognized time and location cues Insufficient daylight or (nature) views • In beds further away from window • In rooms viewing building walls or viewing inside hospital 69 Courtesy: Elke Daemen, Evert van Loenen, 2012
  68. 68. The patient room adapts to daily rhythm atmospheres Goal • Provide supplementary virtual daylight and nature views • Improve orientation and daily rhythm 07:30 // Waking up 10:00 // Clinical care 20:00 // Going to bed E. Daemen, S. Behere, R. Cuppen, J. Facey, I. Flinsenberg, E. van Loenen and R. Rajae-Joordens, Creating an adaptive healing room for neurology patients, World Health Design Jan.2013, 72-77 (2013) Implementation • Novel Artificial Skylight: provides sunny white light, yet blue sky view • Patient wall with virtual nature views • Patient wall and Skylight offer carefully designed daily rhythm 70 Courtesy: Elke Daemen, Evert van Loenen, 2012
  69. 69. ILI Reference Model for Sustainable Urban Lighting Achievement Tool to support cities in the transition to sustainable lighting Current status: pilot to support benchmark of best practices in ten European cities Context/insight Procurement development in city lighting with the aim on social return and increased social safety Partners Municipalities of Eindhoven, Amsterdam, and The Hague, Philips Street lighting reference models support innovation 71 Courtesy: Elke den Ouden, Rianne Valkenburg, 2012
  70. 70. Roadmaps are useful tools an a multi-stakeholder approach 72 Courtesy: Elke den Ouden, Rianne Valkenburg, 2012
  71. 71. The digitisation of lighting creates a revolution in the lighting industry … The digital media revolution also applies to lighting 73 Courtesy: Elke den Ouden, Rianne Valkenburg, 2012
  72. 72. Innovation in quadruple helix & living labs Guarding public interest: improving quality of life System architecture Structure innovation Development of infrastructure for connectivity Infrastructure Open data Gathering, analyzing and providing data Data System innovation Development of modules and standard interfaces Devices Services Social innovation Development of meaningful services Technology enablers Applications and services New business models are investigated 74
  73. 73. “No Switches” becomes a reality Context/insight Light can be controlled intuitively by using tangible interaction concepts Achievement Market introduction interactive touch-enabled lamp Fonkel 1. PhD project that led to commercialization of an interactive lamp concept using STW valorization grant Partners Fonckel, InnovationLab, STW 75 Courtesy: Philip Ross, 2012
  74. 74. We can paint any desired natural light condition 76